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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902685/getting-to-the-bottom-of-face-processing-species-specific-inversion-effects-for-faces-and-behinds-in-humans-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#1
Mariska E Kret, Masaki Tomonaga
For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881105/open-trusting-relationships-underpin-safety-in-rural-maternity-a-hermeneutic-phenomenology-study
#2
Susan Crowther, Elizabeth Smythe
BACKGROUND: There are interwoven personal, professional and organisational relationships to be navigated in maternity in all regions. In rural regions relationships are integral to safe maternity care. Yet there is a paucity of research on how relationships influence safety and nurture satisfying experiences for rural maternity care providers and mothers and families in these regions. This paper draws attention to how these relationships matter. METHODS: This research is informed by hermeneutic phenomenology drawing on Heidegger and Gadamer...
November 24, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859249/feeling-better-when-someone-is-alike-poor-emotion-regulators-profit-from-prosocial-values-and-priming-for-similarities-with-close-others
#3
Monischa B Chatterjee, Nicola Baumann, And Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVE: The dispositional inability to self-regulate own emotions intuitively is described as state orientation and has been associated with numerous psychological impairments. The necessity to search for buffering effects against negative outcomes of state orientation is evident. Research suggests that state-oriented individuals can benefit from feeling close to others. Yet, there are individual differences in the extent to which supportive relationships are valued. The objective of the present paper was to examine if high importance of relatedness increases the utilization of its situational activation among state-oriented individuals...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858501/experiences-in-disaster-related-mental-health-relief-work-an-exploratory-model-for-the-interprofessional-training-of-psychological-relief-workers
#4
ZhengJia Ren, HongTao Wang, Wei Zhang
The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834448/tibial-revision-knee-arthroplasty-influence-of-modular-stems-on-implant-fixation-and-bone-flexibility-in-aori-type-t2a-defects
#5
Jan Nadorf, Simone Gantz, Konner Kohl, Jan P Kretzer
BACKGROUND: Due to the varying bone defects presented to surgeons during revision total knee arthroplasty, modular implant systems are preferred over standard implant designs. However, every implant combination (sleeves, stems and augments) can affect the fixation in different ways and thus influence the long-term outcome. We therefore aimed to analyze the effect of large metaphyseal sleeves with and without short modular stems on implant fixation and bone flexibility of a modular tibial revision knee system...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819452/learning-to-perceive-haptic-distance-to-break-in-the-presence-of-friction
#6
Bliss M Altenhoff, Christopher C Pagano, Irfan Kil, Timothy C Burg
Two experiments employed attunement and calibration training to investigate whether observers are able to identify material break points in compliant materials through haptic force application. The task required participants to attune to a recently identified haptic invariant, distance-to-break (DTB), rather than haptic stimulation not related to the invariant, including friction. In the first experiment participants probed simulated force-displacement relationships (materials) under 3 levels of friction with the aim of pushing as far as possible into the materials without breaking them...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818628/how-attention-modulates-encoding-of-dynamic-stimuli
#7
Noga Oren, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Yulia Lerner, Ricardo Tarrasch, Talma Hendler, Nir Giladi, Elissa L Ash
When encoding a real-life, continuous stimulus, the same neural circuits support processing and integration of prior as well as new incoming information. This ongoing interplay is modulated by attention, and is evident in regions such as the prefrontal cortex section of the task positive network (TPN), and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub of the default mode network (DMN). Yet the exact nature of such modulation is still unclear. To investigate this issue, we utilized an fMRI task that employed movies as the encoded stimuli and manipulated attentional load via an easy or hard secondary task that was performed simultaneously with encoding...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814611/targeted-drugs-and-diagnostic-assays-companions-in-the-race-to-combat-ethnic-disparity
#8
Nikita Wright, Padmashree Rida, Uma Krishnamurti, Xiaoxian Li, Ritu Aneja
African Americans (AAs) are more likely than European Americans to develop aggressive breast cancer subtypes, and have higher recurrence and mortality rates; this results in a stark breast-cancer related ethnic disparity in clinical outcomes. In this era of personalized oncology, companion diagnostics (CDx) are transforming the cancer treatment narrative slowly but steadily, by enabling the use of safety and/or efficacy biomarkers to stratify patient populations, and thus ensuring more effective deployment of targeted therapeutics...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811992/eliciting-maize-defense-pathways-aboveground-attracts-belowground-biocontrol-agents
#9
Camila Cramer Filgueiras, Denis S Willett, Ramom Vasconcelos Pereira, Alcides Moino Junior, Martin Pareja, Larry W Duncan
Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation of plant defense pathways on the interactions between corn, the aboveground herbivore adult Diabrotica speciosa, the belowground herbivore larval D. speciosa, and the subterranean ento-mopathogenic nematode natural enemy Heterorhabditis amazonensis...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785336/type-3-adenylyl-cyclase-a-key-enzyme-mediating-the-camp-signaling-in-neuronal-cilia
#10
REVIEW
Liyan Qiu, Robert P LeBel, Daniel R Storm, Xuanmao Chen
Cilia are rigid, centriole-derived, microtubule-based organelles present in a majority of vertebrate cells including neurons. They are considered the cellular "antennae" attuned for detecting a range of extracellular signals including photons, odorants, morphogens, hormones and mechanical forces. The ciliary microenvironment is distinct from most actin-based subcellular structures such as microvilli or synapses. In the nervous system, there is no evidence that neuronal cilia process any synaptic structure. Apparently, the structural features of neuronal cilia do not allow them to harbor any synaptic connections...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779315/teacher-attunement-to-peer-nominated-aggressors
#11
Molly Dawes, Chin-Chih Chen, Sharon K Zumbrunn, Meera Mehtaji, Thomas W Farmer, Jill V Hamm
This study examined the associations between teacher attunement to aggressive students and students' characteristics in a sample (n = 278) of youth in 5th-grade classrooms with the assumption that certain student characteristics may either prime or hinder teachers' attunement to aggressive students. Teacher attunement was measured as the agreement between teacher- and peer-nominations for students who start fights. Teachers rated their students on the following characteristics: academic competence, affiliation, popularity, internalizing behavior, and Olympian qualities...
