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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631972/an-analysis-of-self-the-development-and-assessment-of-a-measure-of-selfobject-needs
#1
Eamonn Arble, Douglas Barnett
Based on the psychoanalysis of adults with borderline and narcissistic personality disorder symptoms, Kohut ( 1971 , 1977, 1980, 1984) formulated a theory of self psychology that emphasized the importance of early developmental experiences; most centrally, the empathic attunement of caregivers as key ingredients for fostering the capacity for healthy self-regulation and interpersonal relations. Kohut elaborated 3 critical selfobject needs (i.e., idealizing, mirroring, and twinship) that were ideally satiated by these early experiences, deeming the fulfillment of these needs as essential for developing a healthy sense of self...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608542/hpa-axis-linkage-in-parent-child-dyads-effects-of-parent-sex-autism-spectrum-diagnosis-and-dyadic-relationship-behavior
#2
Darby E Saxbe, Ofer Golan, Sharon Ostfeld-Etzion, Yael Hirschler-Guttenberg, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Families of preschoolers participated in two dyadic home visits, once with mother (56 dyads) and once with father (59 dyads). Each member of the dyad provided three cortisol samples and participated in several interaction tasks that were behaviorally coded. Approximately half of the children had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), whereas half were typically developing (TD). In a multilevel model, father's cortisol level at each timepoint predicted child cortisol. Father-child linkage was stronger in dyads that showed less reciprocity, in which fathers showed less sensitivity, and in which children showed less self-regulation and more withdrawal...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604032/gaze-behavior-to-faces-during-dyadic-interaction
#3
Roy S Hessels, Tim H W Cornelissen, Ignace T C Hooge, Chantal Kemner
A long-standing hypothesis is that humans have a bias for fixating the eye region in the faces of others. Most studies have tested this hypothesis with static images or videos of faces, yet recent studies suggest that the use of such "nonresponsive" stimuli might overlook an influence of social context. The present study addressed whether the bias for fixating the eye region in faces would persist in a situation that allowed for social interaction. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate a setup in which a duo could engage in social interaction while their eye movements were recorded...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601133/assessment-and-management-of-toxidromes-in-the-critical-care-unit
#4
REVIEW
J J Rasimas, Courtney M Sinclair
The most important diagnostic factor in uncovering a toxic etiology for delirium or critical illness is the clinician's openness to the possibility of its existence. Therefore, a consulting psychiatrist, already prepared to perform the detail-oriented work of sorting out behavioral manifestations of disease, can be a vital asset at the bedside if also attuned to the role of purposeful, accidental, and iatrogenic exposures in the intensive care unit. This article summarizes the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of toxidromes relevant to the work of acute psychosomatic medicine...
July 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599563/human-echolocation-in-different-situations-and-rooms
#5
Bo N Schenkman
People, especially when blind, use echolocation to detect obstacles, orient themselves, and get an awareness of their environment. I and coworkers have, with mostly psychophysical methods, studied perceptual aspects of how people accomplish echolocation. Echolocation with long canes while walking was possible but difficult. The effects of the spectral composition of the emitted sounds had no effects. Sound recordings in anechoic and conference rooms from non-walking, static situations, later presented in a laboratory showed a better performance in an ordinary room with reflections, than in an anechoic room...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591930/unusually-high-rate-of-early-failure-of-tibial-component-in-attune-total-knee-arthroplasty-system-at-implant-cement-interface
#6
Peter M Bonutti, Anton Khlopas, Morad Chughtai, Connor Cole, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Steven F Harwin, Brent Whited, Didi E Omiyi, Joshua E Drumm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585512/auditory-visual-speech-perception-in-three-and-four-year-olds-and-its-relationship-to-perceptual-attunement-and-receptive-vocabulary
#7
Doğu Erdener, Denis Burnham
Despite the body of research on auditory-visual speech perception in infants and schoolchildren, development in the early childhood period remains relatively uncharted. In this study, English-speaking children between three and four years of age were investigated for: (i) the development of visual speech perception - lip-reading and visual influence in auditory-visual integration; (ii) the development of auditory speech perception and native language perceptual attunement; and (iii) the relationship between these and a language skill relevant at this age, receptive vocabulary...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574579/the-effect-of-a-maternal-history-of-childhood-abuse-on-adrenocortical-attunement-in-mothers-and-their-toddlers
#8
Anna Fuchs, Eva Moehler, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
We investigated circadian mother-child adrenocortical attunement in the context of a maternal history of childhood abuse (HoA). Mothers were screened after birth using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Women reporting moderate or severe abuse formed the HoA group (n = 37; HoAG) and were compared with a non-maltreated comparison group (n = 45; CG). Three years later, cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal slope (DSL) were assessed. Mother-child interaction was coded using the Emotional Availability Scales at 12 months of age...
June 2, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562234/ethics-teaching-in-a-medical-education-environment-preferences-for-diversity-of-learning-and-assessment-methods
#9
Tahra AlMahmoud, M Jawad Hashim, Margaret Ann Elzubeir, Frank Branicki
BACKGROUND: Ethics and professionalism are an integral part of medical school curricula; however, medical students' views on these topics have not been assessed in many countries. OBJECTIVE:  The study aimed to examine medical students' perceptions toward ethics and professionalism teaching, and its learning and assessment methods. DESIGN: A self-administered questionnaire eliciting views on professionalism and ethics education was distributed to a total of 128 final-year medical students...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561883/the-more-the-better-behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-frequent-and-infrequent-vowel-exposure
#10
Sho Tsuji, Paula Fikkert, Yasuyo Minagawa, Emmanuel Dupoux, Luca Filippin, Maarten Versteegh, Peter Hagoort, Alejandrina Cristia
A central assumption in the perceptual attunement literature holds that exposure to a speech sound contrast leads to improvement in native speech sound processing. However, whether the amount of exposure matters for this process has not been put to a direct test. We elucidated indicators of frequency-dependent perceptual attunement by comparing 5-8-month-old Dutch infants' discrimination of tokens containing a highly frequent [hɪt-he:t] and a highly infrequent [hʏt-hø:t] native vowel contrast as well as a non-native [hɛt-haet] vowel contrast in a behavioral visual habituation paradigm (Experiment 1)...
