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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545629/moral-vindications
#1
Victor Kumar
Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530041/hiv-healthcare-transition-outcomes-among-youth-in-north-america-and-europe-a-review
#2
Vicki Tepper, Stefanie Zaner, Patrick Ryscavage
INTRODUCTION: The transition from paediatric to adult care poses risks to the health of young adults living with HIV if unsuccessful, including interruptions in care and poor health outcomes. Evolving best practices in HIV healthcare transition should ideally be informed by real-world qualitative and quantitative clinical healthcare transition outcomes. There has been a recent proliferation of HIV healthcare transition outcome research, largely from Europe and North America. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken using the online databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525641/erp-correlates-of-motivating-voices-quality-of-motivation-and-time-course-matters
#3
Konstantina Zougkou, Netta Weinstein, Silke Paulmann
Here, we conducted the first study to explore how motivations expressed through speech are processed in real-time. Participants listened to sentences spoken in two types of well-studied motivational tones (autonomy-supportive and controlling), or a neutral tone of voice. To examine this, listeners were presented with sentences that either signaled motivations through prosody (tone of voice) and words simultaneously (e.g., "You absolutely have to do it my way" spoken in a controlling tone of voice), or lacked motivationally biasing words (e...
May 19, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513182/-it-just-opens-up-their-world-autism-empathy-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-equine-interactions
#4
Roslyn Malcolm, Stefan Ecks, Martyn Pickersgill
Experiences of autism-spectrum disorder are now increasingly studied by social scientists. Human-animal relations have also become a major focus of social inquiry in recent years. Examining horse-assisted therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, this is the first paper that brings these fields together. Drawing on participant observation and interviews at a UK horse therapy Centre, this article examines how staff and the parents of riders account for the successes and limitations of equine therapy. To the respondents, horses 'open up' autistic children and make possible interactions that seemed impossible before...
May 17, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499139/a-novel-form-of-perceptual-attunement-context-dependent-perception-of-a-native-contrast-in-14-month-old-infants
#5
Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494167/-my-whole-life-is-ethics-ordinary-ethics-and-gene-therapy-clinical-trials
#6
Courtney Addison, Jesper Lassen
What and where is ethics in gene therapy? Historical debates have identified a set of ethical issues with the field, and current regulatory systems presume a discrete ethics that can be achieved or protected. Resisting attempts at demarcation or resolution, we use the notions of "ordinary" or "everyday" ethics to develop a better understanding of the complexities of experimental gene therapy for patients, families and practitioners, and create richer imaginings of ethics in the gene therapy sphere. Drawing on ethnographic research in several clinical trials we show that patients/parents can acquire some control in difficult medical situations, and practitioners can attune their care to their patients' needs...
May 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475337/structure-dynamics-relation-in-physically-plausible-multi-chromophore-systems
#7
George C Knee, Patrick Rowe, Luke D Smith, Alessandro Troisi, Animesh Datta
We study a large number of physically-plausible arrangements of chromophores, generated via a computational method involving stochastic real-space transformations of a naturally-occurring "reference" structure, illustrating our methodology using the well-studied Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex (FMO). To explore the idea that the natural structure has been tuned for efficient energy transport, we use an atomic transition charge method to calculate the excitonic couplings of each generated structure and a Lindblad master equation to study the quantum transport of an exciton from a "source" to a "drain" chromophore...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474420/eating-disorder-related-social-comparison-in-college-women-s-everyday-lives
#8
Ellen E Fitzsimmons-Craft
OBJECTIVE: This study examined: frequency of upward and downward body, eating, and exercise comparisons; context in which these comparisons occur; and body, eating, and exercise comparison direction as predictors of concurrent body dissatisfaction and disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors in college women's everyday lives using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHOD: Participants were 232 college women who completed a two-week EMA protocol, using their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447471/how-does-video-interaction-guidance-contribute-to-infant-and-parental-mental-health-and-well-being
#9
Hilary Kennedy, Kevin Ball, Jane Barlow
This article describes the contribution of video interaction guidance (VIG) to the development of infant and parental and VIG practitioners' mental health and well-being. The theoretical core of VIG was depicted in terms of concepts such as intersubjectivity, attunement and mediated learning. The way the VIG principles alongside the underpinning values and beliefs promote a process of attunement between parent and infant, the VIG practitioner and parent, and the VIG practitioner and supervisor is described...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432008/turkish-version-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-validity-and-reliability-among-university-students
#10
Murat Bas, Kezban Esen Karaca, Duygu Saglam, Gozde Arıtıcı, Ecem Cengiz, Selen Köksal, Aylin Hasbay Buyukkaragoz
Intuitive Eating is defined as "the dynamic process-integrating attunement of mind, body, and food". The purpose of this study was, therefore, adapt the IES-2 to the Turkish language and reliability and validity of IES-2 among Turkish populations. We also examined the instrument's internal consistency and test-retest reliability and analysed the relationships between the IES-2 and several variables so as to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. Three hundred seventy-seven undergraduate and postgraduate women and men between the ages of 19-31 years (mean 22...
July 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418263/systematic-bias-in-predictions-of-new-drugs-budget-impact-analysis-of-a-sample-of-recent-us-drug-launches
#11
Michael S Broder, Jenelle M Zambrano, Jackie Lee, Richard S Marken
OBJECTIVE: Expectations about the budget impact of new drug launches may affect payer behavior and ultimately consumer costs. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of pre-launch US budget impact estimates for a sample of new drugs. METHODS: We searched for publicly available budget impact estimates made pre-launch for drugs approved in the US from 1(st) September 2010 to 1(st) September 2015 and compared them to actual sales. Accuracy was calculated as the ratio of pre-launch estimate to actual sales...
