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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095378/advanced-neuroimaging-techniques-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#1
Smruti K Patel, Weihong Yuan, Francesco T Mangano
From the early days of pneumoencephalography and ventriculography to the emerging technology of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the present day, neuroimaging has always been a critical tool in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. There is accumulating evidence from both human and animal research suggesting that one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms underlying poor outcomes in these children is damage to vulnerable white matter (WM) structures in the brain as a result of ventricular enlargement and increased intracranial pressure...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089421/microbiology-and-treatment-of-brain-abscess
#2
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
Brain abscess is a focal pyogenic infection of the brain's parenchyma. The most frequent intracranial locations (in descending order of frequency) are: frontal-temporal, frontal-parietal, partial, cerebellar, and occipital lobes. The major predisposing factors are: an associated contiguous focus of infection, trauma, and hematogenous spread from a distant focus. The microbial etiology depends on the site of the primary infection; the patient's age, underlying condition, and immune status; and the geographic location...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088808/shunt-surgery-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-aided-by-electromagnetic-navigation
#3
Elvis J Hermann, Manolis Polemikos, Hans E Heissler, Joachim K Krauss
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and normal or slit ventricles. Lumboperitoneal shunting had been favored by many investigators for CSF diversion in IIH for decades; however, it has been associated with various side effects. Because of the small ventricular size adequate positioning of a ventricular catheter is challenging. OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigated the usefulness of electromagnetic (EM)-guided ventricular catheter placement for ventriculoperitoneal shunting in IIH...
January 14, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087916/-a-case-of-idiopathic-hypertrophic-cranial-pachymeningitis-presenting-as-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#4
Zhan He, Fang Ding, Jiandong Rong, Yongli Gan
A 26-year-old male presented with a 6-day history of paroxysmal headache which was worsen with nausea and vomiting for 1 day. Head CT on admission revealed left chronic subdural hematoma with midline shift. An emergency Burr hole drainage for hematoma was performed. Headache recurred 6 days later. MRI of the brain revealed a diffuse thickening and a gadolinium-enhancement of the falx, cranial dura mater and tentorium cerebelli on the left side with pia mater involved. Lumber puncture showed increased intracranial pressure and elevated IgG level in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065791/the-neuroprotective-strategic-analysis-for-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-combined-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-icu
#5
Yali Chao, Weiwei Hu, Xiaojuan Geng
BACKGROUND: We conducted this study to investigate the neuroprotective treatment strategies for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the ICU. METHODS: A total of 83 cases that were diagnosed with secondary AMI for the first time were selected and divided into observation group (n=43) and the control group (n=40). All of patients underwent emergency or elective PCI. Patients in the control group were treated with mannitol to reduce intracranial pressure, cinepazide maleate to improve microcirculation in the brain and also given comprehensive treatments of oxygen inhalation, fluid infusion, acid-base imbalance correction, electrolyte disturbance, etc...
January 5, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064284/surgery-modified-pi-with-triple-bonnet-flap-and-fronto-orbital-advancement
#6
Uday Singh Raswan, Sarbjit Singh Chhiber, Altaf Umar Ramzan
INTRODUCTION: Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures and can occur as part of a syndrome or as an isolated defect. Pansynostosis is a rare form of craniosynostosis that involves premature fusion of all the cranial sutures (coronal, sagittal, metopic, and occipital). Particularly in cases of late presentation, there are heightened clinical concerns, both functional and aesthetic. In untreated cases of pansynostosis and increased intracranial pressure, optic nerve damage progresses to optic atrophy and then blindness...
January 7, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063881/early-stage-alterations-of-catecholamine-and-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-levels-in-posttraumatic-acute-diffuse-brain-swelling
#7
Weiqiang Chen, Jiangtao Sheng, Guoyi Peng, Jinhua Yang, Shousen Wang, Kangsheng Li
Posttraumatic acute diffuse brain swelling (PADBS) is characterized by serious brain bulk enlargement rapidly following trauma and is a major cause of elevated intracranial pressure and thus mortality. The pathogenesis of PADBS is not clearly understood, and the early stage alterations of catecholamine (CA) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in PADBS also remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate CA and ACTH levels in the patients with PADBS in the early stage and discuss the possible roles CA and ACTH in the pathogenesis of PADBS...
