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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228587/prophylactic-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-stable-emulsion-and-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-induce-a-robust-hsv-2-specific-cell-mediated-immune-response-protect-against-symptomatic-disease-and-reduce-the-latent-viral-reservoir
#1
Michael T Hensel, Jason D Marshall, Michael R Dorwart, Darren S Heeke, Eileen Rao, Padmaja Tummala, Li Yu, Gary H Cohen, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Derek D Sloan
Several prophylactic vaccines targeting HSV-2 have failed in the clinic to demonstrate a sustained depression in viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies, their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) targets gD and gB, the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this to a whole-inactivated virus vaccine (FI-HSV-2)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223871/new-acyclic-secondary-metabolites-from-the-biologically-active-fraction-of-albizia-lebbeck-flowers
#2
Shaza M Al-Massarani, Ali A El Gamal, Mohamed F Abd El Halim, Mansour S Al-Said, Maged S Abdel-Kader, Omer A Basudan, Saleh I Alqasoumi
The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid-liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n-butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n-hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl3 fraction...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205176/determining-the-topology-of-membrane-bound-proteins-using-pegylation
#3
Vicky Howe, Andrew J Brown
Biochemical methods can help elucidate the membrane topology of hydrophobic membrane proteins where X-ray crystallography is difficult or impractical, providing important structural data. Here, we describe the method of PEGylation, which uses a cysteine-reactive molecule, maleimide polyethylene glycol (mPEG), to determine the cytosolic accessibility of introduced cysteine residues. This accessibility is visualized using Western blotting to detect a band shift that indicates cysteine labeling by mPEG. Using scanning cysteine mutagenesis, followed by PEGylation, one can map the accessibility of the introduced cysteines, hence inferring the membrane topology of the protein...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202377/characterization-of-a-new-fungal-immunomodulatory-protein-fip-dsq2-from-dichomitus-squalens
#4
Shuying Li, Zhonghao Jiang, Lichao Sun, Xin Liu, Ying Huang, Fengzhong Wang, Fengjiao Xin
FIP-dsq2, a new immunomodulatory protein, was identified in Basidiomycota Dichomitus squalens by gene mining. FIP-dsq2 contained 111 amino acids with a molecular weight of 12.51kDa. FIP-dsq2 had a homology range of 51-65% to the reported FIPs. The predicted 3-dimensional model had more similar identical folding patterns in LZ-8 than for FIP-fve. Evolutionary analysis indicated substantial phylogenetic differences were existed with the other FIPs. Overexpression of a 14.07kDa soluble recombinant FIP-dsq2 (rFIP-dsq2) was achieved in Rosetta (pGEX-6P-1) and the purified recombinant protein was homodimer verified by gel filtration chromatography analysis...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197609/computational-studies-on-the-cyclization-of-squalene-to-the-steroids-and-hopenes
#5
REVIEW
B Andes Hess
A review of computational studies of the related biosyntheses of steroids and hopenes reported during the last two decades is presented. Computations in the gas phase and those that include the enzyme are covered. Based on the numerical results conclusions have been drawn about the biosynthetic mechansims of these all important biological reactions.
February 15, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190805/mass-spectrometric-discrimination-of-squalene-monohydroperoxide-isomers
#6
Naoki Shimizu, Hannah Bersabe, Junya Ito, Shunji Kato, Ryo Towada, Takahiro Eitsuka, Shigefumi Kuwahara, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa
Squalene (SQ), a main component of human sebum, is readily photooxidized by exposure to sunlight, producing six squalene monohydroperoxide (SQ-OOH) isomers. Despite its known connection to various skin conditions, few studies have sought to analyze SQ-OOH at the isomeric level. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to discriminate each SQ-OOH isomer with the use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The six standard SQ-OOH isomers were prepared by photooxidizing SQ in the presence of rose bengal, a photosensitizer, and isolated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185662/alphab-crystallin-expression-correlates-with-aging-deficits-in-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#7
Erin-Mai F Lim, Alim Musa, Ariana Frederick, Shalina S Ousman
In an effort to identify factors that contribute to age-related deficits in the undamaged and injured peripheral nervous system (PNS), we noted that Brady and colleagues found that mice null for a small heat shock protein called alphaB-crystallin (αBC) developed abnormalities early in life that are reminiscent of aging pathologies. Because of our observation that αBC protein levels markedly reduce as wild-type mice age, we investigated whether the crystallin plays a role in modulating age-related deficits in the uninjured and damaged PNS...
