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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662728/breastfeeding-and-weaning-practices-in-urban-slums-of-southern-punjab-pakistan
#1
Khalil Ahmed, Muhammad Talha, Zainab Khalid, Mehvish Khurshid, Rizwan Ishtiaq
Objective Proper breastfeeding and weaning practices are effective ways of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to find out breastfeeding and weaning practices among infants of six months to one year in urban slums of Bahawalpur city. By evaluating the knowledge and attitude of lactating mothers regarding their child feeding habits, modifications and specific interventions can be implemented to improve the breastfeeding and weaning practices of the area. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Shahdrah slums of Bahawalpur City after getting approval from the institutional review board of Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur...
February 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628209/outcomes-in-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome-after-autologous-intestinal-reconstruction-does-etiology-matter
#2
Federica Pederiva, Alberto Sgrò, Riccardo Coletta, Basem Khalil, Antonino Morabito
BACKGROUND: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the most common cause of intestinal failure in children. Many factors have been investigated in an attempt to define which parameters influence most survival and ability to wean off parenteral nutrition (PN). The aim of this study was to investigate if aetiology of SBS affects the outcomes in paediatric patients treated with autologous gastrointestinal reconstructive surgery. METHODS: All children with SBS who underwent autologous gastrointestinal reconstructive surgery between 2002 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed and outcome measures were recorded...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626002/evaluating-off-label-uses-of-acetazolamide
#3
REVIEW
Megan A Van Berkel, Jessica L Elefritz
PURPOSE: Current off-label uses of acetazolamide in hospitalized patients are reviewed. SUMMARY: Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor typically used for indications including epilepsy, glaucoma, edema, and altitude sickness but it may be prescribed in hospitalized patients for off-label indications. It inhibits carbonic anhydrase, which leads to reduced hydrogen ion secretion in the proximal renal tubule, resulting in increased bicarbonate and cation excretion and causing urinary alkalization and diuresis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613861/trends-in-use-of-midodrine-in-the-icu-a-single-center-retrospective-case-series
#4
Mahrukh S Rizvi, Vrinda Trivedi, Faria Nasim, Erica Lin, Rahul Kashyap, Nicole Andrijasevic, Ognjen Gajic
OBJECTIVES: Midodrine is an oral alpha-agonist approved for orthostatic hypotension. The use of midodrine as a vasopressor sparing agent has steadily increased in the ICU despite limited evidence for its safety in that setting. We describe the trends in use and reported side effects and complications of midodrine in multidisciplinary ICUs of a tertiary care institution. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective case series. SETTING: Medical and surgical ICU patients from January 2011 to October 2016 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester...
March 31, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603279/long-term-therapy-with-teduglutide-in-parenteral-support-dependent-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome-a-case-series
#5
Andrew Ukleja, Chau To, Alicia Alvarez, Luis F Lara
OBJECTIVE: To review all cases of parenteral support (PS)-dependent patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) treated with teduglutide (Gattex®, Shire) and to evaluate its efficacy and adverse effects. METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive cohort of SBS patients treated with teduglutide. Demographics, bowel length, primary diagnosis, PS volume/duration, teduglutide dose, and side effects were collected prospectively. RESULTS: Six SBS patients (4 females, 2 males) received teduglutide...
