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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822179/-research-of-genes-expression-related-to-ginsenosides-biosynthesis-by-methyl-jasmonic-acid-in-ginseng-hair-roots
#1
Kang-Yu Wang, Li-Li Yu, Mei-Ping Zhang, Rui Yin, Yan-Ping Lin, Ming-Zhu Zhao, Chun-Yu Sun, Yi Wang
In order to obtain the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway related enzyme gene in ginseng hairy root under the control of elicitors, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was added exogenously as elicitors. Ginseng hairy root clones induced by 4-year-old ginseng root was used as material, total saponin content in ginseng hairy root before and after MeJA treatment was determined by vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetry, Meanwhile, relative expression of squalene synthase genes, squalene epoxidase genes, oxidized squalene cyclase genes, dammarenediol synthase genes, β-amyrin synthase genes, cycloartenol synthase genes before and after MeJA treatment were determined by Real-time PCR...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818427/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-nadph-dependent-cytochrome-p450-reductase-from-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-b-race
#2
Chung-Yau Tsou, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The green microalga Botryococcus braunii of the B race accumulates various lipophilic compounds containing a 10,11-oxidosqualene epoxide moiety in addition to large amounts of triterpene hydrocarbons. While 2,3-squalene epoxidases have already been isolated and characterized from the alga, the enzyme that catalyzes the 10,11-epoxidation of squalene has remained elusive. In order to obtain a molecular tool to explore a 10,11-squalene epoxidase, cDNA cloning of an NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that is required by both squalene epoxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes was carried out...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813599/tetraterpene-synthase-substrate-and-product-specificity-in-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-race-l
#3
Hem Raj Thapa, Su Tang, James C Sacchettini, Timothy P Devarenne
Recently, the biosynthetic pathway for lycopadiene, a C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon, was deciphered from the L race of Botryococcus braunii, an alga that produces hydrocarbon oils capable of being converted into combustible fuels. The lycopadiene pathway is initiated by the squalene synthase (SS)-like enzyme lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS), which catalyzes the head-to-head condensation of two C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) molecules to produce C40 lycopaoctaene. LOS shows unusual substrate promiscuity for SS or SS-like enzymes by utilizing C15 farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and C20 phytyl diphosphate in addition to GGPP as substrates...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795620/novel-squalene-producing-thraustochytrids-found-in-mangrove-water
#4
Masato Otagiri, Ammara Khalid, Shigeharu Moriya, Hiroyuki Osada, Shunji Takahashi
On extended screening of squalene-producing strains in Okinawa mangrove water, we identified 14 novel squalene-producing thraustochytrids from 172 unialgal clonal isolates. The novel thraustochytrids produced 13.9-7.54 mg squalene/g dry cell weight. Eight isolates were found to belong to potentially novel squalene-producing genera, forming a monophyletic cluster independent from any known thraustochytrids.
August 10, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793800/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidative-effects-of-camellia-oleifera-abel-components
#5
Xiaomei Xiao, Liangmei He, Yayun Chen, Longhuo Wu, Lin Wang, Zhiping Liu
Camellia oleifera Abel is a member of Camellia, and its seeds are used to extract Camellia oil, which is generally used as cooking oil in the south of China. Camellia oil consists of unsaturated fatty acids, tea polyphenol, squalene, saponin, carrot element and vitamins, etc. The seed remains after oil extraction of C. oleifera Abel are by-products of oil production, named as Camellia oil cake. Its extracts contain bioactive compounds including sasanquasaponin, flavonoid and tannin. Major components from Camellia oil and its cake have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antitumor activities...