April 18, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411919/complications-of-renal-surgery
#12
REVIEW
William T Berg, Jeffrey J Tomaszewski, Hailiu Yang, Anthony Corcoran
The incidence of the small renal mass continues to increase owing to the aging population and the ubiquity imaging. Most of these tumors are stage I tumors. Management strategies include surveillance, ablation, and extirpation. There is a wide body of literature favoring nephron-sparing approaches. Although nephron-sparing surgery may yield decreased long-term morbidity, it is not without its drawbacks, including a higher rate of complications. Urologists must be attuned to the complications of surgery and develop strategies to minimize risk...
May 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411473/adaptive-attunement-of-selective-covert-attention-to-evolutionary-relevant-emotional-visual-scenes
#13
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Aída Gutiérrez-García, Juan Capafons, Manuel G Calvo
We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional-neutral images appeared peripherally-with perceptual stimulus differences controlled-while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emotional scenes selectively captured covert attention even when they were task-irrelevant, thus revealing involuntary, automatic processing...
April 25, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392915/case-series-report-of-navigation-based-in%C3%A2-vivo-knee-kinematics-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-with-a-gradually-reducing-femoral-radius-design
#14
Hiroshi Takagi, Soshi Asai, Atsushi Sato, Masahiko Maekawa, Humiyoshi Kawashima, Koji Kanzaki
BACKGROUND: Simulations show that paradoxical anterior femoral slide in conventional dual radius total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is initiated by sudden reduction of the femoral radius from distal to posterior. Therefore, we hypothesized that a new TKA prosthesis design with a gradually reducing femoral radius may minimize the anterior slide in navigation-based in vivo knee kinematics. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of TKA in vivo using a prosthesis with a gradually reducing radius, in comparison with the conventional dual radius design...
May 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389366/musical-rhythm-and-pitch-a-differential-effect-on-auditory-dynamics-as-revealed-by-the-n1-mmn-p3a-complex
#15
E Sebastian Lelo-de-Larrea-Mancera, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco
Music represents a complex form of human cognition. To what extent our auditory system is attuned to music is yet to be clearly understood. Our principal aim was to determine whether the neurophysiological operations underlying pre-attentive auditory change detection (N1 enhancement (N1e)/Mismatch Negativity (MMN)) and the subsequent involuntary attentional reallocation (P3a) towards infrequent sound omissions, are influenced by differences in musical content. Specifically, we intended to explore any interaction effects that rhythmic and pitch dimensions of musical organization may have over these processes...
April 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383986/facial-gender-interferes-with-decisions-about-facial-expressions-of-anger-and-happiness
#16
D Vaughn Becker
The confounded signal hypothesis maintains that facial expressions of anger and happiness, in order to more efficiently communicate threat or nurturance, evolved forms that take advantage of older gender recognition systems, which were already attuned to similar affordances. Two unexplored consequences of this hypothesis are (1) facial gender should automatically interfere with discriminations of anger and happiness, and (2) controlled attentional processes (like working memory) may be able to override the interference of these particular expressions on gender discrimination...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379107/gender-and-sex-trading-among-active-methamphetamine-users-in-cape-town-south-africa
#17
Ryan R Lion, Melissa H Watt, Wendee M Wechsberg, Christina S Meade
BACKGROUND: South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township...
May 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367052/articulating-what-infants-attune-to-in-native-speech
#18
Catherine T Best, Louis M Goldstein, Hosung Nam, Michael D Tyler
To become language users, infants must embrace the integrality of speech perception and production. That they do so, and quite rapidly, is implied by the native-language attunement they achieve in each domain by 6-12 months. Yet research has most often addressed one or the other domain, rarely how they interrelate. Moreover, mainstream assumptions that perception relies on acoustic patterns whereas production involves motor patterns entail that the infant would have to translate incommensurable information to grasp the perception-production relationship...
October 1, 2016: Ecological Psychology: a Publication of the International Society for Ecological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335467/through-the-kinesthetic-lens-observation-of-social-attunement-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Rosemarie Samaritter, Helen Payne
This paper will present a movement-informed perspective to social attunement in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). BACKGROUND: Dance movement therapy (DMT) is a psychotherapeutic intervention that is used with participants with ASD in various settings. Regular clinical outcome monitoring in an outpatient setting in the Netherlands had shown positive effects on social attunement capacities in young people with ASD. However, a systematic study of the development of social attunement movement behaviors of participants with ASD throughout a DMT intervention was not yet available...
March 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332098/acute-aortic-syndromes-update-in-current-medical-management
#20
REVIEW
Jacqueline H Morris, Doran Mix, Scott J Cameron
Advances in medical therapy and non-surgical percutaneous options to manage the specter of acute aortic syndromes have improved both patient morbidity and mortality. There are key features in the patient history and initial exam which physicians should be attuned to in order to diagnose acute aortic syndromes such as aortic dissection, penetrating aortic ulcer, and intramural hematoma. Once recognized, early initiation of the appropriate pharmacologic therapy is important, and further appreciating the limitations of such therapy before considering a surgical approach is critical to improve patient outcomes...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
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