March 30, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603039/could-use-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-during-lactation-cause-persistent-effects-on-maternal-bone
#6
REVIEW
Samantha R Weaver, Laura L Hernandez
The lactating mammary gland elegantly coordinates maternal homeostasis to provide calcium for milk. During lactation, the monoamine serotonin regulates the synthesis and release of various mammary gland-derived factors, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), to stimulate bone resorption. Recent evidence suggests that bone mineral lost during prolonged lactation is not fully recovered following weaning, possibly putting women at increased risk of fracture or osteoporosis. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants have also been associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597354/protein-fermentation-in-the-gut-implications-for-intestinal-dysfunction-in-humans-pigs-and-poultry
#7
Myrthe Suzanne Gilbert, Noortje Ijssennagger, Arie K Kies, Saskia W C van Mil
The amount of dietary protein is associated with intestinal disease in different vertebrate species. In humans, this is exemplified by the association between high protein intake and fermentation metabolite concentrations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In production animals, dietary protein intake is associated with post-weaning diarrhea in piglets and with the occurrence of wet litter in poultry. The underlying mechanisms by which dietary protein contributes to intestinal problems remain largely unknown...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584447/inspiratory-muscle-rehabilitation-in-critically-ill-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Stefannie Vorona, Umberto Sabatini, Sulaiman Al-Maqbali, Michele Bertoni, Martin Dres, Bernie Bissett, Frank Van Haren, A Daniel Martin, Cristian Urrea, Debbie Brace, Matteo Parotto, Margaret S Herridge, Neill Kj Adhikari, Eddy Fan, Luana T Melo, W Darlene Reid, Laurent J Brochard, Niall D Ferguson, Ewan C Goligher
BACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle weakness is common in critically ill patients; the role of targeted inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in ICU rehabilitation strategies remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to describe the range and tolerability of published methods for IMT. The secondary objectives were to determine whether IMT improves respiratory muscle strength and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized and non-randomized studies of physical rehabilitation interventions intended to strengthen the respiratory muscles in critically ill adults...
March 27, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582522/education-on-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-involving-intensive-care-nurses-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Michelle C Guilhermino, Kerry J Inder, Deborah Sundin
BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit nurses are critical for managing mechanical ventilation. Continuing education is essential in building and maintaining nurses' knowledge and skills, potentially improving patient outcomes. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine whether continuing education programmes on invasive mechanical ventilation involving intensive care unit nurses are effective in improving patient outcomes. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from 2001 to 2016 using keywords such as mechanical ventilation, nursing and education...
March 26, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577091/early-administration-of-venovenous-extracorporeal-life-support-for-status-asthmaticus-during-anaesthetic-induction-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Won Ho Chang
Here we report a case of a 40-year-old man who visited the emergency room with severe chest pain. He showed a Stanford type B aortic dissection on chest-computed tomography. Despite medical treatment and malperfusion of lower extremities, acute renal failure developed; hence thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was considered under general anaesthesia. After endotracheal intubation, ventilation with low tidal volume required high inspiratory airway pressure. An arterial blood gas analysis showed PaCO2 of 61...
2018: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558983/diaphragm-dysfunction-during-weaning-from-mechanical-ventilation-an-underestimated-phenomenon-with-clinical-implications
#11
REVIEW
Martin Dres, Alexandre Demoule
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2018. Other selected articles can be found online at https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2018 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901 .
March 20, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553458/substance-use-by-university-students-in-the-west-bank-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Basma R Damiri, Hisham N Sandouka, Eiad H Janini, Omar N Yaish
BACKGROUND: Substance use has been an increasing problem in the occupied Palestinian territory for decades. The aim of this study was to describe the practice, knowledge, and attitudes associated with substance use by university students in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in 2015. Male and female students from four main public universities in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545985/the-effect-of-daily-sedation-weaning-application-on-morbidity-and-mortality-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#13
Selcuk Kayir, Hulya Ulusoy, Guvenc Dogan
