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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429381/the-structural-connectome-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Marsh Königs, L W Ernest van Heurn, Roel Bakx, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Marleen van der Wees, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan, Petra J W Pouwels
This study aimed to investigate the impact of mild to severe pediatric TBI on the structural connectome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild(RF+) , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 16) at 2.8 years post-injury. Probabilistic tractography on diffusion tensor imaging data was used in combination with graph theory to study structural connectivity. Functional outcome was measured using neurocognitive tests and parent and teacher questionnaires for behavioral functioning...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424457/vertex-coloring-of-graphs-via-phase-dynamics-of-coupled-oscillatory-networks
#2
Abhinav Parihar, Nikhil Shukla, Matthew Jerry, Suman Datta, Arijit Raychowdhury
While Boolean logic has been the backbone of digital information processing, there exist classes of computationally hard problems wherein this paradigm is fundamentally inefficient. Vertex coloring of graphs, belonging to the class of combinatorial optimization, represents one such problem. It is well studied for its applications in data sciences, life sciences, social sciences and technology, and hence, motivates alternate, more efficient non-Boolean pathways towards its solution. Here we demonstrate a coupled relaxation oscillator based dynamical system that exploits insulator-metal transition in Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) to efficiently solve vertex coloring of graphs...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421267/potential-distribution-of-mountain-cloud-forest-in-michoac%C3%A3-n-mexico-prioritization-for-conservation-in-the-context-of-landscape-connectivity
#3
Camilo A Correa Ayram, Manuel E Mendoza, Andrés Etter, Diego R Pérez Salicrup
Landscape connectivity is essential in biodiversity conservation because of its ability to reduce the effect of habitat fragmentation; furthermore is a key property in adapting to climate change. Potential distribution models and landscape connectivity studies have increased with regard to their utility to prioritizing areas for conservation. The objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Mountain cloud forests in the Transversal Volcanic System, Michoacán and to analyze the role of these areas in maintaining landscape connectivity...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406055/graph-theory-and-brain-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Jon delEtoile, Hojjat Adeli
This article presents a review of recent advances in neuroscience research in the specific area of brain connectivity as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease with a focus on the application of graph theory. The review will begin with a brief overview of connectivity and graph theory. Then resent advances in connectivity as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease will be presented and analyzed.
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378705/comparison-of-connectivity-analyses-for-resting-state-eeg-data
#5
Elzbieta Olejarczyk, Laura Marzetti, Vittorio Pizzella, Filippo Zappasodi
OBJECTIVE: In the present work, a nonlinear measure (transfer entropy, TE) was used in a multivariate approach for the analysis of effective connectivity in high density resting state EEG data in eyes open and eyes closed. Advantages of the multivariate approach in comparison to the bivariate one were tested. Moreover, the multivariate TE was compared to an effective linear measure, i.e. directed transfer function (DTF). Finally, the existence of a relationship between the information transfer and the level of brain synchronization as measured by phase synchronization value (PLV) was investigated...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377606/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-effect-of-short-term-meditation-training-on-functional-network-organization-of-the-aging-brain
#6
Francesca A Cotier, Ruibin Zhang, Tatia M C Lee
The beneficial effects of meditation on preserving age-related changes in cognitive functioning are well established. Yet, the neural underpinnings of these positive effects have not been fully unveiled. This study employed a prospective longitudinal design, and graph-based analysis, to study how an eight-week meditation training vs. relaxation training shaped network configuration at global, intermediate, and local levels using graph theory in the elderly. At the intermediate level, meditation training lead to decreased intra-connectivity in the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SAN) and somatomotor network (SMN) modules post training...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375650/emerging-frontiers-of-neuroengineering-a-network-science-of-brain-connectivity
#7
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati, Scott T Grafton
Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural interactions (synapses, white matter tracts) as edges in that graph...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370780/higher-serum-cholesterol-is-associated-with-intensified-age-related-neural-network-decoupling-and-cognitive-decline-in-early-to-mid-life
#8
Jeffrey M Spielberg, Naomi Sadeh, Elizabeth C Leritz, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Jasmeet P Hayes, David H Salat
Mounting evidence indicates that serum cholesterol and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease intensify normative trajectories of age-related cognitive decline. However, the neural mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. To understand the impact of cholesterol on brain networks, we applied graph theory to resting-state fMRI in a large sample of early- to mid-life Veterans (N = 206, Meanage  = 32). A network emerged (centered on the banks of the superior temporal sulcus) that evidenced age-related decoupling (i...
