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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524381/antifungal-activity-of-gallic-acid-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Zhi-Jian Li, Meng Liu, Gulina Dawuti, Qin Dou, Yu Ma, Heng-Ge Liu, Silafu Aibai
Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol natural compound found in many medicinal plant species, including pomegranate rind (Punica granatum L.), and has been shown to have antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. Pomegranate rind is used to treat bacterial and fungal pathogens in Uyghur and other systems of traditional medicine, but, surprisingly, the effects of GA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo...
May 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516400/sytematic-investigation-of-the-role-of-surfactant-composition-and-choice-of-oil-design-of-a-nanoemulsion-based-adjuvant-inducing-concomitant-humoral-and-cd4-t-cell-responses
#2
Signe Tandrup Schmidt, Malene Aaby Neustrup, Stine Harloff-Helleberg, Karen Smith Korsholm, Thomas Rades, Peter Andersen, Dennis Christensen, Camilla Foged
PURPOSE: Induction of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses is crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against difficult vaccine targets, e.g., Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). Adjuvants are included in subunit vaccines to potentiate immune responses, but many marketed adjuvants stimulate predominantly humoral immune responses. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need for new adjuvants, which potentiate humoral and CMI responses. The purpose was to design an oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvant containing a synthetic CMI-inducing mycobacterial monomycoloyl glycerol (MMG) analogue to concomitantly induce humoral and CMI responses...
May 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492976/squalene-promotes-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-macrophage-and-hepatocyte-cells-via-activation-of-liver-x-receptor-lxr-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE
#3
Hoang Thi Minh Hien, Nguyen Cam Ha, Le Thi Thom, Dang Diem Hong
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of squalene on liver X receptors (LXRs) that regulate target genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport and thus control whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. RESULTS: To examine the effect of squalene on liver X receptors (LXRs) that regulate target genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport and thus control whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Squalene significantly stimulated the transactivation of liver X receptor modulator LXRα and LXRβ...
May 10, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484475/de-novo-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveal-key-genes-regulating-steroid-metabolism-in-leaves-roots-adventitious-roots-and-calli-of-periploca-sepium-bunge
#4
Jian Zhang, Xinglin Li, Fuping Lu, Shanying Wang, Yunhe An, Xiaoxing Su, Xiankuan Li, Lin Ma, Guangjian Han
Periploca sepium Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant, whose root bark is important for Chinese herbal medicine. Its major bioactive compounds are C21 steroids and periplocin, a kind of cardiac glycoside, which are derived from the steroid synthesis pathway. However, research on P. sepium genome or transcriptomes and their related genes has been lacking for a long time. In this study we estimated this species nuclear genome size at 170 Mb (using flow cytometry). Then, RNA sequencing of four different tissue samples of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476317/evolution-structure-and-membrane-association-of-ndufaf6-an-assembly-factor-for-nadh-ubiquinone-oxidoreductase-complex-i
#5
Bernard D Lemire
The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest member of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Its FMN cofactor accepts two electrons from NADH and transfers them to ubiquinone via a chain of iron-sulphur centers. A central core of 14 highly conserved subunits can couple electron transfer to proton translocation. The mammalian enzyme has an additional ~30 accessory subunits. Complex I has important bioenergetic and metabolic functions and is a known source of reactive oxygen species; these functions link it to a number of hereditary and degenerative diseases...
May 2, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465065/effects-of-butanol-on-high-value-product-production-in-schizochytrium-limacinum-b4d1
#6
Ke Zhang, Limei Chen, Jianmin Liu, Feng Gao, Ronglin He, Wuxi Chen, Wei Guo, Shulin Chen, Demao Li
Schizochytrium is a microalgae-like fungus and is widely used for producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It is also a promising source of squalene and carotenoids. However, few fermentation strategies are available in enhancing squalene and carotenoid content in Schizochytrium. This study showed that butanol addition had multiple effects on Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1. First, butanol addition altered the lipid content of cells. Second, 6g/L of butanol decreased the proportion of DHA by nearly 40%. Third, the squalene content increased 31-fold in the presence of 6g/L butanol...
July 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463796/edible-seeds-from-cucurbitaceae-family-as-potential-functional-foods-immense-promises-few-concerns
#7
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf
Cucurbitaceae family members such as pumpkin and watermelon have seeds that are discarded as the by-products of food processing. However, they have been discovered to contain a rich repertoire of nutrients such as proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, tocopherol, phytosterol, squalene etc. Biological assays have proven the seed extracts to exert antioxidative, hypoglycemic, anticancer, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipemic, gynoprotective, and anthelmintic properties. Further, the seeds do not contain any major anti-nutrients...