January 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167238/serum-from-postmenopausal-women-treated-with-a-by-product-of-olive-oil-extraction-process-stimulates-osteoblastogenesis-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-msc
#8
Antonio Casado-Díaz, Isaac Túnez-Fiñana, José María Mata-Granados, María Victoria Ruiz-Méndez, Gabriel Dorado, María Concepción Romero-Sánchez, Cristina Navarro-Valverde, José Manuel Quesada-Gómez
Aging may enhance both oxidative stress and bone-marrow mesenchymal stem-cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes. That reduces osteoblastogenesis, thus favoring bone-mass loss and fracture, representing an important worldwide health-issue, mainly in countries with aging populations. Intake of antioxidant products may help to retain bone-mass density. Interestingly, a novel olive-pomace physical treatment to generate olive oil also yields by-products rich in functional antioxidants. Thus, diet of postmenopausal women was supplemented for two months with one of such by-products (distillate 6; D6), being rich in squalene...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165181/total-synthesis-of-the-cytotoxic-marine-triterpenoid-isodehydrothyrsiferol-reveals-partial-enantiodivergency-in-the-thyrsiferol-family-of-natural-products
#9
Akihiro Hoshino, Haruka Nakai, Miyako Morino, Keisuke Nishikawa, Takeshi Kodama, Kento Nishikibe, Yoshiki Morimoto
Recently, the phenomenon of enantiodivergence was uncovered as a new phenomenon in the biosynthesis of natural products. In nature, chiral natural products are usually produced in optically active form, but both enantiomers sometimes arise in different genera and/or species or in a single species. Here we show through enantioselective total synthesis that the natural product isodehydrothyrsiferol shows partial enantiodivergency in that six of the nine or ten asymmetric centers are enantiomeric to those of other members of the marine squalene-derived triterpenoid thyrsiferol family...
February 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161815/next-generation-sequencing-of-representational-difference-analysis-products-for-identification-of-genes-involved-in-diosgenin-biosynthesis-in-fenugreek-trigonella-foenum-graecum
#10
Joanna Ciura, Magdalena Szeliga, Michalina Grzesik, Mirosław Tyrka
Representational difference analysis of cDNA was performed and differential products were sequenced and annotated. Candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of diosgenin in fenugreek were identified. Detailed mechanism of diosgenin synthesis was proposed. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a valuable medicinal and crop plant. It belongs to Fabaceae family and has a unique potential to synthesize valuable steroidal saponins, e.g., diosgenin. Elicitation (methyl jasmonate) and precursor feeding (cholesterol and squalene) were used to enhance the content of sterols and steroidal sapogenins in in vitro grown plants for representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA)...
February 4, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157221/microbial-modulation-of-bacoside-a-biosynthetic-pathway-and-systemic-defense-mechanism-in-bacopa-monnieri-under-meloidogyne-incognita-stress
#11
Rupali Gupta, Akanksha Singh, Madhumita Srivastava, Vivek Singh, M M Gupta, Rakesh Pandey
Plant-associated beneficial microbes have been explored to fulfill the imperative function for plant health. However, their impact on the host secondary metabolite production and nematode disease management remains elusive. Our present work has shown that chitinolytic microbes viz., Chitiniphilus sp. MTN22 and Streptomyces sp. MTN14 singly as well as in combination modulated the biosynthetic pathway of bacoside A and systemic defense mechanism against Meloidogyne incognita in Bacopa monnieri. Interestingly, expression of bacoside biosynthetic pathway genes (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, and squalene synthase) were upregulated in plants treated with the microbial combination in the presence as well as in absence of M...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152319/evaluation-of-plasma-oxidative-stress-with-or-without-antioxidant-supplementation-in-superficial-partial-thickness-burn-patients-a-pilot-study
#12
Edoardo Raposio, Michele P Grieco, Edoardo Caleffi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the main causes of pathophysiological alterations observed during burn injury. The present pilot study aimed to determine whether a specific oral antioxidant supplementation could in any way influence free radical blood values in patients affected by superficial partial thickness burns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma oxidants and plasma antioxidant capacity were analysed in 20 superficial partial thickness burn patients for a 2-week period; patients were randomly divided into two groups, one of which was supported with a specifically designed oral antioxidant formula (Squalene 100 mg, Vitamin C 30 mg, Coenzyme Q10 10 mg, Zinc 5 mg, Beta Carotene 3...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115898/optimization-of-pumpkin-oil-recovery-by-using-aqueous-enzymatic-extraction-and-comparison-of-the-quality-of-the-obtained-oil-with-the-quality-of-cold-pressed-oil
#13
Iwona Konopka, Beata Roszkowska, Sylwester Czaplicki, Małgorzata Tańska
The study was carried out to optimize pumpkin oil recovery in the process of aqueous extraction preceded by enzymatic maceration of seeds, as well as to compare the quality of the obtained oil to the quality of cold-pressed pumpkin seed oil. Hydrated pulp of hulless pumpkin seeds was macerated using a 2% (by mass) cocktail of commercial pectinolytic, cellulolytic and proteolytic preparations (Rohapect(®) UF, Rohament(®) CL and Colorase(®) 7089). The optimization procedure utilized response surface methodology based on Box- -Behnken plan of experiment...
