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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812268/oxytocin-and-human-evolution
#1
C Sue Carter
A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796578/sharing-sex-secrets-on-facebook-a-content-analysis-of-youth-peer-communication-and-advice-exchange-on-social-media-about-sexual-health-and-intimate-relations
#2
Tien Ee Dominic Yeo, Tsz Hang Chu
Social media present opportunities and challenges for sexual health communication among young people. This study is one of the first to examine the actual use of Facebook for peer communication of sexual health and intimate relations. Content analysis of 2186 anonymous posts in a "sex secrets" Facebook page unofficially affiliated with a Hong Kong University shows gender balance among posters, inclusiveness of sexual minorities, and frequent sharing of personal experiences in storytelling or advice seeking...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776002/can-people-identify-original-and-manipulated-photos-of-real-world-scenes
#3
Sophie J Nightingale, Kimberley A Wade, Derrick G Watson
Advances in digital technology mean that the creation of visually compelling photographic fakes is growing at an incredible speed. The prevalence of manipulated photos in our everyday lives invites an important, yet largely unanswered, question: Can people detect photo forgeries? Previous research using simple computer-generated stimuli suggests people are poor at detecting geometrical inconsistencies within a scene. We do not know, however, whether such limitations also apply to real-world scenes that contain common properties that the human visual system is attuned to processing...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763416/the-cd45lowcd271high-cell-prevalence-in-bone-marrow-samples-may-provide-a-useful-measurement-of-the-bone-marrow-quality-for-cartilage-and-bone-regenerative-therapy
#4
Jehan J El-Jawhari, Richard Cuthbert, Dennis McGonagle, Elena Jones, Peter V Giannoudis
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow aspirates and concentrates are increasingly being used for musculoskeletal regenerative therapies, providing bone and cartilage progenitors. However, the quality of these bone marrow samples remains imprecise within clinical settings. As there is a need for the development of these therapies, a method of counting CD45CD271 cells was optimized and tested as an indicator of bone marrow sample quality. METHODS: Bone marrow aspirates were collected from 54 donors (28 male and 26 female; median age of 48 years)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750956/therapeutically-efficient-components-of-basic-body-awareness-therapy-as-perceived-by-experienced-therapists-a-qualitative-study
#5
Amelie Ambolt, Gunvor Gard, Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund
BACKGROUND: Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) is a physiotherapeutic method used in rehabilitation to increase physical and emotional balance. The aim was to identify and describe perceived therapeutically efficient components of BBAT. METHODS: Twenty-four experienced BBAT therapists participated in focus group interviews. The data were analysed with content analysis. RESULTS: One central theme, the therapeutic space consisted of two categories; the therapeutic encounter and the therapeutic tools, which emerged as the core of the perceived therapeutically efficient components...
July 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746767/the-moral-imagination-of-de-extinction
#6
Bruce Jennings
We live amidst the sixth great extinction of life on Earth, and we live under the sign of molecular biology and biotechnology. An ethical maxim that is well-nigh universally acknowledged holds that with great power comes great moral responsibility. For those who accept the science and embrace the responsibility, there are two rather different kinds of moral vision and moral imagination at work. Detractors of biotechnology say that we should see ourselves as creaturely good citizens of the biotic community, accepting and accommodating what evolutionary natural selection has bequeathed to us, warts and all...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712467/children-disassociate-from-antisocial-in-group-members
#7
Matti Wilks, Mark Nielsen
Extensive research has demonstrated that children show a robust in-group bias and, concurrently, are highly attuned to the prosocial and antisocial behavior of others. The limited research investigating the capacity for antisocial behavior to attenuate children's in-group bias has, however, returned mixed findings. Moreover, no research has examined how this might interact with perceived group permeability. Thus, the current study aimed to provide a more complete understanding of the relationship between in-group bias and antisocial behavior, how this interacts with perceptions of out-group behavior, and how group context (permeability) influences these responses...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708550/unsupervised-myocardial-segmentation-for-cardiac-bold
#8
Ilkay Oksuz, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Rohan Dharmakumar, Sotirios A Tsaftaris
A fully automated 2D+time myocardial segmentation framework is proposed for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) datasets. Ischemia detection with CINE BOLD CMR relies on spatiotemporal patterns in myocardial intensity but these patterns also trouble supervised segmentation methods, the de-facto standard for myocardial segmentation in cine MRI. Segmentation errors severely undermine the accurate extraction of these patterns. In this paper we build a joint motion and appearance method that relies on dictionary learning to find a suitable subspace...
