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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043534/male-produced-aggregation-pheromone-of-coffee-bean-weevil-araecerus-fasciculatus
#1
Shuai Yang, Xiao-Fang Zhang, Yu-Lin Gao, Dan Chen, Dong-Mei She, Tao Zhang, Jun Ning
The coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer, 1775), is a cosmopolitan stored-product pest, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Previous reports showed evidence for aggregation behavior of CBW and this study aimed to identify and evaluate the aggregation pheromone of this pest. Whole-body solvent extractions were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and comparison of male and female extracts showed a male-specific compound which was identified as squalene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017943/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-non-mineral-oil-adjuvanted-injectable-vaccine-for-the-protection-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-against-flavobacterium-psychrophilum
#2
R Hoare, S-J Jung, T P H Ngo, K Bartie, J Bailey, K D Thompson, A Adams
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome which has had a major impact on global salmonid aquaculture. Recent outbreaks in Atlantic salmon in Scotland and Chile have added to the need for a vaccine to protect both salmon and trout. At present no licensed vaccines are available in Europe, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to contain disease outbreaks. Outbreaks generally occur in fry at temperatures between 10 and 15 °C. Recently outbreaks in larger fish have given added impetus to the development of a vaccine which can provide long term protection from this highly heterogeneous pathogen...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990147/pandemrix%C3%A2-vaccination-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-islet-autoimmunity-or-type-1-diabetes-in-the-teddy-study-children
#3
Helena Elding Larsson, Kristian F Lynch, Maria Lönnrot, Michael J Haller, Åke Lernmark, William A Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Olli Simell, Jorma Toppari, Anette-G Ziegler, Beena Akolkar, Jeffrey P Krischer, Marian J Rewers, Heikki Hyöty
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: During the A/H1N1 2009 (A/California/04/2009) pandemic, mass vaccination with a squalene-containing vaccine, Pandemrix®, was performed in Sweden and Finland. The vaccination was found to cause narcolepsy in children and young adults with the HLA-DQ 6.2 haplotype. The aim of this study was to investigate if exposure to Pandemrix® similarly increased the risk of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, children are followed prospectively for the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes...
October 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987554/genetic-transformation-of-the-white-rot-fungus-dichomitus-squalens-using-a-new-commercial-protoplasting-cocktail
#4
Paul Daly, Gillian G Slaghek, Sara Casado López, Ad Wiebenga, Kristiina S Hilden, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä
D. squalens, a white-rot fungus that efficiently degrades lignocellulose in nature, can be used in various biotechnological applications and has several strains with sequenced and annotated genomes. Here we present a method for the transformation of this basidiomycete fungus, using a recently introduced commercial ascomycete protoplasting enzyme cocktail, Protoplast F. In protoplasting of D. squalens mycelia, Protoplast F outperformed two other cocktails while releasing similar amounts of protoplasts to a third cocktail...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974793/extraction-and-identification-of-bioactive-components-in-sida-cordata-burm-f-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#5
Mani Ganesh, Murugan Mohankumar
Sida cordata (Burm.f.) is a pineal tropical plant in the family Malvaceae that is found throughout India and used to treat various diseases and ailments in many complementary and alternative medicine systems. This study identified the bioactive components present in whole-plant ethanol extracts of S. cordata using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on their retention times (RT) and mass-to-charge ratios (m/z), 29 bioactive compounds were identified: nonanoic acid, vitamin D3, 3-trifluroacetoxypentadecane, α-d-glucopyranoside, O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972164/a-conserved-degron-containing-an-amphipathic-helix-regulates-the-cholesterol-mediated-turnover-of-human-squalene-monooxygenase-a-rate-limiting-enzyme-in-cholesterol-synthesis
#6
Ngee Kiat Chua, Vicky Howe, Nidhi Jatana, Lipi Thukral, Andrew J Brown
Cholesterol biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)1 is tightly controlled by multiple mechanisms to regulate cellular cholesterol levels. Squalene monooxygenase (SM) is the second rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis and is regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. SM undergoes cholesterol-dependent proteasomal degradation when cholesterol is in excess. The first 100 amino acids of SM (designated SM N100) are necessary for this degradative process, and represents the shortest cholesterol-regulated degron identified to date...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951603/synthetic-studies-of-viridiofungins-broad-spectrum-antifungal-agents-and-serine-palmitoyl-transferase-inhibitors
#7
REVIEW
Naoya Kumagai, Masakatsu Shibasaki
Viridiofungins are alkyl citrate natural products characterized by their inhibitory effects on squalene synthase and serine palmitoyl transferase. Their activities as broad-spectrum antifungal agents as well as blocking agents for the biosynthesis of sphingolipids have inspired the development of several approaches toward their stereoselective total synthesis. Structurally, these natural products are a family of hybrid molecules comprising a longer alkyl chain and a citric acid unit, rendering an asymmetric structure that is difficult to access...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951169/attenuation-of-antimicrobial-activity-by-the-human-steroid-hormones
#8
Balbina J Plotkin, Monika I Konakieva
Upon entering the human host, Staphylococcus aureus is exposed to endogenous steroid hormones. The interaction between S. aureus and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) results in an increased resistance to the host cationic defense peptide, β-1 defensin, as well as vancomycin and other antibiotics that have a positive charge. The increased resistance to vancomycin is phenotypic and appears to correlate with a DHEA-mediated alteration in cell surface architecture. DHEA-mediated cell surface changes include alterations in: cell surface charge, surface hydrophobicity, capsule production, and carotenoid production...