May 31, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554785/mind-mindedness-of-male-and-female-caregivers-in-childcare-and-the-relation-to-sensitivity-and-attachment-an-exploratory-study
#11
Cristina Colonnesi, Marleen van Polanen, Louis W C Tavecchio, Ruben G Fukkink
Mind-mindedness refers to the caregiver's ability to be attuned to the child's mental states. Within the parent-child relationship, mind-mindedness relates to parents' sensitive caregiving, and to children's secure attachment. However, the same relations are still unexplored in out-of-home care settings. We investigated the associations between childcare professionals' mind-mindedness, sensitive responsiveness and respect for autonomy, and child-caregiver attachment security. Moreover, we examined whether these relations are influenced by caregivers' and children's gender...
August 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545629/moral-vindications
#12
Victor Kumar
Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530041/hiv-healthcare-transition-outcomes-among-youth-in-north-america-and-europe-a-review
#13
Vicki Tepper, Stefanie Zaner, Patrick Ryscavage
INTRODUCTION: The transition from paediatric to adult care poses risks to the health of young adults living with HIV if unsuccessful, including interruptions in care and poor health outcomes. Evolving best practices in HIV healthcare transition should ideally be informed by real-world qualitative and quantitative clinical healthcare transition outcomes. There has been a recent proliferation of HIV healthcare transition outcome research, largely from Europe and North America. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken using the online databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525641/erp-correlates-of-motivating-voices-quality-of-motivation-and-time-course-matters
#14
Konstantina Zougkou, Netta Weinstein, Silke Paulmann
Here, we conducted the first study to explore how motivations expressed through speech are processed in real-time. Participants listened to sentences spoken in two types of well-studied motivational tones (autonomy-supportive and controlling), or a neutral tone of voice. To examine this, listeners were presented with sentences that either signaled motivations through prosody (tone of voice) and words simultaneously (e.g., "You absolutely have to do it my way" spoken in a controlling tone of voice), or lacked motivationally biasing words (e...
May 19, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513182/-it-just-opens-up-their-world-autism-empathy-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-equine-interactions
#15
Roslyn Malcolm, Stefan Ecks, Martyn Pickersgill
Experiences of autism-spectrum disorder are now increasingly studied by social scientists. Human-animal relations have also become a major focus of social inquiry in recent years. Examining horse-assisted therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, this is the first paper that brings these fields together. Drawing on participant observation and interviews at a UK horse therapy Centre, this article examines how staff and the parents of riders account for the successes and limitations of equine therapy. To the respondents, horses 'open up' autistic children and make possible interactions that seemed impossible before...
May 17, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499139/a-novel-form-of-perceptual-attunement-context-dependent-perception-of-a-native-contrast-in-14-month-old-infants
#16
Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494167/-my-whole-life-is-ethics-ordinary-ethics-and-gene-therapy-clinical-trials
#17
Courtney Addison, Jesper Lassen
What and where is ethics in gene therapy? Historical debates have identified a set of ethical issues with the field, and current regulatory systems presume a discrete ethics that can be achieved or protected. Resisting attempts at demarcation or resolution, we use the notions of "ordinary" or "everyday" ethics to develop a better understanding of the complexities of experimental gene therapy for patients, families, and practitioners and create richer imaginings of ethics in the gene therapy sphere. Drawing on ethnographic research in several clinical trials, we show that patients/parents can acquire some control in difficult medical situations, and practitioners can attune their care to their patients' needs...
May 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475337/structure-dynamics-relation-in-physically-plausible-multi-chromophore-systems
#18
George C Knee, Patrick Rowe, Luke D Smith, Alessandro Troisi, Animesh Datta
We study a large number of physically-plausible arrangements of chromophores, generated via a computational method involving stochastic real-space transformations of a naturally-occurring "reference" structure, illustrating our methodology using the well-studied Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex (FMO). To explore the idea that the natural structure has been tuned for efficient energy transport, we use an atomic transition charge method to calculate the excitonic couplings of each generated structure and a Lindblad master equation to study the quantum transport of an exciton from a "source" to a "drain" chromophore...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474420/eating-disorder-related-social-comparison-in-college-women-s-everyday-lives
#19
Ellen E Fitzsimmons-Craft
OBJECTIVE: This study examined: frequency of upward and downward body, eating, and exercise comparisons; context in which these comparisons occur; and body, eating, and exercise comparison direction as predictors of concurrent body dissatisfaction and disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors in college women's everyday lives using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHOD: Participants were 232 college women who completed a two-week EMA protocol, using their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447471/how-does-video-interaction-guidance-contribute-to-infant-and-parental-mental-health-and-well-being
#20
Hilary Kennedy, Kevin Ball, Jane Barlow
This article describes the contribution of video interaction guidance (VIG) to the development of infant and parental and VIG practitioners' mental health and well-being. The theoretical core of VIG was depicted in terms of concepts such as intersubjectivity, attunement and mediated learning. The way the VIG principles alongside the underpinning values and beliefs promote a process of attunement between parent and infant, the VIG practitioner and parent, and the VIG practitioner and supervisor is described...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
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