July 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701382/reduced-orbitofrontal-cortical-volume-is-associated-with-interdependent-self-construal
#9
Shinobu Kitayama, Kuniaki Yanagisawa, Ayahito Ito, Ryuhei Ueda, Yukiko Uchida, Nobuhito Abe
Interdependent self-construal refers to a view of the self as embedded in relationships with others. Prior work suggests that this construal is linked to a strong value placed on social obligations and duties. Interdependent people are therefore cognitively attuned to others and various social events in their surroundings while down-regulating their personal goals. In the present work, we examined whether structural properties of the brain predict interdependent self-construal. We performed a structural magnetic resonance imaging on 135 Japanese young adults while assessing (i) independent and interdependent self-construals and (ii) the degree to which individuals form vivid images of external objects (object imagery)...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689159/self-management-support-by-final-year-nursing-students-a-correlational-study-of-performance-and-person-related-associated-factors
#10
Veerle Duprez, Dimitri Beeckman, Sofie Verhaeghe, Ann Van Hecke
BACKGROUND: Chronic conditions put a heavy burden on healthcare in every country. Supporting persons with a chronic illness to take an active role in the management of their condition is a core component in the Chronic Care Model. It implies confidence and good skills from professionals. To date, there is no evidence on final year nursing students' performance in supporting patients' self-management, nor on factors associated with this performance. OBJECTIVES: To explore self-reported performance of supporting patients' self-management by final year nursing students, and person-related factors associated with this performance...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687119/statistical-learning-of-speech-sounds-is-most-robust-during-the-period-of-perceptual-attunement
#11
Liquan Liu, René Kager
Although statistical learning has been shown to be a domain-general mechanism, its constraints, such as its interactions with perceptual development, are less well understood and discussed. This study is among the first to investigate the distributional learning of lexical pitch in non-tone-language-learning infants, exploring its interaction with language-specific perceptual attunement during the first 2years after birth. A total of 88 normally developing Dutch infants of 5, 11, and 14months were tested via a distributional learning paradigm and were familiarized on a unimodal or bimodal distribution of high-level versus high-falling tones in Mandarin Chinese...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678104/exploring-faculty-developers-experiences-to-inform-our-understanding-of-competence-in-faculty-development
#12
Lindsay Baker, Karen Leslie, Danny Panisko, Allyn Walsh, Anne Wong, Barbara Stubbs, Maria Mylopoulos
PURPOSE: Now a mainstay in medical education, faculty development has created the role of the faculty developer. However, faculty development research tends to overlook faculty developers' roles and experiences. This study aimed to develop an empirical understanding of faculty developer competence by digging deeper into the actions, experiences, and perceptions of faculty developers as they perform their facilitator role. METHOD: A constructivist grounded theory approach guided observations of faculty development activities, field interviews, and formal interviews with 31 faculty developers across two academic institutions from 2013 to 2014...
July 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675061/postnatal-depression-maternal-infant-bonding-and-social-support-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-nigerian-and-british-mothers
#13
Oladayo Afolabi, Louise Bunce, Joanne Lusher, Samantha Banbury
OBJECTIVES: The high prevalence of Post-Natal Depression (PND) in low and lower-middle income countries of Africa raises questions about the functionality of the abundant informal support accessed in the enmeshed family structure. This study examined the interaction between social support, parity and culture in the development of PND and maternal-infant bonding (MIB) among Nigerian, British and Nigerian Immigrant mothers in the UK. METHODS: Participants (N = 124) were recruited from the UK and Nigeria via local support groups for mothers, websites offering motherhood-related content and social media...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661776/social-context-biology-and-the-definition-of-disorder
#14
Allan V Horwitz
In recent years, medical sociologists have increasingly paid attention to a variety of interactions between social and biological factors. These include how social stressors impact the functioning of physiological systems, how sociocultural contexts trigger genetic propensities or mitigate genetic defects, and how brains are attuned to social, cultural, and interactional factors. This paper focuses on how both sociocultural and biological forces influence what conditions are contextually appropriate responses or disorders...