January 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061916/intracranial-and-intraocular-pressure-during-various-degrees-of-head-down-tilt
#8
Karina Marshall-Goebel, Edwin Mulder, Eric Bershad, Charles Laing, Anders Eklund, Jan Malm, Claudia Stern, Jörn Rittweger
BACKGROUND: More than half of astronauts develop ophthalmic changes during long-duration spaceflight consistent with an abnormal intraocular and intracranial pressure (IOP, ICP) difference. The aim of our study was to assess IOP and ICP during head-down tilt (HDT) and the additive or attenuating effects of 1% CO2 and lower body negative pressure (LBNP). METHODS: In Experiment I, IOP and ICP were measured in nine healthy subjects after 3.5 h HDT in five conditions: -6°, -12°, and -18° HDT, -12° with 1% CO2, and -12° with -20 mmHg LBNP...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050802/the-effectiveness-of-apneic-oxygenation-during-tracheal-intubation-in-various-clinical-settings-a-narrative-review
#9
David T Wong, Amanda J Yee, Siaw May Leong, Frances Chung
PURPOSE: During the process of tracheal intubation, patients are apneic or hypoventilating and are at risk of becoming hypoxemic. This risk is especially high in patients with acute or chronic respiratory failure and accompanying compromised respiratory reserve. To address this concern, apneic oxygenation can be administered during tracheal intubation to aid in maintaining arterial oxygen saturation. The objective of this narrative review is to examine the utilization of apneic oxygenation within the operating room, intensive care unit (ICU), emergency department, and pre-hospital settings and to determine its efficacy compared with controls...
January 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049382/use-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-in-bacterial-meningitis-a-10-year-follow-up-on-outcome-and-intracranial-pressure-versus-head-ct-scans
#10
Lykke Larsen, Frantz R Poulsen, Troels H Nielsen, Carl-Henrik Nordström, Mette K Schulz, Åse B Andersen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with severe bacterial meningitis where intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been performed. METHODS: A retrospective observational study including patients admitted 1st(.) January 2005 to 31st(.) December 2014. Thirty nine patients age 18-89 years were included. All the patients received intensive care with mechanical ventilation, ICP monitoring, sedation, antibiotics and corticosteroids according to current guidelines...
January 3, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039409/internal-jugular-pressure-increases-during-parabolic-flight
#11
David S Martin, Stuart M C Lee, Timothy P Matz, Christian M Westby, Jessica M Scott, Michael B Stenger, Steven H Platts
One hypothesized contributor to vision changes experienced by >75% of International Space Station astronauts is elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). While no definitive data yet exist, elevated ICP might be secondary to the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift, resulting in venous congestion (overfilling and distension) and inhibition of cerebrospinal and lymphatic fluid drainage from the skull. The objective of this study was to measure internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP) during normo- and hypo-gravity as an index of venous congestion...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038481/selective-brain-cooling-after-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-of-three-different-cooling-methods-case-report
#12
Thomas Westermaier, Robert Nickl, Stefan Koehler, Patrick Fricke, Christian Stetter, Stefan Mark Rueckriegel, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus
Background In experimental models of neuronal damage, therapeutic hypothermia proved to be a powerful neuroprotective method. In clinical studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI), this very distinct effect was not reproducible. Several meta-analyses draw different conclusions about whether therapeutic hypothermia can improve outcome after TBI. Adverse side effects of systemic hypothermia, such as severe pneumonia, have been held responsible by some authors to counteract the neuroprotective effect. Selective brain cooling (SBC) attempts to take advantage of the protective effects of therapeutic hypothermia without the adverse side effects of systemic hypothermia...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030638/effects-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-on-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-meta-analysis
#13
Liang Shen, Zhuo Wang, Zhongzhou Su, Sheng Qiu, Jie Xu, Yue Zhou, Ai Yan, Rui Yin, Bin Lu, Xiaohu Nie, Shufa Zhao, Renfu Yan
BACKGROUND: The Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) guidelines published in 2007 suggest some indications for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, some studies had not shown clinical benefit in patients with severe TBI; several studies had even reported that ICP monitoring was associated with an increased mortality rate. The effect of ICP monitoring has remained controversial, regardless of the ICP monitoring guidelines. Here we performed a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the effects of ICP monitoring in patients with severe TBI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017759/the-monro-kellie-doctrine-in-action-posterior-reversible-leukoencephalopathy-syndrome-pres-due-to-intracranial-hypotension-from-lumbo-peritoneal-shunt-placement
#14
Ioannis Karakis, Audrey H Nuccio, Jordan P Amadio, Arthur J Fountain
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is linked to various etiologies, foremost systemic hypertension. Its association with intracranial hypotension (IH), a potential sequela of various neurosurgical procedures, is under-recognized. We report a case of lumbo-peritoneal shunt induced IH resulting in PRES with the goal to increase awareness, and elaborate on the potential biological mechanism, based on the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 26-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and epilepsy was admitted for recurrent cryptococcal meningitis and breakthrough seizures...
