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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101905/mapping-the-road-from-childhood-adversity-to-personality-disorder-the-role-of-unresolved-states-of-mind
#1
Antonella Cirasola, Saul Hillman, Peter Fonagy, Marco Chiesa
Childhood adversity has been found to be an important aetiological factor in the development of personality disorder (PD) in several studies. However, the role of disorganized attachment with unresolved mental states for traumatic experiences requires further investigation. This study explores the relationship between childhood adversities, unresolved states of mind, PD diagnosis and psychiatric distress. Two hundred forty-five adult participants, 124 from a clinical PD group and 121 non-psychiatric controls were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Cassel Baseline Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Adult Attachment Interview, in order to ascertain presence of PD, childhood adversity, level of psychiatric distress and unresolved states of mind...
January 19, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096361/thermal-driven-domain-and-cargo-transport-in-lipid-membranes
#2
Emma L Talbot, Lucia Parolini, Jurij Kotar, Lorenzo Di Michele, Pietro Cicuta
Domain migration is observed on the surface of ternary giant unilamellar vesicles held in a temperature gradient in conditions where they exhibit coexistence of two liquid phases. The migration localizes domains to the hot side of the vesicle, regardless of whether the domain is composed of the more ordered or disordered phase and regardless of the proximity to chamber boundaries. The distribution of domains is explored for domains that coarsen and for those held apart due to long-range repulsions. After considering several potential mechanisms for the migration, including the temperature preferences for each lipid, the favored curvature for each phase, and the thermophoretic flow around the vesicle, we show that observations are consistent with the general process of minimizing the system's line tension energy, because of the lowering of line interface energy closer to mixing...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#3
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
January 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093058/off-label-prescribing-of-psychotropic-medication-2005-2013-an-examination-of-potential-influences
#4
Peggy L O'Brien, Nicholas Cummings, Tami L Mark
OBJECTIVE: This study examined rates of psychotropic prescriptions for various on- and off-label uses in 2005 and 2013 in the context of changes in labeled indications. METHODS: The National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a survey of nationally representative office-based physicians that identifies the diagnosis attached to each prescription, was used to capture the number of psychiatric medications prescribed for a particular diagnosis in 2005 (N=4,120) and 2013 (N=4,140)...
January 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088199/strategies-to-reduce-the-stigma-toward-people-with-mental-disorders-in-iran-stakeholders-perspectives
#5
Arsia Taghva, Zahra Farsi, Yavar Javanmard, Afsaneh Atashi, Ahmad Hajebi, Ahmad Ali Noorbala
BACKGROUND: Stigma affects all aspects of mental disorders, and is the most important risk factor for promoting mental health. The aim of this study was to explore strategies effective in reducing the stigma toward people with mental disorders in Iran. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted from 2013 to 2016. All participants were recruited by purposive sampling method. The majority of them were stakeholders of mental health in Iran. Data were collected through eight individual interviews, two focus groups, and six written narratives...
January 14, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088057/a-systematic-review-of-adult-attachment-and-social-anxiety
#6
REVIEW
Ray P C Manning, Joanne M Dickson, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Alexandra Cunliffe, Peter J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Attachment has been implicated in the development of social anxiety. Our aim was to synthesise the extant literature exploring the role of adult attachment in these disorders. METHOD: Search terms relating to social anxiety and attachment were entered into MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using and adapted version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality assessment tool. Eligible studies employed validated social anxiety and attachment assessments in adult clinical and analogue samples...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072039/a-mother-s-borderline-personality-disorder-and-her-sensitivity-autonomy-support-hostility-fearful-disoriented-behavior-and-role-reversal-with-her-young-child
#7
Jenny Macfie, Gretchen Kurdziel, Rebecca M Mahan, Stephanie Kors
There is some evidence that maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) adversely affects parenting in infancy, resulting in disorganized attachment, which longitudinally predicts BPD symptoms in adulthood. We examined parenting related to disorganized attachment beyond infancy in offspring of mothers with BPD, when parenting becomes a goal-corrected partnership. We observed puzzle solving in a low socioeconomic status (SES) sample of mothers with BPD and their children ages 4-7, n = 36, and normative comparisons, n = 34...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068140/mental-strategies-as-mediators-of-the-link-between-attachment-and-ptsd
#8
Paulo Correia Ferrajão, Deborah Badoud, Rui Aragão Oliveira
The authors analyzed the relationship between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms through the mediation of the mental strategies organization, that is, behavioral and intrapsychic strategies used to cope with traumatic events and symptoms, among a sample of war veterans. Sample was composed of Portuguese war veterans (N = 60): 30 veterans suffered from chronic PTSD (nonrecovered) and 30 veterans had remission from PTSD (recovered). Assessment of mental strategies was retrieved from 1 interview assessed by 3 judges, and attachment patterns and PTSD symptoms were assessed through self-report measures...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067166/stem-cell-genetic-therapy-for-fanconi-anemia-a-new-hope
#9
Helmut Hanenberg, Katharina Roellecke, Constanze Wiek
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited DNA disorder clinically characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. Due to a strong survival advantage of spontaneously corrected 'normal' hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a few patients, FA is considered a model disorder for genetic correction of autologous stem cells, where genetically corrected stem cells and their progeny have a strong in vivo selective advantage, ultimately leading to normal hematopoiesis...
January 9, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060443/depression-impacts-the-physiological-responsiveness-of-mother-daughter-dyads-during-social-interaction
#10
Marlissa C Amole, Jill M Cyranowski, Aidan G C Wright, Holly A Swartz
BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother-child interactions-and never among mother-adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother-daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls)...