March 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361870/associations-between-daily-affective-instability-and-connectomics-in-functional-subnetworks-in-remitted-patients-with-recurrent-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Michelle N Servaas, Harriëtte Riese, Remco J Renken, Marieke Wichers, Jojanneke A Bastiaansen, Caroline A Figueroa, Hanneke Geugies, Roel Jt Mocking, Linda Geerligs, Jan-BernardC Marsman, André Aleman, Aart H Schene, Robert A Schoevers, Henricus G Ruhé
Remitted patients with major depressive disorder (rMDD) often report more fluctuations in mood as residual symptomatology. It is unclear how this affective instability is associated with information processing related to the default mode (DMS), salience/reward (SRS) and fronto-parietal (FPS) subnetworks in rMDD patients at high risk of recurrence (rrMDD). Sixty-two unipolar, drug-free rrMDD patients (⩾2 MDD-episodes) and 41 HC (HC) were recruited. We used Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) to monitor mood/cognitions (10 times a day for 6 days) and calculated affective instability using the mean adjusted absolute successive difference...
March 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361345/altered-structural-connectivity-of-pain-related-brain-network-in-burning-mouth-syndrome-investigation-by-graph-analysis-of-probabilistic-tractography
#10
Akihiko Wada, Takashi Shizukuishi, Junko Kikuta, Haruyasu Yamada, Yusuke Watanabe, Yoshiki Imamura, Takahiro Shinozaki, Ko Dezawa, Hiroki Haradome, Osamu Abe
PURPOSE: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic intraoral pain syndrome featuring idiopathic oral pain and burning discomfort despite clinically normal oral mucosa. The etiology of chronic pain syndrome is unclear, but preliminary neuroimaging research has suggested the alteration of volume, metabolism, blood flow, and diffusion at multiple brain regions. According to the neuromatrix theory of Melzack, pain sense is generated in the brain by the network of multiple pain-related brain regions...
March 30, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360430/sex-differences-in-the-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-anatomical-architecture-of-brain-networks
#11
A Gupta, E A Mayer, K Hamadani, R Bhatt, C Fling, M Alaverdyan, C Torgenson, C Ashe-McNalley, J D Van Horn, B Naliboff, K Tillisch, C P Sanmiguel, J S Labus
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The brain plays a central role in regulating ingestive behavior in obesity. Analogous to addiction behaviors, an imbalance in the processing of rewarding and salient stimuli results in maladaptive eating behaviors that override homeostatic needs. We performed network analysis based on graph theory to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and network measures of integrity, information flow, and global communication (centrality) in reward, salience and sensorimotor regions, and to identify sex-related differences in these parameters...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349620/connectivity-patterns-during-music-listening-evidence-for-action-based-processing-in-musicians
#12
Vinoo Alluri, Petri Toiviainen, Iballa Burunat, Marina Kliuchko, Peter Vuust, Elvira Brattico
Musical expertise is visible both in the morphology and functionality of the brain. Recent research indicates that functional integration between multi-sensory, somato-motor, default-mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks of the brain differentiates musicians from non-musicians during resting state. Here, we aimed at determining whether brain networks differentially exchange information in musicians as opposed to non-musicians during naturalistic music listening. Whole-brain graph-theory analyses were performed on participants' fMRI responses...
