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Xin Wen, Minghui Zhu, Rui Hu, Jinhong Zhao, Ziye Chen, Jingming Li, Yuanying Ni
To explore the potential of the large amount of grape pomace in wineries of China, oils of three Eurasian grape cultivars (Chardonnay, Merlot and Carbernet Sauvignon) and two Chinese traditional grape cultivars (Vitis amurensis and Vitis davidii), were characterised. The results showed seed oil properties differ for various grape varities. Grape seed oils were demonstrated to be good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.88-77.12 %), sterols (227.99-338.83 mg/100 g oil) and tocotrienols (320...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
P K Prasanth Kumar, T Jeyarani, A G Gopala Krishna
Phytonutrients retained palm olein (PRPOL) was prepared and blended into butterfat at different ratios. The physicochemical characteristics and the phytonutrient composition of blends, as well as its utilization in the preparation of functional chocolate spread were evaluated. The results showed that the redness, yellowness, slip melting point, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol increased while lightness, saponification value, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased upon incorporation of increased quantities of PRPOL into butterfat...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Noelle Merchak, Virginie Silvestre, Denis Loquet, Toufic Rizk, Serge Akoka, Joseph Bejjani
Triacylglycerols, which are quasi-universal components of food matrices, consist of complex mixtures of molecules. Their site-specific (13)C content, their fatty acid profile, and their position on the glycerol moiety may significantly vary with the geographical, botanical, or animal origin of the sample. Such variables are valuable tracers for food authentication issues. The main objective of this work was to develop a new method based on a rapid and precise (13)C-NMR spectroscopy (using a polarization transfer technique) coupled with multivariate linear regression analyses in order to quantify the whole set of individual fatty acids within triacylglycerols...
October 19, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Feng-Li Wu, Guang Zhang, Ang Ren, Zhi-Hao Dang, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Ming-Wen Zhao
Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal macrofungus that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Nonetheless, the scarcity of basic biological studies of this organism has hindered the further development of its commercial value. The pH-responsive transcription factor PacC/Rim101 governs the adaptation to environmental pH, the development and the secondary metabolism of many fungi. In this study, a homologue of PacC/Rim101 that encodes GlPacC was identified in the higher basidiomycete G. lucidum GlPacC is composed of 807 amino acids and contains three typical C2H2 zinc-finger domains, two potential PEST domains, a putative PKA phosphorylation site, and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Masayuki Kyomoto, Toru Moro, Shihori Yamane, Yoshio Takatori, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishihara
The surface and substrate of a cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner are designed to achieve resistance against oxidative degradation in the construction of hip joint replacements. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the oxidative degradation caused by lipid absorption of a highly hydrophilic nanometer-scaled thickness layer prepared by grafting a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) layer and a high-dose gamma-ray irradiated CLPE with vitamin E blending (HD-CLPE[VE]). The HD-CLPE(VE) and PMPC-grafted HD-CLPE(VE) exhibited extremely high oxidation resistance regardless of lipid absorption, even though residual-free radical levels were detectable...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Michael I Jacobs, Bo Xu, Oleg Kostko, Nadja Heine, Musahid Ahmed, Kevin R Wilson
The heterogeneous reaction of ozone (O3) with 200 nm squalene nanoparticles is studied using near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photoelectrons are detected from free nanoparticle beams using a velocity map imaging (VMI) spectrometer capable of detecting photoelectrons with up to 40 eV of kinetic energy. Heterogeneous kinetics are quantified using changes in the UPS, XPS and NEXAFS spectrum, yielding uptake coefficients for the decay of the double bonds in squalene of (3...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Jinxin Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Dahui Liu, Jianli Li, Wenyuan Gao
In this work, we selected three fungi strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae) as elicitors prepared from mycelium or fermentation broth to improve ginsenosides production in adventitious roots culture. The results showed that ginsenosides production (29.90±4.67mgg(-1)) was significantly enhanced upon elicitation with 200mgL(-1)A. niger elicitor prepared from mycelium, which was 3.52-fold of untreated group. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis was performed, showing that ginsenoside Rb3 was present after treatment with the A...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Huihong Guo, Rufang Li, Shibiao Liu, Na Zhao, Shuo Han, Mengmeng Lu, Xiaomin Liu, Xinli Xia
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a perennial medicinal herb widely distributed in China. This herb contains important medicinal components called gypenosides, which belong to dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins. Squalene epoxidase (SE, EC catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene to form oxidosqualene and is a key regulatory enzyme in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis. In this study, a SE gene designated as GpSE1 was isolated from G. pentaphyllum leaves. The deduced protein sequence of GpSE1 contained two conserved domains involved in the catalytic function of SE...