January 6, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060318/isolation-and-primary-culture-of-mouse-aortic-endothelial-cells
#11
Jie-Mei Wang, Alex F Chen, Kezhong Zhang
The vascular endothelium is essential to normal vascular homeostasis. Its dysfunction participates in various cardiovascular disorders. The mouse is an important model for cardiovascular disease research. This study demonstrates a simple method to isolate and culture endothelial cells from the mouse aorta without any special equipment. To isolate endothelial cells, the thoracic aorta is quickly removed from the mouse body, and the attached adipose tissue and connective tissue are removed from the aorta. The aorta is cut into 1 mm rings...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052452/oxytocin-response-to-youth-mother-interactions-in-clinically-anxious-youth-is-associated-with-separation-anxiety-and-dyadic-behavior
#12
Eli R Lebowitz, Wendy K Silverman, Alyssa M Martino, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common in youth and cause significant distress and impairment to the individual and family. Oxytocin (OT), a nine amino acid peptide, is implicated in anxiety regulation and modulation of close interpersonal and attachment behavior. Anxiety disorders have been linked to low levels of salivary OT in youth. Research has also linked oxytocinergic functioning to social support, warm contact, and bonding, and indicated that contact with attachment figures stimulates OT response...
January 3, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051195/risk-factors-for-developing-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-during-dairy-farming
#13
Sayed Mohammad Taghavi, Hamidreza Mokarami, Omran Ahmadi, Lorann Stallones, Asghar Abbaspour, Hossein Marioryad
BACKGROUND: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. OBJECTIVE: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050180/an-investigation-into-the-roles-of-theory-of-mind-emotion-regulation-and-attachment-styles-in-predicting-the-traits-of-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
Hamed Ghiasi, Abolalfazl Mohammadi, Pouria Zarrinfar
Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder. Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049888/influence-of-memantine-on-continuous-treatment-with-rivastigmine-patches-retrospective-study-using-the-logistic-regression-analysis
#15
Yuki Yasutaka, Shinsuke Fujioka, Mariko Terasawa, Hirotomo Shibaguchi, Koujiro Futagami, Shinji Ouma, Yoshio Tsuboi, Hidetoshi Kamimura
 Rivastigmine patches exhibit stable effects when attached once a day, and may reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient's or caregiver's burden. On the other hand, it was reported that adverse events, such as dermal disorder, frequently appeared after the start of rivastigmine administration. We retrospectively investigated medical records in 120 patients with moderate or mild AD in whom rivastigmine administration was started in the Department of Neurology, Fukuoka University Hospital between July 2011 and June 2014 (43 males, 77 females, mean age: 76...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#16
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026177/influence-of-anion-delocalization-on-electron-transfer-in-a-covalent-porphyrin-donor-perylenediimide-dimer-acceptor-system
#17
Patrick E Hartnett, Catherine M Mauck, Michelle A Harris, Ryan M Young, Yi-Lin Wu, Tobin J Marks, Michael R Wasielewski
Photodriven electron transfer from a donor excited state to an assembly of electronically coupled acceptors has been proposed to enhance charge transfer efficiency in functional organic electronic materials. However, the circumstances under which this may occur are difficult to investigate in a controlled manner in disordered donor-acceptor materials. Here we investigate the effects of anion delocalization on electron transfer using zinc meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) as a donor and a perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) dimer as the acceptor (PDI2)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024223/relationships-between-self-reported-childhood-traumatic-experiences-attachment-style-neuroticism-and-features-of-borderline-personality-disorders-in-patients-with-mood-disorders
#18
Ilya Baryshnikov, Grigori Joffe, Maaria Koivisto, Tarja Melartin, Kari Aaltonen, Kirsi Suominen, Tom Rosenström, Petri Näätänen, Boris Karpov, Martti Heikkinen, Erkki Isometsä
BACKGROUND: Co-occurring borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have a marked impact on treatment of patients with mood disorders. Overall, high neuroticism, childhood traumatic experiences (TEs) and insecure attachment are plausible aetiological factors for BPD. However, their relationship with BPD features specifically among patients with mood disorders remains unclear. We investigated these relationships among unipolar and bipolar mood disorder patients. METHODS: As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), the Short Five (S5) and the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) in psychiatric care...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012884/erythrocytes-properties-in-varicose-veins-patients
#19
L Gwozdzinski, A Pieniazek, J Bernasinska, M Grabowski, E Kowalczyk, K Gwozdzinski
Varicose veins (VV) are enlarged veins of the subcutaneous tissue, usually caused by faulty or damaged venous valves leading to impaired blood flow. Blood stasis, excessive clotting disorder and alterations in the vein walls are symptoms of Virchow's triad which may affect the morphotic elements of blood, including erythrocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in the properties of the erythrocytes taken from varicose veins in comparison to those from antecubital vein of patients with chronic venous disease...
December 21, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009255/translational-control-of-auditory-imprinting-and-structural-plasticity-by-eif2%C3%AE
#20
Gervasio Batista, Jennifer Leigh Johnson, Elena Dominguez, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Jose L Pena
The formation of imprinted memories during a critical period is crucial for vital behaviors, including filial attachment. Yet, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Using a combination of behavior, pharmacology, in vivo surface sensing of translation (SUnSET) and DiOlistic labeling we found that, translational control by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) bidirectionally regulates auditory but not visual imprinting and related changes in structural plasticity in chickens...
December 23, 2016: ELife
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