keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

squalene

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342963/new-insights-into-cellular-cholesterol-acquisition-promoter-analysis-of-human-hmgcr-and-sqle-two-key-control-enzymes-in-cholesterol-synthesis
#1
Vicky Howe, Laura J Sharpe, Anika V Prabhu, Andrew J Brown
BACKGROUND: The two control points of cholesterol synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) are known targets of the transcription factor sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2). Yet the location of the sterol-regulatory elements (SREs) and cofactor binding sites, nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1), have not been satisfactorily mapped in the human SQLE promoter, or at all in the human HMGCR promoter...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342753/evaluation-of-chitosan-as-a-wall-material-for-microencapsulation-of-squalene-by-spray-drying-characterization-and-oxidative-stability-studies
#2
Lekshmi R G Kumar, N S Chatterjee, C S Tejpal, K V Vishnu, K K Anas, K K Asha, R Anandan, Suseela Mathew
The present study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of chitosan as a wall material for microencapsulation of squalene by spray drying for functional food applications. Based on different core to wall material ratio (1:1, 0.5:1 and 0.3:1 on w/w basis), emulsions were prepared and evaluated in terms of emulsion stability, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity Index (PDI), rheology and microstructure. The optimized emulsion combination was spray dried and characterized, physically and chemically...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340748/mitigation-of-solvent-interference-using-a-short-packed-column-prior-to-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#3
Mohammad T Jafari, Mohammad Saraji, Mehdi Mossaddegh
This paper introduces a novel approach to overcome the solvent interference in corona discharge-ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) based on the time-resolved signals of the solvent and the analyte. To that end, a short Teflon tube was filled with a low amount of squalene or OV-1, which was prepared and located between the injection port and the entrance of the CD-IMS cell. Through this procedure, a sufficient delay (~5s) was obtained between the introduction of the solvent and the analyte into the reaction region of IMS...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336949/induction-of-apoptosis-and-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-by-camp-signaling-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#4
Bang-Jau You, Ni Tien, Miin-Huey Lee, Bo-Ying Bao, Yih-Shyuan Wu, Tsung-Chi Hu, Hong-Zin Lee
Apoptosis is an essential physiological process that controls many important biological functions. However, apoptosis signaling in relation to secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants and fungi remains a mystery. The fungus Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine worldwide, but the biosynthetic regulation of its active ingredients (ganoderic acids, GAs) is poorly understood. We investigated the role of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in fungal apoptosis and GA biosynthesis in G...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322148/effects-of-exogenous-salicylic-acid-on-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-and-the-expression-of-key-genes-in-the-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-lingzhi-or-reishi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-agaricomycetes
#5
Peng-Fei Cao, Chen-Gao Wu, Zhi-Hao Dang, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Ang Ren, Ming-Wen Zhao
We demonstrate herein that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Following treatment with different concentrations of SA, the GA content was increased 22.72% to 43.04% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA at different times, the GA content was improved 10.21% to 35.24% compared with the control group. By choosing the optimum point based on response surface methodology, the GA content could be increased up to 229...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317728/direct-study-of-minor-extra-virgin-olive-oil-components-without-any-sample-modification-1-h-nmr-multisupression-experiment-a-powerful-tool
#6
Ainhoa Ruiz-Aracama, Encarnación Goicoechea, María D Guillén
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) was employed to study monovarietal commercial Spanish extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO) (Arbequina, Arroniz, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Picual). Each sample was analyzed by a standard pulse and by an experiment suppressing the main lipid signals, enabling the detection of signals of minor components. The aim was to determine the possibilities of both (1)H NMR approaches to characterize EVOO composition, focusing on acyl groups, squalene, sterols, triterpene acids/esters, fatty alcohols, wax esters and phenols (lignans, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleocanthal, oleacein, oleokoronal, oleomissional, ligstrodials and oleuropeindials), and to determine hydrolysis and oxidation levels...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315676/the-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-iii-haplotype-ltab-ncr3-regulates-adjuvant-induced-but-not-antigen-induced-autoimmunity
#7
Anthony C Y Yau, Jonatan Tuncel, Rikard Holmdahl
Rheumatoid arthritis is a complex disease associated with >100 risk loci, with the strongest association from the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. Here, we analyzed a new genetic association in the MHC class-III region (MHC-III) using adjuvant- and antigen-induced arthritis models. In addition, we used models for multiple sclerosis for comparison and dissected the MHC-III-mediated mechanisms of importance for antibody and T-cell responses to antigens. With the use of a panel of MHC-III recombinant inbred strains, we found that the 33-kb Ltab-Ncr3 haplotype in MHC-III was linked to the induction of arthritis with incomplete Freund's adjuvant, with similar effects in arthritis induced by several oil adjuvants (hexadecane, heptadecane, squalene, arlacel)...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303229/cloning-and-characterization-of-squalene-synthase-and-cycloartenol-synthase-from-siraitia-grosvenorii
#8
Huan Zhao, Qi Tang, Changming Mo, Longhua Bai, Dongping Tu, Xiaojun Ma
Mogrosides and steroid saponins are tetracyclic triterpenoids found in Siraitia grosvenorii. Squalene synthase (SQS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) are key enzymes in triterpenoid and steroid biosynthesis. In this study, full-length cDNAs of SgSQS and SgCAS were cloned by a rapid amplification of cDNA-ends with polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. The SgSQS cDNA has a 1254 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 417 amino acids, and the SgCAS cDNA contains a 2298 bp ORF encoding 765 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the deduced SgSQS protein has two transmembrane regions in the C-terminal...