September 23, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932455/pseudosymmetry-and-high-z-structures-the-case-of-rac-2r-2-r-5-s-2-methyl-5-1r-2r-5s-5-s-1-4-4-5-tetra-methyl-dihydro-3-h-3-8-dioxa-spiro-bi-cyclo-3-2-1-octane-2-2-furan-5-yl-3-4-1-2-3-4-hexa-hydro-2-2-bi-furan-5-2h-one
#9
Vincenzo Piccialli, Angela Tuzi, Roberto Centore
The title compound, C22H34O6, is one of the products obtained by oxidation of squalene with the catalytic system RuO4(cat.)/NaIO4. It crystallizes in the P-1 space group, with four crystallographically independent mol-ecules related by a pseudo-C2 symmetry axis. The structural analysis also shows that the title compound is isomeric with two products previously reported in the literature and that are obtained by the same reaction procedure. In particular, out of the seven chiral C atoms present in the mol-ecule, the title compound shows the opposite configuration at, respectively, four and two chiral centres with respect to the isomeric compounds...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926063/methylglyoxal-attenuates-insulin-signaling-and-downregulates-the-enzymes-involved-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#10
Arati B Deshmukh, Shakuntala Bai, Aarthy T, Rubina S Kazi, Reema Banarjee, Rajeshwari Rathore, Vijayakumar Mv, Thulasiram Hv, Manoj Kumar Bhat, Kulkarni Mj
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921701/an-exception-among-diatoms-unique-organization-of-genes-involved-in-isoprenoid-biosynthesis-in-rhizosolenia-setigera-ccmp-1694
#11
Victor Marco Emmanuel N Ferriols, Ryoko Yaginuma-Suzuki, Kazunari Fukunaga, Takashi Kadono, Masao Adachi, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The marine diatom Rhizosolenia setigera is unique among this group of microalgae given that it is one of only a handful of diatom species that can produce highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) hydrocarbons. In our efforts to determine distinguishing molecular characteristics in R. setigera CCMP 1694 that could help elucidate the underlying mechanisms for its ability to biosynthesize HBIs, we discovered the occurrence of independent genes encoding for two isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases (RsIDI1 and RsIDI2) and one squalene synthase (RsSQS), enzymes that catalyze non-consecutive steps in isoprenoid biosynthesis...
September 15, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912082/mapk-signalling-pathway-in-cancers-olive-products-as-cancer-preventive-and-therapeutic-agents
#12
REVIEW
Ilaria Peluso, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Roberto Ambra, Gianni Pastore, George Perry
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are fundamental in inflammation and cancer control, through the crosstalk between the redox regulated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-kB (NFκB) gene expression. MAPKs regulate various cellular activities involved in cancer progression, including proliferation, apoptosis and immune escape and blockade of upstream kinases is a current therapeutic strategy. However, these therapies are associated with some adverse effects and with the paradoxical activation of the MAPKs pathway...
September 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912070/recombinant-influenza-h7-hemagglutinin-containing-cfllc-minidomain-in-the-transmembrane-domain-showed-enhanced-cross-protection-in-mice
#13
Yang Wang, Yun Zhang, Jialing Wu, Ying Lin, Zhihui Wu, Ying Wei, Xiaona Wei, Jianru Qin, Chunyi Xue, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao
Since February 2013, H7N9 influenza virus, causing human infections with high mortality in China, has been a potential pandemic threat. The H7N9 viruses are found to diverge into distinct genotypes as other influenza viruses; thus a vaccine that can provide sufficient cross-protection against different genotypes of H7N9 viruses is urgently needed. Our previous studies demonstrated that the HA-based structural design approach by introducing a CFLLC minidomain into transmembrane domain (TM) of H1, H5 or H9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins by replacing with H3 subtype HA TM could enhance their cross-protection...