October 6, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Christopher A Seid, Kathryn M Jones, Jeroen Pollet, Brian Keegan, Elissa Hudspeth, Molly Hammond, Junfei Wei, C Patrick McAtee, Leroy Versteeg, Amanda Gutierrez, Zhuyun Liu, Bin Zhan, Jonathan L Respress, Ulrich Strych, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez
A therapeutic vaccine for human Chagas disease is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership. The aim of the vaccine is to significantly reduce the parasite burden of Trypanosoma cruzi in humans, either as a standalone product or in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Vaccination of mice with Tc24 formulated with monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant results in a Th1 skewed immune response with elevated IgG2a and IFNγ levels and a statistically significant decrease in parasitemia following T...
October 13, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Elia Marin, Alfredo Rondinella, Wenliang Zhu, Bryan J McEntire, B Sonny Bal, Giuseppe Pezzotti
The effect of frictional sliding on the surface degradation of commercially available zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads was studied using a pin-on-ball wear tester under three different lubricating conditions: dry, water, and squalene. Water and squalene were employed under boundary lubrication regimes. Despite the unique (non-standard) character of this apparatus, standard loading conditions could be applied, which effectively determined dynamic friction coefficients as basic material properties...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Wen Xu, Xi Ma, Yang Wang
Squalene, a naturally occurring linear triterpene formed via MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway, is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and animals. At present, squalene is used extensively in the food, cosmetic and medicine industries because of its antioxidant, antistatic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Increased consumer demand has led to the development of microbial bioprocesses for the commercial production of squalene, in addition to the traditional methods of isolating squalene from the liver oils of deep-sea sharks and plant seed oils...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ming Liu, Li-Na Li, Yi-Ting Pan, Jian-Qiang Kong
As the first step of ongoing efforts to investigate the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins in the medicinal plant Ornithogalum caudatum, this investigation reported the cDNA isolation, prokaryotic expression and functional characterization of squalene synthase (SQS) gene from O. caudatum for the first time. Specifically, two unigenes showing high sequence identity to SQS were retrieved from RNA-Taq data, and then a full-length OcSQS1 corresponding to the two unigenes was isolated from O...