April 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459057/chlamydial-type-iii-secretion-system-needle-protein-induces-protective-immunity-against-chlamydia-muridarum-intravaginal-infection
#8
Ekaterina A Koroleva, Natalie V Kobets, Dmitrii N Shcherbinin, Naylia A Zigangirova, Maxim M Shmarov, Amir I Tukhvatulin, Denis Y Logunov, Boris S Naroditsky, Alexander L Gintsburg
Chlamydia trachomatis imposes serious health problems and causes infertility. Because of asymptomatic onset, it often escapes antibiotic treatment. Therefore, vaccines offer a better option for the prevention of unwanted inflammatory sequelae. The existence of serologically distinct serovars of C. trachomatis suggests that a vaccine will need to provide protection against multiple serovars. Chlamydia spp. use a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) composed of structural and effector proteins which is an essential virulence factor...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444846/forensic-analysis-of-latent-fingermarks-by-silver-assisted-ldi-imaging-ms-on-non-conductive-surfaces
#9
Nidia Lauzon, Martin Dufresne, Alexandre Beaudoin, Pierre Chaurand
Silver-assisted laser desorption ionization (AgLDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been demonstrated to be a useful technology for fingermark analysis allowing for the detection of several classes of endogenous as well as exogenous compounds. Ideally, in IMS analyses, the fingermarks are deposited under controlled conditions on metallized conductive target slides. However, in forensic investigations, fingermarks are often found on a variety of non-conductive surfaces. A sputtered silver layer renders the target surface conductive, which allows the analyses of insulating surfaces by time-of-flight (TOF) IMS...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428486/antioxidative-protection-of-squalene-adjuvant-and-rabies-vaccine-with-adjuvant
#10
Anna Ondrejková, Judit Süli, Jarmila Harvanová, Róbert Ondrejka, Marián Prokeš
The authors verified the possibility of antioxidative protection of squalene adjuvant emulsions by the antioxidants α-tocopherol and β-carotene. They determined the influence of β-carotene on the stability and antigenic effectiveness of adjuvant emulsion in combination with rabies vaccine.The composition of the adjuvant emulsions or vaccines was: 2.5% squalene; 6% detergents; 0.5% antioxidant; 91% water phase. The oxidative injury after UV-irradiation was followed by the detection of the peroxide value of the emulsions...
April 19, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424737/gc-ms-based-metabolite-profiling-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-different-solvent-extracts-of-malaysian-plectranthus-amboinicus-leaves
#11
Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Greetha Arumugam, Ravinder Kaur, Ali Ghasemzadeh, Mazina Mohd Yusoff, Uma Rani Sinniah
This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37 ± 1.24 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (26.90 ± 1.35 mg RE/g) and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32%) followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26%) at 500 μg/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63 ± 30.95 μM of Fe (II)/g dry weight) was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421122/potential-antitumor-activity-and-apoptosis-induction-of-glossostemon-bruguieri-root-extract-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#12
Mona S Alwhibi, Mahmoud I M Khalil, Mohamed M Ibrahim, Gehan A El-Gaaly, Ahmed S Sultan
Glossostemon bruguieri (moghat) is used as a nutritive and demulcent drink. This study was performed to investigate the antiproliferative effects of moghat root extract (MRE) and its apoptotic mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, HepG2 and Hep3B. MTT assay, morphological changes, apoptosis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, caspase and apoptotic activation, flow cytometry, and immunoblot analysis were employed. The IC50 of MRE for HepG2 (910 ± 6 μg/ml) and for Hep3B (1510 ± 5 μg/ml) induced significant growth-inhibitory effects against HCC cells, with no cytotoxic effect on normal hepatocytes...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416557/terbinafine-resistance-of-trichophyton-clinical-isolates-caused-by-specific-point-mutations-in-the-squalene-epoxidase-gene
#13
Tsuyoshi Yamada, Mari Maeda, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Reiko Tanaka, Takashi Yaguchi, Olympia Bontems, Karine Salamin, Marina Fratti, Michel Monod
Terbinafine is one of the allylamine antifungal agents, whose target is squalene epoxidase (SQLE). This agent has been extensively used in the therapy of dermatophyte infections. The incidence of patients with tinea pedis or unguium tolerant to terbinafine treatment prompted us to screen terbinafine resistance of all Trichophyton clinical isolates from the laboratory of Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois collected over a three-year period, and to identify their mechanism of resistance. Among 2056 tested isolates, 17 (≈ 1%) showed reduced terbinafine susceptibility, all of which were found to harbor SQLE gene alleles with different single point mutations, leading to single amino acid substitutions at one of four positions (Leu(393), Phe(397), Phe(415) and His(440)) of the SQLE protein...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416486/a-squalene-based-nanomedicine-for-oral-treatment-of-colon-cancer
#14
Larissa Kotelevets, Eric Chastre, Joachim Caron, Julie Mougin, Gerard Bastian, Alain Pineau, Francine Walker, Therese Lehy, Didier Desmaele, Patrick Couvreur
Nanotechnology offers many possibilities to improve drug treatments, including with regard to drug pharmacology. The current study reports a simple approach to improve cisplatin efficacy in the treatment of colon cancer through the creation of orally administered squalenoylated nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin (SQ-CDDP NP). Cytotoxic effects of SQ-CDDP NP were assessed in human colonic cells and in mouse models of intestinal cancer. In cell culture, SQ-CDDP NP exhibited at least 10-fold greater cytotoxic potency compared to uncomplexed cisplatin, reflecting an enhancement in intracellular accumulation and DNA platination...