September 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910707/spectral-phasor-analysis-reveals-altered-membrane-order-and-function-of-root-hair-cells-in-arabidopsis-dry2-sqe1-5-drought-hypersensitive-mutant
#14
Florencia Sena, Mariana Sotelo-Silveira, Soledad Astrada, Miguel A Botella, Leonel Malacrida, Omar Borsani
Biological membranes allow the regulation of numerous cellular processes, which are affected when unfavorable environmental factors are perceived. Lipids and proteins are the principal components of biological membranes. Each lipid has unique biophysical properties, and, therefore the lipid composition of the membrane is critical to maintaining the bilayer structure and functionality. Membrane composition and integrity are becoming the focus of studies aiming to understand how plants adapt to its environment...
August 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901277/repositioning-of-tak-475-in-mevalonate-kinase-disease-translating-theory-into-practice
#15
Annalisa Marcuzzi, Claudia Loganes, Claudio Celeghini, Giulio Kleiner
Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD, OMIM #610377) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic and inflammatory disease. In MKD, defective function of the enzyme mevalonate kinase (MK), due to a mutation in the MVK gene, leads to the shortage of mevalonate-derived intermediates, which results in unbalanced prenylation of proteins and altered metabolism of sterols. These defects lead to a complex multisystem inflammatory and metabolic syndrome. Although biologic therapies aimed at blocking the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) can significantly reduce inflammation, they cannot completely control the clinical symptoms that affects the nervous system...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898524/enzymatic-addition-of-alcohols-to-terpenes-by-squalene-hopene-cyclase-variants
#16
Lisa C Kühnel, Bettina M Nestl, Bernhard Hauer
Squalene-hopene cyclases (SHCs) catalyze the polycyclization of squalene into a mixture of hopene and hopanol. Recently, amino-acid residues lining the catalytic cavity of the SHC from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius were replaced by small and large hydrophobic amino acids. The alteration of leucine 607 to phenylalanine resulted in increased enzymatic activity towards the formation of an intermolecular farnesyl-farnesyl ether product from farnesol. Furthermore, the addition of small-chain alcohols acting as nucleophiles led to the formation of non-natural ether-linked terpenoids and, thus, to significant alteration of the product pattern relative to that obtained with the wild type...
September 12, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892563/sensory-evaluation-and-chemical-analysis-of-exhaled-and-dermally-emitted-bioeffluents
#17
Sayana Tsushima, Pawel Wargocki, Shin-Ichi Tanabe
Conditions in which exhaled and dermally-emitted bioeffluents could be sampled separately or together (whole-body emission) were created. Five lightly-dressed males exhaled the air through a mask to another, identical chamber or without a mask to the chamber in which they were sitting; the outdoor air supply rate was the same in both chambers. The carbon dioxide concentration in the chamber with exhaled air was 2,000 ppm. Chamber temperatures were 23°C or 28°C and ozone was present or absent in the supply airflow...
September 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888597/mechanisms-linking-metabolic-stress-with-innate-immunity-in-the-endometrium
#18
I Martin Sheldon, James G Cronin, Mateusz Pospiech, Matthew L Turner
Bacterial infections of the uterus after parturition are ubiquitous in dairy cattle and often cause uterine disease, such as metritis or endometritis. However, the metabolic stress associated with milk production increases the risk of developing disease. Resolution of bacterial infections requires rapid and robust innate immune responses, which depend on host cell receptors recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria. Here, we argue that metabolic stress impairs the inflammatory response to pathogens...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881416/improved-fruit-%C3%AE-tocopherol-carotenoid-squalene-and-phytosterol-content-through-manipulation-of-brassica-juncea-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase1-in-transgenic-tomato
#19
Pan Liao, Xinjian Chen, Mingfu Wang, Thomas J Bach, Mee-Len Chye
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS) in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway generates isoprenoids including phytosterols. Dietary phytosterols are important because they can lower blood cholesterol levels. Previously, the overexpression of Brassica juncea wild-type (wt) and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis and increased sterol content. Recombinant S359A had earlier displayed a 10-fold higher in vitro enzyme activity. Furthermore, tobacco HMGS-overexpressors (OEs) exhibited improved sterol content, plant growth and seed yield...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881085/analysis-of-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-bifunctional-triterpene-sesquarterpene-cyclase-tyr167-functions-to-terminate-cyclization-of-squalene-at-the-bicyclic-step
#20
Liudmila Tenkovskaia, Mizuki Murakami, Kotone Okuno, Daijiro Ueda, Tsutomu Sato
Onoceroids are a group of triterpenes biosynthesized from squalene or dioxidosqualene by cyclization from both termini. We previously identified a bifunctional triterpene/sesquarterpene cyclase (TC) that constructs a tetracyclic scaffold from tetraprenyl-β-curcumene (C35 ) but a bicyclic scaffold from squalene (C30 ) in the first reaction. TC also accepts the bicyclic intermediate as a substrate and generates tetracyclic and pentacyclic onoceroids in the second reaction. In this study, we analyzed the catalytic mechanism of an onoceroid synthase by using mutated enzymes...
September 7, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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