March 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349474/graph-theory-based-analysis-of-the-lymph-node-fibroblastic-reticular-cell-network
#13
Mario Novkovic, Lucas Onder, Gennady Bocharov, Burkhard Ludewig
Secondary lymphoid organs have developed segregated niches that are able to initiate and maintain effective immune responses. Such global organization requires tight control of diverse cellular components, specifically those that regulate lymphocyte trafficking. Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form a densely interconnected network in lymph nodes and provide key factors necessary for T cell migration and retention, and foster subsequent interactions between T cells and dendritic cells. Development of integrative systems biology approaches has made it possible to elucidate this multilevel complexity of the immune system...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336496/functional-eeg-network-analysis-in-schizophrenia-evidence-of-larger-segregation-and-deficit-of-modulation
#14
Javier Gomez-Pilar, Alba Lubeiro, Jesús Poza, Roberto Hornero, Marta Ayuso, César Valcárcel, Karim Haidar, José A Blanco, Vicente Molina
OBJECTIVE: Higher mental functions depend on global cerebral functional coordination. Our aim was to study fast modulation of functional networks in schizophrenia that has not been previously assessed. METHODS: Graph-theory was used to analyze the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during an odd-ball task in 57 schizophrenia patients (18 first episode patients, FEPs) and 59 healthy controls. Clustering coefficient (CLC), characteristic path length (PL) and small-worldness (SW) were computed at baseline ([-300 0] ms prior to stimulus delivery) and response ([150 450] ms post-stimulus) windows...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334882/decreased-integration-and-information-capacity-in-stroke-measured-by-whole-brain-models-of-resting-state-activity
#15
Mohit H Adhikari, Carl D Hacker, Josh S Siegel, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, Gustavo Deco, Maurizio Corbetta
While several studies have shown that focal lesions affect the communication between structurally normal regions of the brain, and that these changes may correlate with behavioural deficits, their impact on brain's information processing capacity is currently unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that focal lesions decrease the brain's information processing capacity, of which changes in functional connectivity may be a measurable correlate. To measure processing capacity, we turned to whole brain computational modelling to estimate the integration and segregation of information in brain networks...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324955/identifying-important-regions-in-eeg-epilepsy-brain-networks
#16
Nantia D Iakovidou, Manolis Christodoulakis, Eleftherios S Papathanasiou, Savvas S Papacostas, Georgios D Mitsis
The human brain has been called the most complex object in the known universe and in many ways it constitutes the final frontier of science. Lately, the functional connectivity in human brain has been regarded and studied as a complex network using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. This means that the brain is studied as a connected system, where nodes represent different specialized brain regions and links or connections, represent communication pathways between the nodes. It is also fairly established that graph theory provides a variety of measures, methods and tools that can be useful to efficiently model, analyze and study an EEG network...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323202/enhanced-structural-connectivity-within-a-brain-sub-network-supporting-working-memory-and-engagement-processes-after-cognitive-training
#17
Francisco J Román, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Kenia Martínez, Sherif Karama, Miguel Burgaleta, Alan C Evans, Susanne M Jaeggi, Roberto Colom
The structural connectome provides relevant information about experience and training-related changes in the brain. Here, we used network-based statistics (NBS) and graph theoretical analyses to study structural changes in the brain as a function of cognitive training. Fifty-six young women were divided in two groups (experimental and control). We assessed their cognitive function before and after completing a working memory intervention using a comprehensive battery that included fluid and crystallized abilities, working memory and attention control, and we also obtained structural MRI images...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293468/a-method-for-independent-component-graph-analysis-of-resting-state-fmri
#18
Demetrius Ribeiro de Paula, Erik Ziegler, Pubuditha M Abeyasinghe, Tushar K Das, Carlo Cavaliere, Marco Aiello, Lizette Heine, Carol di Perri, Athena Demertzi, Quentin Noirhomme, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Johan Stender, Francisco Gomez, Jean-Flory L Tshibanda, Steven Laureys, Adrian M Owen, Andrea Soddu
INTRODUCTION: Independent component analysis (ICA) has been extensively used for reducing task-free BOLD fMRI recordings into spatial maps and their associated time-courses. The spatially identified independent components can be considered as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) of non-contiguous regions. To date, the spatial patterns of the networks have been analyzed with techniques developed for volumetric data. OBJECTIVE: Here, we detail a graph building technique that allows these ICNs to be analyzed with graph theory...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290133/the-effects-of-acute-gaba-treatment-on-the-functional-connectivity-and-network-topology-of-cortical-cultures
#19
Yao Han, Hong Li, Yiran Lang, Yuwei Zhao, Hongji Sun, Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Jiuqi Han, Qiyu Wang, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter, acting on receptor channels to reduce neuronal excitability in matured neural systems. However, electrophysiological responses of whole neuronal ensembles to the exposure to GABA are still unclear. We used micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) to study the effects of the increasing amount of GABA on functional network of cortical neural cultures. Then the recorded data were analyzed by the cross-covariance analysis and graph theory. Results showed that after the GABA treatment, the activity parameters of firing rate, bursting rate, bursting duration and network burst frequency in neural cultures decreased as expected...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290074/abnormal-brain-white-matter-network-in-young-smokers-a-graph-theory-analysis-study
#20
Yajuan Zhang, Min Li, Ruonan Wang, Yanzhi Bi, Yangding Li, Zhang Yi, Jixin Liu, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan
Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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