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Uti prevention

Jeremy S Stultz, Christopher D Doern, Emily Godbout
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Alessandro Cassini, Diamantis Plachouras, Tim Eckmanns, Muna Abu Sin, Hans-Peter Blank, Tanja Ducomble, Sebastian Haller, Thomas Harder, Anja Klingeberg, Madlen Sixtensson, Edward Velasco, Bettina Weiß, Piotr Kramarz, Dominique L Monnet, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, Carl Suetens
BACKGROUND: Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
A Dramowski, A Whitelaw, M F Cotton
BACKGROUND: In most African countries the prevalence and effects of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unknown. AIM: To investigate the burden, spectrum, risk factors, and impact of paediatric HCAI by prospective clinical surveillance at a South African referral hospital. METHODS: Continuous prospective clinical and laboratory HCAI surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions was conducted at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa, from May 1(st) to October 31(st) in 2014 and 2015...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Chanhaeng Rhee, M Eleanor Phelps, Bruce Meyer, W Gary Reed
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most commonly reported health care-associated infection (HAI) in the United States. Among UTIs acquired in the hospital, approximately 75% are associated with urinary catheters, with an estimated 15%-25% of all hospitalized patients receiving urinary catheters during their hospitalization. Despite ambitious national goals to reduce these infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) has not decreased in the United States...
2016: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
L Gayani Tillekeratne, Dhammika Vidanagama, Rashmi Tippalagama, Rashmi Lewkebandara, Maria Joyce, Bradly P Nicholson, Ajith Nagahawatte, Champica K Bodinayake, Aruna Dharshan De Silva, Christopher W Woods
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are increasingly reported as pathogens in urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, in Sri Lanka, the clinical and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-PE implicated in UTIs has not been well described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted prospective, laboratory-based surveillance from October to December 2013 at a tertiary care hospital in southern Sri Lanka and enrolled patients ≥1 year of age with clinically relevant UTIs due to ESBL-PE...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Cameron Edwin Alexander, Stuart Gowland, Jon Cadwallader, Dave Hopkins, John M Reynard, Benjamin W Turney
PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of routine prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) after SWL, and to identify predictors of UTI development, in a multi-centre series of over 10,000 stone cases treated in New Zealand over a 20 year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated with SWL on the Mobile Medical Technology (MMT) vehicle between 19/06/1995 and 01/12/2014 were identified. Data collection was undertaken prospectively for patient, stone, treatment characteristics and retrospectively for treatment outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Lisa K McLellan, David A Hunstad
The clinical syndromes comprising urinary tract infection (UTI) continue to exert significant impact on millions of patients worldwide, most of whom are otherwise healthy women. Antibiotic therapy for acute cystitis does not prevent recurrences, which plague up to one fourth of women after an initial UTI. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenic bacteria further complicates therapeutic decisions, necessitating new approaches based on fundamental biological investigation. In this review, we highlight contemporary advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis and how these might inform both our clinical perspective and future scientific priorities...
September 27, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Satomi Mori, Juliana Rumy Tsuchihashi Takeda, Fernanda Souza Angotti Carrara, Cibelli Rizzo Cohrs, Suely Sueko Viski Zanei, Iveth Yamaguchi Whitaker
OBJECTIVES: To identify the incidence of delirium, compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without delirium, and verify factors related to delirium in critical care patients. METHOD: Prospective cohort with a sample made up of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Demographic, clinical variables and evaluation with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit to identify delirium were processed to the univariate analysis and logistic regression to identify factors related to the occurrence of delirium...
July 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
H Le Liepvre, A Dinh, B Idiard-Chamois, E Chartier-Kastler, V Phé, A Even, G Robain, P Denys
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. OBJECTIVE: To describe specificities of pregnancy in a traumatic spinal cord-injured (SCI) population managed by a coordinated medical care team involving physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) physicians, urologists, infectious diseases' physicians, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists. SETTING: NeuroUrology Department in a University Hospital, France. METHODS: All consecutive SCI pregnant women managed between 2001 and 2014 were included...
September 27, 2016: Spinal Cord
Chee Wei Tan, Maciej Piotr Chlebicki
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors...
September 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Ru Jiang-Ying, Xu Hai-Dong, Shi Dai, Pan Jun-Bo, Pan Xiao-Jin, Wang Yan-Fen
Ulinastatin(UTI), is widely used to clinically treat LPS-related inflammatory disorders recently. <br />Adherent pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs),of which LPS is the best-studied<br /> and classical endotoxin produced by Gram-titanium particles in cell culture and animal models of implant loosening.This study was designed to explore the inhibitory effect of UTI on osteoclas-togenesis and inflammatory osteolysis in LPS/PMMA-mediated Raw 264.7 cells and murine osteolysis models ,and investigate the potential mechanism...