June 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631972/an-analysis-of-self-the-development-and-assessment-of-a-measure-of-selfobject-needs
#15
Eamonn Arble, Douglas Barnett
Based on the psychoanalysis of adults with borderline and narcissistic personality disorder symptoms, Kohut ( 1971 , 1977, 1980, 1984) formulated a theory of self psychology that emphasized the importance of early developmental experiences; most centrally, the empathic attunement of caregivers as key ingredients for fostering the capacity for healthy self-regulation and interpersonal relations. Kohut elaborated 3 critical selfobject needs (i.e., idealizing, mirroring, and twinship) that were ideally satiated by these early experiences, deeming the fulfillment of these needs as essential for developing a healthy sense of self...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608542/hpa-axis-linkage-in-parent-child-dyads-effects-of-parent-sex-autism-spectrum-diagnosis-and-dyadic-relationship-behavior
#16
Darby E Saxbe, Ofer Golan, Sharon Ostfeld-Etzion, Yael Hirschler-Guttenberg, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Families of preschoolers participated in two dyadic home visits, once with mother (56 dyads) and once with father (59 dyads). Each member of the dyad provided three cortisol samples and participated in several interaction tasks that were behaviorally coded. Approximately half of the children had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), whereas half were typically developing (TD). In a multilevel model, father's cortisol level at each timepoint predicted child cortisol. Father-child linkage was stronger in dyads that showed less reciprocity, in which fathers showed less sensitivity, and in which children showed less self-regulation and more withdrawal...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604032/gaze-behavior-to-faces-during-dyadic-interaction
#17
Roy S Hessels, Tim H W Cornelissen, Ignace T C Hooge, Chantal Kemner
A long-standing hypothesis is that humans have a bias for fixating the eye region in the faces of others. Most studies have tested this hypothesis with static images or videos of faces, yet recent studies suggest that the use of such "nonresponsive" stimuli might overlook an influence of social context. The present study addressed whether the bias for fixating the eye region in faces would persist in a situation that allowed for social interaction. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate a setup in which a duo could engage in social interaction while their eye movements were recorded...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601133/assessment-and-management-of-toxidromes-in-the-critical-care-unit
#18
REVIEW
J J Rasimas, Courtney M Sinclair
The most important diagnostic factor in uncovering a toxic etiology for delirium or critical illness is the clinician's openness to the possibility of its existence. Therefore, a consulting psychiatrist, already prepared to perform the detail-oriented work of sorting out behavioral manifestations of disease, can be a vital asset at the bedside if also attuned to the role of purposeful, accidental, and iatrogenic exposures in the intensive care unit. This article summarizes the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of toxidromes relevant to the work of acute psychosomatic medicine...
July 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599563/human-echolocation-in-different-situations-and-rooms
#19
Bo N Schenkman
People, especially when blind, use echolocation to detect obstacles, orient themselves, and get an awareness of their environment. I and coworkers have, with mostly psychophysical methods, studied perceptual aspects of how people accomplish echolocation. Echolocation with long canes while walking was possible but difficult. The effects of the spectral composition of the emitted sounds had no effects. Sound recordings in anechoic and conference rooms from non-walking, static situations, later presented in a laboratory showed a better performance in an ordinary room with reflections, than in an anechoic room...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591930/unusually-high-rate-of-early-failure-of-tibial-component-in-attune-total-knee-arthroplasty-system-at-implant-cement-interface
#20
Peter M Bonutti, Anton Khlopas, Morad Chughtai, Connor Cole, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Steven F Harwin, Brent Whited, Didi E Omiyi, Joshua E Drumm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
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