December 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017254/role-of-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-iih-results-from-the-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-treatment-trial
#15
J Libien, M J Kupersmith, W Blaner, M P McDermott, S Gao, Y Liu, J Corbett, M Wall
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin A and its metabolites (called retinoids) have been thought to play a role in the development of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) showed the efficacy of acetazolamide (ACZ) in improving visual field function, papilledema grade, quality of life and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. We postulated that IIH patients would demonstrate elevated measures of vitamin A metabolites in the serum and CSF. METHODS: Comprehensive measures of serum vitamin A and its metabolites were obtained from 96 IIHTT subjects, randomly assigned to treatment with ACZ or placebo, and 25 controls with similar gender, age and body mass index (BMI)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017177/maintenance-of-balance-between-airway-pressure-and-intracranial-pressure-in-a-patient-with-tracheal-stenosis-undergoing-craniotomy-a-case-report
#16
Çiğdem Yıldırım Güçlü, Başak Ceyda Meço, Meltem Karamustafa, Yüksel Keçik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tracheal stenosis is a rare but a life-threatening condition and anesthesia of a patient with tracheal stenosis is challenging for anesthesiologists. Maintaining stable hemodynamics and ventilation parameters are important issues in neuroanesthesia. Any increase in airway peak pressure and ETCO2 will result in increase in intracranial pressure which must be avoided during craniotomies. Tracheal stenosis could be a reason for increased airway pressure. CASE REPORT: We described a patient undergoing craniotomy with tracheal stenosis...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011351/intracranial-hypertension-secondary-to-high-dose-cytosine-arabinoside-a-case-study
#17
Z A Nurgat, H Alzahrani, M Lawrence, A Mannan, M Ashour, W Rasheed, M Aljurf
We report a rare case of intracranial hypertension following high dose cytosine arabinoside (HiDAC) in a 20-year-old man, with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A five drug induction protocol for ALL was initiated; post induction consolidation was with HiDAC (3 g/m(2) IV every 12 h on days 1, 3 and 5). Post consolidation, cytogenetic remission was attained and he received an intensification and maintenance regimen for ALL, for a period of approximately 24 months. Four months following the completion of his treatment, the patient relapsed within the central nervous system (CNS)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007486/-trends-in-computed-tomography-characteristics-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-and-surgical-management-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-analysis-of-a-data-base-of-the-past-25-years-in-a-neurosurgery-department
#18
Pedro A Gómez, Ana M Castaño-León, David Lora, Santiago Cepeda, Alfonso Lagares
OBJECTIVE: To describe the radiological characteristics, surgical indications, procedures, and intracranial pressure monitoring of a representative cohort of severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) cases collected over the past 25years, and to analyse the changes that have occurred by dividing the period into 3 equal time periods. METHODS: An observational cohort study was conducted on consecutive adult patients (>14years of age) with severe closed TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score [GCS]≤8) who were admitted during the first 48hours after injury to the Hospital 12 de Octubre from 1987 to 2012...
December 19, 2016: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006941/early-changes-of-brain-perfusion-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-the-effect-of-sodium-nitroprusside
#19
M Kolar, K Nohejlova, J Mares, J Pachl
Causes of early hypoperfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) include intracranial hypertension as well as vasoconstriction. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on early hypoperfusion after SAH. Male Wistar rats (220-240 g) were used, SAH group received 250 microl of fresh autologous arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern; sham-operated animals received 250 microl of isotonic solution. Therapeutic intervention: ICV administration of 10 microg SNP; 5 microl 5 % glucose (SNP vehicle) and untreated control...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005271/progesterone-for-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Junpeng Ma, Siqing Huang, Shu Qin, Chao You, Yunhui Zeng
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability, and the identification of effective, inexpensive and widely practicable treatments for brain injury is of great public health importance worldwide. Progesterone is a naturally produced hormone that has well-defined pharmacokinetics, is widely available, inexpensive, and has steroidal, neuroactive and neurosteroidal actions in the central nervous system. It is, therefore, a potential candidate for treating TBI patients...
22, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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