Background/aims Sedation is one of the most important components of intensive care unit (ICU) in patients who are mechanically ventilated at intensive care conditions. As a result of sedation and analgesia in the intensive care unit, the patient is to be awakened a comfortable and easy process. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the effects of day-time sedation interruptions in intensive care patients. Material and methods We made a retrospective review of 100 patients who were monitored, mechanically ventilated and treated at our intensive care unit between January 2008 and January 2013...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530778/a-multidisciplinary-protocol-driven-approach-to-improve-extubation-times-following-cardiac-surgery
#14
Joshua L Chan, Justin G Miller, Mandy Murphy, Ann Greenberg, Peggy Iraola, Keith A Horvath
BACKGROUND: Prolonged intubation following cardiac surgery is associated with significant morbidity. A fast-track extubation protocol primarily driven by bedside providers was instituted for all postoperative cardiac surgery patients to facilitate safe and expeditious extubation. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1581 cardiac surgery patients over an 8-year period was performed. Prior to 2011, non-protocolized standard perioperative management was utilized (n=807)...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525310/invited-review-use-of-butyrate-to-promote-gastrointestinal-tract-development-in-calves
#15
REVIEW
P Górka, Z M Kowalski, R Zabielski, P Guilloteau
Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522470/a-review-of-success-factors-for-piglet-fostering-in-lactation
#16
REVIEW
Jena G Alexopoulos, David S Lines, Suzanne Hallett, Kate J Plush
Piglet movement from one sow to another, or fostering, is required in modern pig farming but there is little available literature on the most effective strategy. In this review, we focus on the behavioural and physiological mechanisms responsible for piglet survival and growth, and have identified six key principles. (1) Colostrum provides piglets with warmth, energy and immunity. It is most accessible during the first 12 h from the birth sow, therefore no piglet should be moved before this; (2) To ensure even intake of birth sow colostrum, techniques such as split suckling prior to piglet movement should be implemented; (3) Udder assessment for functional teats should occur at farrowing, with number of fostered piglets not exceeding teat number; (4) Primiparous sows should receive as many piglets as the udder allows to maximise mammary stimulation, although older parities should be assessed for rearing ability; (5) Piglet fostering should occur between 12 and 24 h and movement kept to a minimum to prevent transfer of disease; Litter outliers should be moved and relocated to a litter of similar size; (6) Piglet movement after 24 h should be minimised...
March 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518661/environmental-and-public-health-related-risk-of-veterinary-zinc-in-pig-production-using-denmark-as-an-example
#17
REVIEW
John Jensen, Niels Christian Kyvsgaard, Antonio Battisti, Keith Edward Baptiste
At great economic cost, important steps have been taken over the last many decades to reduce and control emissions of heavy metals in order to protect the environment and public health. Monitoring has confirmed the success of these policies with progressive declines of heavy metals in for example air, sewage sludge and environmental samples. For zinc, such improvements may nevertheless be counter-acted by its widely usage as a feed additive and veterinary medicinal product to piglets in the post-weaning period resulting in reduced occurrence of diarrhea and improvement of daily weight gain...
March 5, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507719/the-patient-needing-prolonged-mechanical-ventilation-a-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Nicolino Ambrosino, Michele Vitacca
Background: Progress in management has improved hospital mortality of patients admitted to the intensive care units, but also the prevalence of those patients needing weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation, and of ventilator assisted individuals. The result is a number of difficult clinical and organizational problems for patients, caregivers and health services, as well as high human and financial resources consumption, despite poor long-term outcomes. An effort should be made to improve the management of these patients...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485032/long-term-results-of-protocol-kidney-biopsy-directing-steroid-withdrawal-in-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplant-patients
#19
Nemin Zhu, Neal E Rowe, Paul R Martin, Sean S Luke, Thomas B Mcgregor, Frank Myslik, Vivian C Mcalister, Alp Sener, Patrick P Luke
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine whether protocol biopsies could be used to guide treatment and improve outcomes in simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) patients. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2013, protocol biopsies were performed on SPK patients at 3-6 months and one year post-transplant. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of a calcineurin inhibitor, anti-proliferative agent, and corticosteroid. Corticosteroid was withdrawn in negative early biopsies, maintained in subclinical/borderline biopsies, and increased if Banff IB or greater rejection was identified...
February 23, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445530/update-non-invasive-ventilation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
REVIEW
Neeraj Mukesh Shah, Rebecca Francesca D'Cruz, Patrick B Murphy
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD and respiratory failure, whether acute or chronic have a poorer prognosis than patients without respiratory failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be a useful tool in both the acute hospital and chronic home care setting. NIV has been well established as the gold standard therapy for acute decompensated respiratory failure complicating an acute exacerbation of COPD with reduced mortality and intubation rates compared to standard therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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