September 16, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Devang J Desai, Brent Gilbert, Craig A McBride
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) commonly occur in children. An estimated 8% of girls and 2% of boys will have at least one episode by seven years of age. Of these children, 12-30% will experience recurrence within one year. Australian hospital admission records indicate that paediatric UTIs represent 12% of all UTI hospital admissions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review the pathogenesis, clinical assessment and management of UTIs, and prevention strategies in children...
August 2016: Australian Family Physician
Felix Cardoza, C K Shambhulinga, A T Rajeevan
Associated congenital anomalies are seen in 21% of retrocaval ureter patients; among them, associated contralateral renal agenesis is a very rare entity. We report one such case of right circumcaval ureter with left renal agenesis, diagnosed after febrile UTI. Surgical correction with uretero-ureterostomy was successful. In literature very few such cases are reported and only one case with renal failure was reported. Unilateral renal agenesis cases complicated by associated such anomalies need definitive management and lifelong clinical monitoring to diagnose and prevent chronic kidney disease...
July 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Roseli Aparecida Matheus do Nascimento, Murillo Santucci Cesar Assunção, João Manoel Silva, Cristina Prata Amendola, Taysa Martindo de Carvalho, Emerson Quintino Lima, Suzana Margareth Ajeje Lobo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledgeof nurses on early identification of acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care, emergency and hospitalization units. METHOD: A prospective multi-center study was conducted with 216 nurses, using a questionnaire with 10 questions related to AKI prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. RESULTS: 57.2% of nurses were unable to identify AKI clinical manifestations, 54.6% did not have knowledge of AKI incidence in patients admitted to the ICU, 87...
May 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Harrina E Rahardjo, Pande M W Tirtayasa, Andika Afriansyah, Dyandra Parikesit, Muhammad I Akbar
AIM: to evaluate the effect of a 3-day course antibiotic post-urodynamic study (UDS) to prevent urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: this was a randomized double blind clinical trial on the proportion of UTI in patients who received levofloxacin 500 mg once a day for 3 days after UDS compared to nontreated patients. The outcome of this study was the incidence of lower UTI in levofloxacin group and placebo group. Lower UTI was defined as patient with one or more clinical symptoms of lower UTI and one or more urinalysis parameter of UTI...
April 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Koichiro Wada, Shinya Uehara, Ayano Ishii, Takuya Sadahira, Masumi Yamamoto, Ritsuko Mitsuhata, Atsushi Takamoto, Motoo Araki, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Masami Watanabe, Toyohiko Watanabe, Katsuyuki Hotta, Yasutomo Nasu
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections in women, and many patients experience frequent recurrence. The aim of this report is to introduce an on-going prospective phase II clinical trial performed to evaluate the preventive effectiveness of Lactobacillus vaginal suppositories for prevention of recurrent cystitis. Patients enrolled in this study are administered vaginal suppositories containing the GAI 98322 strain of Lactobacillus crispatus every 2 days or 3 times a week for one year...
August 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
Anouk E Muller, Els M Verhaegh, Stephan Harbarth, Johan W Mouton, Angela Huttner
OBJECTIVES: Nitrofurantoin has been used for the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) for over 60 years. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess nitrofurantoin's efficacy and safety in the prophylaxis of UTI. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of all human controlled trials assessing nitrofurantoin for UTI prophylaxis published from 1946 to 2015. We further reviewed population-level cohort studies evaluating nitrofurantoin's toxicity...
August 16, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Maja Brložnik, Karmen Šterk, Irena Zdovc
Predisposing factors for different types of urinary tract infections (UTI) were evaluated and prevalence of causative agents and their resistance were identified. A prospective epidemiologic study (2007 to 2012) included 191 dogs with signs of urinary tract disease. Anamnestic data were collected and clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonography, urinalysis and aerobic bacteriologic urine culture were performed in all dogs. Other diagnostic procedures were conducted when indicated. UTI was more common in neutered female dogs, older dogs and dogs with concurrent diseases...
July 2016: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
Lizath M Aguiniga, Ryan E Yaggie, Anthony J Schaeffer, David J Klumpp
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) account for 80-90% of urinary tract infections (UTI), and the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance among UPEC isolates reinforces the need for vaccines to prevent UTIs and recurrent infections. Previous studies have shown that UPEC isolate NU14 suppresses pro-inflammatory NFκB-dependent cytokines. However, modification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure by deleting the O-antigen ligase gene (waaL) enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Vaccination with ΔwaaL diminished NU14 reservoirs, and protected against subsequent infections...
August 15, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Alice Laudisio, Felice Marinosci, Antonella Gemma, Isaura Rossi Bartoli, Nicola Montenegro, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are common among nursing home patients, are associated with adverse outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem, associated with excess morbidity and mortality; it has been suggested that this condition might be more prevalent among subjects with comorbid conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with the burden of comorbidity in elderly with UTIs. This retrospective study enrolled 299 patients with culture-positive UTI consecutively admitted to the nursing home of the "Fondazione San Raffaele Cittadella della Carità", Taranto, Italy, which includes 80 beds under the direction of two geriatricians...
August 15, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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