August 10, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756892/fast-sensitive-and-selective-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-target-analysis-of-chemical-secretions-from-femoral-glands-in-lizards
#6
Jorge Sáiz, Roberto García-Roa, José Martín, Belén Gómara
Chemical signaling is a widespread mode of communication among living organisms that is used to establish social organization, territoriality and/or for mate choice. In lizards, femoral and precloacal glands are important sources of chemical signals. These glands protrude chemical secretions used to mark territories and also, to provide valuable information from the bearer to other individuals. Ecologists have studied these chemical secretions for decades in order to increase the knowledge of chemical communication in lizards...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750236/development-validation-and-application-of-a-gc-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-detection-and-quantification-of-neutral-lipid-species-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#7
Mery Santivañez-Veliz, Elsa Moreno-Viguri, Silvia Pérez-Silanes, Javier Varela, Hugo Cerecetto, Mercedes González, Elena Lizarraga
The development and validation of an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of five neutral lipids in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes by GC-MS is presented in this study. The validated method meets all validation parameters for all components and the chromatographic conditions have been optimized during its development. This analytical method has demonstrated good selectivity, accuracy, within-day precision, recovery and linearity in each of the established ranges. In addition, detection and quantification limits for squalene, cholesterol, ergosterol and lanosterol have been improved and it is worth highlighting the fact that this is the first time that squalene-2,3-epoxide validation data have been reported...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745768/the-sos-chromotest-applied-for-screening-plant-antigenotoxic-agents-against-ultraviolet-radiation
#8
J L Fuentes, A García Forero, N Quintero Ruiz, C A Prada Medina, N Rey Castellanos, D A Franco Niño, D A Contreras García, Y Córdoba Campo, E E Stashenko
In this work, we investigated the usefulness of the SOS Chromotest for screening plant antigenotoxic agents against ultraviolet radiation (UV). Fifty Colombian plant extracts obtained by supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction, twelve plant extract constituents (apigenin, carvacrol, β-caryophyllene, 1,8-cineole, citral, p-cymene, geraniol, naringenin, pinocembrin, quercetin, squalene, and thymol) and five standard antioxidant and/or photoprotective agents (curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, α-tocopherol, and Trolox®) were evaluated for their genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity against UV using the SOS Chromotest...
July 26, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730957/design-preparation-and-characterization-of-modular-squalene-based-nanosystems-for-controlled-drug-release
#9
Jiao Feng, Sinda Lepetre-Mouelhi, Patrick Couvreur
This article reviews the innovative and original concept the "squalenoylation", a technology allowing the formulation of a wide range of drug molecules (both hydrophilic and lipophilic) as nanoparticles. The "squalenoylation" approach is based on the covalent linkage between the squalene, a natural and biocompatible lipid belonging to the terpenoid family, and a drug, in order to increase its pharmacological efficacy. Fundamentally, the dynamically folded conformation of squalene triggers the resulting squalene-drug bioconjugates to self-assemble as nanoparticles of 100-300 nm...
July 19, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728107/developing-potential-agents-against-atherosclerosis-design-synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-novel-dual-inhibitors-of-oxidative-stress-and-squalene-synthase-activity
#10
Maria G Katselou, Alexios N Matralis, Angeliki P Kourounakis
For the treatment of multifactorial and complex diseases, it has become increasingly apparent that compounds acting at multiple targets often deliver superior efficacy compared to compounds with high specificity for only a single target. Based on previous studies demonstrating the important antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of morpholine and 1,4-benzo(x/thi)azine derivatives (A-E), we hereby present the design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel dual-acting molecules as a therapeutic approach for atherosclerosis...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722810/impact-of-crude-oil-quality-on-the-refining-conditions-and-composition-of-nutraceuticals-in-refined-palm-oil
#11
Klicia A Sampaio, Jose Vila Ayala, Vera Van Hoed, Simone Monteiro, Roberta Ceriani, Roland Verhé, Antonio J A Meirelles
Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720281/evaluation-of-a-primary-course-of-h9n2-vaccine-with-or-without-as03-adjuvant-in-adults-a-phase-i-ii-randomized-trial
#12
Anuradha Madan, Harry Collins, Eric Sheldon, Louise Frenette, Laurence Chu, Damien Friel, Mamadou Drame, David W Vaughn, Bruce L Innis, Anne Schuind
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H9N2 strains have pandemic potential. METHODS: In this randomized, observer-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01659086), 420 healthy adults, 18-64years of age, received 1 of 10 H9N2 inactivated split-virus vaccination regimens (30 participants per group), or saline placebo (120 participants). H9N2 groups received 2 doses (days 0, 21) of 15µg hemagglutinin (HA) without adjuvant, or 1.9µgHA+AS03A, 1.9µgHA+AS03B, 3.75µgHA+AS03A, or 3...
July 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714761/gamma-irradiation-of-medicinally-important-plants-and-the-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolite-production
#13
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata I Shukla
PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710558/pathway-engineering-for-the-production-of-%C3%AE-amyrin-and-cycloartenol-in-escherichia-coli-a-method-to-biosynthesize-plant-derived-triterpene-skeletons-in-e-coli
#14
Miho Takemura, Rie Tanaka, Norihiko Misawa
Cycloartenol is biosynthetically the first sterol skeleton, which is metabolized to phytosterols such as β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. β-Amyrin is the most commonly occurring aglycone skeleton for oleanane-type saponins such as glycyrrhizin and saikosaponins. It has been regarded that these cyclic triterpenes are unable to be produced in Escherichia coli, while no reports are available on their production with E. coli. Here, we describe a method to synthesize triterpene skeletons from higher plants, including cycloartenol and β-amyrin...