October 7, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Jean Haensler
Emulsion adjuvants for human vaccines have evolved gradually over the last century. Current formulations are the result of many refinements to their composition and manufacturing, as well as optimization for safety and efficacy. Squalene has emerged as being particularly suitable for the manufacturing of safe oil-in-water (O/W) adjuvants for parenteral applications due to its biocompatibility and ability to be metabolized. Emulsion particle size has been identified as an important parameter affecting the pharmaceutical performance of O/W emulsion adjuvants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Martin Valachovič, Ivan Hapala
Squalene is a precursor in the eukaryotic sterol biosynthesis. It is a valuable compound with several human health-related applications. Since the traditional natural resources of squalene are limited, alternatives for the production of squalene on industrial scale have been intensively explored during past years. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an attractive option due to elaborated techniques of genetic and metabolic engineering that can be applied to improve squalene yields. We discuss in this chapter some theoretical aspects of genetic manipulations of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway aimed at increased squalene production and describe analytical methods for squalene purification and determination of its content in yeast cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alessandra Martorana, Antonio Alfonzo, Raimondo Gaglio, Luca Settanni, Onofrio Corona, Francesco La Croce, Paola Vagnoli, Tiziano Caruso, Giancarlo Moschetti, Nicola Francesca
The main objective was to set up a methodology to improve the high volume production of green table olives, cv. Nocellara del Belice. Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 was applied during three different industrial processes of table olives as follows: trial one (IOP1) was subjected to an addition of lactic acid until a brine level of pH 7.0 was reached; trial two (IOP2) subjected to same addition of lactic acid as in trial one plus nutrient adjuvant and trial three (IOP3) subjected to same addition as trial two, but with the strain L...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
Sun Young Choi, Hyun Jeong Lee, Jaeyeon Choi, Jiye Kim, Sang Jun Sim, Youngsoon Um, Yunje Kim, Taek Soon Lee, Jay D Keasling, Han Min Woo
BACKGROUND: Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to value-added chemicals as bio-solar cell factories. However, the production levels of isoprenoids in engineered cyanobacteria were quite low, compared to other microbial hosts. Therefore, modular optimization of multiple gene expressions for metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria is required for the production of farnesyl diphosphate-derived isoprenoids from CO2. RESULTS: Here, we engineered Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 with modular metabolic pathways consisting of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway enzymes and the amorphadiene synthase for production of amorpha-4,11-diene, resulting in significantly increased levels (23-fold) of amorpha-4,11-diene (19...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Shouming Zhou, Matthew W Forbes, Jonathan P D Abbatt
Motivated by the importance of the heterogeneous chemistry of squalene contained within skin oil to indoor air chemistry, the surface reaction of squalene with gas-phase ozone has been investigated. Using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) to monitor squalene, the reactive uptake coefficients were determined to be (4.3 ± 2.2) × 10(-4) and (4.0 ± 2.2) × 10(-4) for ozone mixing ratios (MRO3) of 50 and 25 ppb, respectively, on squalene films deposited on glass surfaces. At an MRO3 of 25 ppb, the lifetime for oxidation was the same as that in an indoor office with an MRO3 between 22 and 32 ppb, suggesting that O3 was the dominant oxidant in this indoor setting...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Nobutaka Suzuki, Tatsuo Ito, Hisanori Matsui, Masayuki Takizawa
TAK-475 (lapaquistat acetate) and its active metabolite-I (TAK-475 M-I) inhibit squalene synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to squalene. FPP is a substrate for synthesis of other mevalonate-derived isoprenoids (MDIs) such as farnesol (FOH), geranlygeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), and geranylgeraniol. In patients with MKD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, defective activity of mevalonate kinase leads to a shortage of MDIs. MDIs especially GGPP are required for prenylation of proteins, which is a posttranslation modification necessary for proper functioning of proteins like small guanosine triphosphatases...
2016: SpringerPlus
Panpan Zhang, Xiaoying Cao, Changgen Li, Zhujun Zheng, Sun Yong, Ji-Hong Jiang
Squalene synthase catalyzes the condensation of 2 molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to produce squalene, the first committed precursor for sterol, brassinosteroid, and triterpene biosynthesis. A squalene synthase gene, designated IoSQS, was isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom that produces a plethora of bioactive triterpenes. IoSQS complementary DNA was found to contain an open reading frame of 1476 bp, encoding a protein of 491 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.85 kDa. The IoSQS genomic DNA sequence consisted of 1813 bp and contained 4 exons and 3 introns...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jianli Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Jinxin Li, Wenyuan Gao
This study reports the best culture conditions for roots growth and accumulation of active components by optimizing the parameters. Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious roots metabolites were significantly increased after adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Meyerozyma guilliermondii. The highest contents of polysaccharide, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid and total flavonoids were obtained in Meyerozyma guilliermondii group, the content of glycyrrhizic acid was 5.3-fold higher than the control. In control and treatment groups, twelve compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS),among which, some new compounds have been detected in elicitor groups including 5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone, glycyrrhisoflavanone, licorice saponin J2, uralsaponin B, (3R)-vestitol, uralenol...
September 20, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
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