December 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092952/total-synthesis-of-zaragozic-acid-c-implementation-of-photochemical-c-sp-3-h-acylation
#14
Takahiro Kawamata, Masanori Nagatomo, Masayuki Inoue
Zaragozic acid C (1) was isolated as a potent squalene synthase inhibitor. The 2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core of 1 is decorated with the three hydroxycarbonyl (C3,4,5), two hydroxy (C4,7), one acyloxy (C6), and one alkyl (C1) groups. Installation of the contiguous C4- and C5-fully substituted carbons presents a formidable synthetic challenge. Our approach to address this problem used a two-step photochemical C(sp(3))-H acylation. Persilylated d-gluconolactone 4 was derivatized into 3 with the 1,2-diketone moiety at the C5-tetrasubstituted center...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087213/cholesterolomics-an-update
#15
William J Griffiths, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Eylan Yutuc, Alwena H Morgan, Ian Gilmore, Thomas Hearn, Yuqin Wang
Cholesterolomics can be regarded as the identification and quantification of cholesterol, its precursors post squalene, and metabolites of cholesterol and of its precursors, in a biological sample. These molecules include 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, steroid hormones and bile acids and intermediates in their respective biosynthetic pathways. In this short article we will concentrate our attention on intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis pathways, in particular oxysterols and cholestenoic acids. These molecular classes are implicated in the aetiology of a diverse array of diseases including autoimmune disease, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease, breast cancer, the lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick type C and the autosomal recessive disorder Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome...
January 10, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073802/assemblage-composition-of-fungal-wood-decay-species-has-major-influence-on-how-climate-and-wood-quality-modify-decomposition
#16
Parvathy Venugopal, Kaisa Junninen, Mattias Edman, Jari Kouki
The interactions among saprotrophic fungal species, as well as their interactions with environmental factors, may have a major influence on wood decay and carbon release in ecosystems. We studied the effects that decomposer diversity (species richness and assemblage composition) have on wood decomposition when the climatic variables and substrate quality vary simultaneously. We used two temperature (16 and 21(°)C) and two humidity (70% and 90%) levels at two wood qualities (wood from managed and old-growth forests) of Pinus sylvestris In a nine-month experiment, the effects of fungal diversity were tested using four wood-decaying fungi (Antrodia xantha, Dichomitus squalens, Fomitopsis pinicola and Gloeophyllum protractum) at assemblage levels one, two and four species...
January 10, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069586/sqle-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-regulating-of-mir-133b-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Yi Qin, Yi Zhang, Qinting Tang, Li Jin, Yong'an Chen
Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs, which control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are aberrantly expressed in cancers and play significant roles in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, we show differential miR-133b down-expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells and tissues. In addition, squalene epoxidase (SQLE), a key enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, is identified as the direct downstream target gene of miR-133b by luciferase gene reporter assay...
January 9, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069222/ultrasound-assisted-extraction-of-bioactive-compounds-from-palm-pressed-fiber-with-high-antioxidant-and-photoprotective-activities
#18
Valéria Dal Prá, Felipe C Lunelli, Raquel Guidetti Vendruscolo, Rafael Martins, Roger Wagner, Ayres P Lazzaretti, Denise M Guimarães Freire, Maria Alexandri, Apostolis Koutinas, Marcio A Mazutti, Marcelo Barcellos da Rosa
This work is focused on the optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds with photoprotective effect from palm pressed fiber. The influence of ultrasound intensity and pulse cycle was investigated by means of a central composite rotational design. The optimized condition was ultrasound intensity of 120W.cm(-2) and pulse factor of 0.4, yielding 3.24wt%. Compounds such as fatty acids, β-sitosterol, α-tocopherol, squalene, total phenolics and carotene were identified. The extract presented antioxidant activity towards synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl - DPPH, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) - ABTS) and biological radicals (Hydroxyl - OH), besides a sun protection factor of 15...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035114/an-in-vitro-study-of-antileishmanial-effect-of-portulaca-oleracea-extract
#19
Elham Gharirvand Eskandari, Monir Doudi, Saeid Abedi
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoa of Leishmania genus and is considered as a zoonotic disease. It is a major public health problem worldwide, with high endemicity in developing countries like Iran. Various chemical drugs are used for leishmaniasis treatment, but their side-effects and the emergence of drug resistance have led to look for new effective compounds. The aim of this study was to introduce purslane (Portulaca oleracea) as a traditional and medicinal herb which might act as a valuable source for designing new pharmaceutical drug/lead against Leishmania sp...
October 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028889/the-molecular-response-of-the-white-rot-fungus-dichomitus-squalens-to-wood-and-non-woody-biomass-as-examined-by-transcriptome-and-exoproteome-analyses
#20
Johanna Rytioja, Kristiina Hildén, Marcos Di Falco, Miaomiao Zhou, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Adrian Tsang, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä
The ability to obtain carbon and energy is a major requirement to exist in any environment. For several ascomycete fungi (post-)genomic analyses have shown that species that occupy a large variety of habitats possess a diverse enzymatic machinery, while species with a specific habitat have a more focused enzyme repertoire that is well-adapted to the prevailing substrate. White-rot basidiomycete fungi also live in a specific habitat, as they are found exclusively in wood. In this study, we evaluated how well the enzymatic machinery of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is tailored to degrade its natural wood substrate...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
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