July 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706236/metabolomic-differential-analysis-of-interspecific-interactions-among-white-rot-fungi-trametes-versicolor-dichomitus-squalens-and-pleurotus-ostreatus
#15
Feng Luo, Zixuan Zhong, Li Liu, Yasuo Igarashi, Deti Xie, Nannan Li
Interspecific fungal antagonism occurred commonly in the interaction zone of different white rot fungi. This competitive interaction could markedly influence the metabolic pathway of intracellular metabolites, which was associated with the fungal morphology change and growth restriction. So far, it remains unknown on intracellular metabolite regulation during fungal competitive interaction. Herein, we performed the metabolomic analysis of the in vivo metabolite changes during competitive interaction between each two of the three white rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Dichomitus squalens and identified differential metabolites in the interaction zone compared to each two isolates...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688419/soft-x-ray-spectroscopy-of-nanoparticles-by-velocity-map-imaging
#16
O Kostko, B Xu, M I Jacobs, M Ahmed
Velocity map imaging (VMI), a technique traditionally used to study chemical dynamics in the gas phase, is applied here to study X-ray photoemission from aerosol nanoparticles. Soft X-rays from the Advanced Light Source synchrotron, probe a beam of nanoparticles, and the resulting photoelectrons are velocity mapped to obtain their kinetic energy distributions. A new design of the VMI spectrometer is described. The spectrometer is benchmarked by measuring vacuum ultraviolet photoemission from gas phase xenon and squalene nanoparticles followed by measurements using soft X-rays...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686302/plasmalogen-homeostasis-regulation-of-plasmalogen-biosynthesis-and-its-physiological-consequence-in-mammals
#17
REVIEW
Masanori Honsho, Yukio Fujiki
Plasmalogens, mostly ethanolamine-containing alkenyl ether phospholipids, are a major subclass of glycerophospholipids. Plasmalogen synthesis is initiated in peroxisomes and completed in the endoplasmic reticulum. The absence of plasmalogens in several organs of peroxisome biogenesis-defective patients suggests that the de novo synthesis of plasmalogens plays a pivotal role in its homeostasis in tissues. Plasmalogen synthesis is regulated by modulating the stability of fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 on peroxisomal membranes, a rate-limiting enzyme in plasmalogen synthesis, by sensing plasmalogens in the inner leaflet of plasma membranes...
July 7, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674547/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-five-panax-ginseng-cultivars-reveals-the-dynamics-of-ginsenoside-biosynthesis
#18
Yun Sun Lee, Hyun-Seung Park, Dong-Kyu Lee, Murukarthick Jayakodi, Nam-Hoon Kim, Hyun Jo Koo, Sang-Choon Lee, Yeon Jeong Kim, Sung Won Kwon, Tae-Jin Yang
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a traditional medicinal herb that produces bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. Here, we investigated the diversity of ginsenosides and related genes among five genetically fixed inbred ginseng cultivars (Chunpoong [CP], Cheongsun [CS], Gopoong [GO], Sunhyang [SH], and Sunun [SU]). To focus on the genetic diversity related to ginsenoside biosynthesis, we utilized in vitro cultured adventitious roots from the five cultivars grown under controlled environmental conditions. PCA loading plots based on secondary metabolite composition classified the five cultivars into three groups...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667762/enhanced-isoprenoid-production-from-xylose-by-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Suryang Kwak, Soo Rin Kim, Haiqing Xu, Guo-Chang Zhang, Stephan Lane, Heejin Kim, Yong-Su Jin
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has limited capabilities for producing fuels and chemicals derived from acetyl-CoA, such as isoprenoids, due to a rigid flux partition toward ethanol during glucose metabolism. Despite numerous efforts, xylose fermentation by engineered yeast harboring heterologous xylose metabolic pathways was not as efficient as glucose fermentation for producing ethanol. Therefore, we hypothesized that xylose metabolism by engineered yeast might be a better fit for producing non-ethanol metabolites...
July 1, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667115/cgmed3-changes-membrane-sterol-composition-to-help-candida-glabrata-tolerate-low-ph-stress
#20
Xiaobao Lin, Yanli Qi, Dongni Yan, Hui Liu, Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Candida glabrata is a promising microorganism for organic acid production. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Mediator complex subunit 3 (CgMed3p) in protecting C. glabrata at low pH conditions. To this end, the genes CgMED3A and CgMED3B were deleted, resulting in the double deletion Cgmed3ABΔ strain. Final biomass and cell viability of Cgmed3ABΔ decreased by 64.5% and 35.8%, respectively, compared to the wild-type at pH 2.0. In addition, lack of CgMed3ABp resulted in selective repression of a subset of genes in the lipid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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