October 25, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777565/competitiveness-and-the-process-of-co-adaptation-in-team-sport-performance
#12
Pedro Passos, Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids
An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770570/characterization-of-human-translesion-dna-synthesis-across-a-uv-induced-dna-lesion
#13
Mark Hedglin, Binod Pandey, Stephen J Benkovic
Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) during S-phase uses specialized TLS DNA polymerases to replicate a DNA lesion, allowing stringent DNA synthesis to resume beyond the offending damage. Human TLS involves the conjugation of ubiquitin to PCNA clamps encircling damaged DNA and the role of this post-translational modification is under scrutiny. A widely-accepted model purports that ubiquitinated PCNA recruits TLS polymerases such as pol η to sites of DNA damage where they may also displace a blocked replicative polymerase...
October 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766240/the-most-widely-viewed-youtube-videos-with-content-related-to-multivitamins
#14
Corey H Basch, Jennifer Mongiovi, Alyssa Berdnik, Charles E Basch
Background: Use of multivitamin/multimineral (MVM) and other dietary supplements is common among American adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the source and content of the most widely viewed YouTube videos associated with MVM supplements. Methods: Videos were filtered by number of views and the source of the video upload was recorded. A comparison of video characteristics and differences in video content was conducted. Results: Cumulatively, the videos in this sample were viewed 25 573 055 times...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762634/fatigue-in-facioscapulohumeral-muscular-dystrophy-a-qualitative-study-of-people-s-experiences
#15
Karen Schipper, Minne Bakker, Tineke Abma
PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to describe how fatigue affects the lives of people with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD), how they experience fatigue, and how they deal with it in order to attune rehabilitation care to patients' needs. METHOD: A qualitative study, consisting of 25 semistructured interviews with patients with FSHD and severe fatigue (as measured with the checklist individual strength (CIS) fatigue questionnaire), was conducted to gain insight into the experiences of patients with fatigue...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759424/infant-diet-related-changes-in-syllable-processing-between-4-and-5-months-implications-for-developing-native-language-sensitivity
#16
R T Pivik, Aline Andres, Shasha Bai, Mario A Cleves, Kevin B Tennal, Yuyuan Gu, Thomas M Badger
Since maturational processes triggering increased attunement to native language features in early infancy are sensitive to dietary factors, infant-diet related differences in brain processing of native-language speech stimuli might indicate variations in the onset of this tuning process. We measured cortical responses (ERPs) to syllables in 4 and 5 month old infants fed breast milk, milk formula, or soy formula and found syllable discrimination (P350) and syntactic-related functions (P600) but not syllable perception (P170) varied by diet, but not gender or background measures...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756436/acute-presentation-of-a-giant-intrathyroidal-parathyroid-adenoma-a-case-report
#17
Stephanie Rutledge, Michele Harrison, Martin O'Connell, Tadhg O'Dwyer, Maria M Byrne
BACKGROUND: We report the case of a giant intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma weighing 59 g in a young woman presenting acutely with severe hypercalcemia requiring correction and adequate preoperative management prior to surgery. Parathyroid adenomas account for 85 % of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. Those weighing more than 3.5g are classified as giant parathyroid adenomas. There are only 25 cases of parathyroid adenomas weighing over 30g reported in the literature. With the wide availability of biochemical screening tests in Western countries, mildly elevated calcium levels are often discovered incidentally...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739339/changes-in-organisation-of-instep-kicking-as-a-function-of-wearing-compression-and-textured-materials
#18
Hosni Hasan, Keith Davids, Jia Yi Chow, Graham Kerr
This study investigated effects of wearing compression garments and textured insoles on modes of movement organisation emerging during performance of lower limb interceptive actions in association football. Participants were six skilled (age = 15.67 ± 0.74 years) and six less-skilled (age = 15.17 ± 1.1 years) football players. All participants performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI); and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722911/community-engagement-for-identifying-cancer-education-needs-in-puerto-rico
#19
Julio Jiménez, Axel Ramos, Francisco E Ramos-Rivera, Clement Gwede, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Susan Vadaparampil, Thomas Brandon, Vani Simmons, Eida Castro
Cancer is the leading cause of death in Puerto Rico, suggesting a need for improved strategies, programs, and resources devoted to cancer prevention. Enhanced prevention needs in Puerto Rico were initially identified in pilot studies conducted by the Ponce School of Medicine (PSM) in collaboration with the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC). In the current study, we used community engagement to identify specific needs in cancer prevention and education and strategies to create culturally attuned, effective cancer prevention education programs...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721525/harm-reduction-from-below-on-sharing-and-caring-in-drug-use
#20
Inge Van Schipstal, Swasti Mishra, Moritz Berning, Hayley Murray
This article focuses on how recreational drug users in the Netherlands and in online communities navigate the risks and reduce the harms they associate with psychoactive drug use. To do so, we examined the protective practices they invent, use, and share with their immediate peers and with larger drug experimenting communities online. The labor involved in protective practices and that which ultimately informs harm reduction from below follows three interrelated trajectories: (1) the handling and sharing of drugs to facilitate hassle-free drug use, (2) creating pleasant and friendly spaces that we highlight under the practices of drug use attunements, and (3) the seeking and sharing of information in practices to spread the good high...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
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