April 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414174/iterative-integration-of-multiple-copy-pathway-genes-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-heterologous-%C3%AE-carotene-production
#15
Shuliang Gao, Yangyang Tong, Li Zhu, Mei Ge, Yian Zhang, Daijie Chen, Yu Jiang, Sheng Yang
β-Carotene is a terpenoid molecule with high hydrophobicity that is often used as an additive in foods and feed. Previous work has demonstrated the heterologous biosynthesis of β-carotene from an intrinsic high flux of acetyl-CoA in 12 steps through 11 genes in Yarrowia lipolytica. Here, an efficient biosynthetic pathway capable of producing 100-fold more β-carotene than the baseline construct was generated using strong promoters and multiple gene copies for each of the 12 steps. Using fed-batch fermentation with an optimized medium, the engineered pathway could produce 4g/L β-carotene, which was stored in lipid droplets within engineered Y...
April 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403533/towards-satisfying-performance-of-an-o-w-cosmetic-emulsion-screening-of-reformulation-factors-on-textural-and-rheological-properties-using-general-experimental-design
#16
M Filipovic, M Lukic, S Djordjevic, V Krstonosic, I Pantelic, G Vuleta, S Savic
OBJECTIVE: Consumers' demand for improved products' performance, alongside with the obligation of meeting the safety and efficacy goals, presents a key reason for the reformulation, as well as a challenging task for formulators. Any change of the formulation, whether it is wanted - in order to innovate the product (new actives and raw materials) or necessary - due to, e.g., legislative changes (restriction of ingredients), ingredients market unavailability, new manufacturing equipment, etc...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375126/tyrosinase-inhibition-anti-acetylcholinesterase-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-the-phytochemicals-from-gynotroches-axillaris-blume
#17
Salam Ahmed Abed, Hasnah Mohd Sirat, Muhammad Taher
The leaves of Gynotroches axillaris were chemically and biologically studied. Sequential extraction of the leaves using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol afforded three extracts. Purification of pet. ether extract yielded, squalene and β-amyrin palmitate as the major compounds, together with palmitic acid and myristic acid as the minor components. The methanol extract yielded two flavonoids, quercitrin and epicatechin. The isolated compounds were characterized by MS, IR and NMR (1D and 2D). Anti-acetyl cholinesterase screening using TLC bio-autography assay showed that palmitic acid and myristic acid were the strongest inhibition with detection limit 1...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370710/probing-skin-physiology-through-the-volatile-footprint-discriminating-volatile-emissions-before-and-after-acute-barrier-disruption
#18
Emer Duffy, Matthew R Jacobs, Brian Kirby, Aoife Morrin
Volatile organic compounds emitted by human skin were sampled before and after acute barrier disruption of the volar forearm to investigate the significance of this approach to skin physiology research. A small wearable housing integrating a solid phase micro-extraction fibre permitting rapid enclosed headspace sampling of human skin volatiles is presented, enabling non-invasive sample collection in 15 minutes, in a comfortable wearable format. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilised to separate and identify the volatile metabolites...
March 31, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365988/improvement-of-squalene-production-from-co2-in-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942-by-metabolic-engineering-and-scalable-production-in-a-photobioreactor
#19
Sun Young Choi, Jin-Young Wang, Ho Seok Kwak, Sun-Mi Lee, Youngsoon Um, Yunje Kim, Sang Jun Sim, Jong-Il Choi, Han Min Woo
The push-and-pull strategy for metabolic engineering was successfully demonstrated in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model photosynthetic bacterium, to produce squalene from CO2. Squalene synthase (SQS) was fused to either a key enzyme (farnesyl diphosphate synthase) of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway or the β-subunit of phycocyanin (CpcB1). Engineered cyanobacteria with expression of a fusion CpcB1-SQS protein showed a squalene production level (7.16 ± 0.05 mg/L/OD730) that was increased by 1...
April 3, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360334/a-genomic-dna-reporter-screen-identifies-squalene-synthase-inhibitors-which-act-cooperatively-with-statins-to-upregulate-the-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor
#20
Alastair G Kerr, Lawrence C S Tam, Ashley B Hale, Milena Cioroch, Gillian Douglas, Sarina Agkatsev, Olivia Hibbit, Joseph Mason, James Holt-Martyn, Carole J R Bataille, Graham M Wynne, Keith M Channon, Angela J Russell, Richard Wade-Martins
Hypercholesterolaemia remains one of the leading risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Many large double-blind studies have demonstrated that lowering LDL-cholesterol using a statin can reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event by ~30%. However, despite the success of statins, some patient populations are unable to lower their LDL-cholesterol to meet the targeted lipid levels, due to compliance or potency issues. This is especially true for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (heFH) patients who may require additional upregulation of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels below those achievable with maximal dosing of statins...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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