March 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301152/characterization-and-discrimination-of-oueslati-voos-from-adult-and-young-trees-in-different-ripening-stages-using-sterols-pigments-and-alcohols-in-tandem-with-chemometrics
#9
Fatma Chtourou, Hazem Jabeur, Ayda Lazzez, Mohamed Bouaziz
Dynamics of squalene, sterols, aliphatic alcohols, pigments and triterpenic diols accumulations in olive oils from adult and young trees of the Oueslati cultivar were studied for two consecutive years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Data were compared statistically for differences by age of trees, maturation of olive and years of harvesting. Results showed that the mean campesterol content in olive oil from adult trees at the green stage of maturation was significantly (p<0.02) upper the limit established by the IOC legislation...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294269/%C3%AE-amyrin-biosynthesis-catalytic-mechanism-and-substrate-recognition
#10
REVIEW
Tsutomu Hoshino
The enzymatic polycyclization reactions catalyzed by oxidosqualene (OXSQ) cyclases (OSCs) proceed with complete regio- and stereospecificity, leading to the formation of new C-C bonds and chiral centers and to the generation of diverse polycyclic sterols and triterpenoids. The diverse structural array is remarkable, and approximately 150 different carbon frameworks have been found. Detailed investigations on squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC) and lanosterol synthase (LaS) have been reported, but progress in the study of β-amyrin synthase, which is ubiquitously found in plants, has lagged in comparison...
March 15, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290512/chemometric-analysis-reveals-links-in-the-formation-of-fragrant-bio-molecules-during-agarwood-aquilaria-malaccensis-and-fungal-interactions
#11
Supriyo Sen, Madhusmita Dehingia, Narayan Chandra Talukdar, Mojibur Khan
Fragrant agarwood, arguably the costliest wood in the world, is formed by plant-fungal interactions in Aquilaria spp. However, very little is known about this fragrant outcome of interaction. Therefore, mimicking the ancient traditions of agarwood production in Assam (Northeast India), a chemometric assessment of the agarwood-fungus interaction was made by chemical profiling (GC-MS) coupled with statistical analysis (principal component, correlation network analysis) across three platforms, viz. callus, juvenile plants and resinous wood-chips with an associated Fusarium...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287229/stereochemical-investigations-of-the-tetrahymena-cyclase-a-model-system-for-euphane-tirucallane-biosynthesis
#12
José-Luis Giner, Ju Feng
The squalene cyclase of Tetrahymena pyriformis cyclizes 2,3-dihydrosqualene to euph-7-ene. This was used as a model for euphane biosynthesis. D-ring formation was demonstrated to involve pre-chair folding through an experiment with 2,3-dihydro-5-oxasqualene. This requires that a non-least motion rotation (120°) of the C17-20 bond in the intermediate deoxydammaranyl cation occurs before the first 1,2-hydride shift. Truncated substrates relieved the hindrance associated with this rotation and permitted a least motion pathway...
March 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259764/feasibility-of-freeze-drying-oil-in-water-emulsion-adjuvants-and-subunit-proteins-to-enable-single-vial-vaccine-drug-products
#13
Vidyashankara Iyer, Corinne Cayatte, Jason D Marshall, Jenny Sun, Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Sean K Maynard, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Angie Snell Bennett, Richard L Remmele, Steve M Bishop, Michael P McCarthy, Bilikallahalli Muralidhara
To generate potent vaccine responses, subunit protein antigens typically require co-formulation with an adjuvant. Oil-in-water emulsions are among the most widely investigated adjuvants, based on their demonstrated ability to elicit robust antibody and cellular immune responses in the clinic. However, most emulsions cannot be readily frozen or lyophilized, due to the risk of phase separation, and may have a deleterious effect on protein antigen stability when stored long term as a liquid co-formulation. To circumvent this, current emulsion-formulated vaccines generally require a complex multi-vial presentation with obvious drawbacks, making a single vial presentation for such products highly desirable...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245781/endogenous-and-exogenous-natural-adjuvants-for-vaccine-development
#14
Azam Bolhassani, Somayeh Talebi, Ali Anvar
Various adjuvants are usually co-injected with an antigen for stimulation of effective immune responses. Their mechanisms of action in vaccine development include: a) enhancement of the total antibody titers; b) reduction of the antigen dose; c) induction of potent cell-mediated immunity; d) increase in the speed and duration of the protective response; e) stimulation of mucosal immunity; and f) cross-protection. Up to now, different exogenous adjuvants have been identified to boost immune responses including inorganic compounds (e...
February 28, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228587/prophylactic-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-stable-emulsion-and-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-induce-a-robust-hsv-2-specific-cell-mediated-immune-response-protect-against-symptomatic-disease-and-reduce-the-latent-viral-reservoir
#15
Michael T Hensel, Jason D Marshall, Michael R Dorwart, Darren S Heeke, Eileen Rao, Padmaja Tummala, Li Yu, Gary H Cohen, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Derek D Sloan
Several prophylactic vaccines targeting HSV-2 have failed in the clinic to demonstrate a sustained depression in viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies, their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) targets gD and gB, the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this to a whole-inactivated virus vaccine (FI-HSV-2)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223871/new-acyclic-secondary-metabolites-from-the-biologically-active-fraction-of-albizia-lebbeck-flowers
#16
Shaza M Al-Massarani, Ali A El Gamal, Mohamed F Abd El Halim, Mansour S Al-Said, Maged S Abdel-Kader, Omer A Basudan, Saleh I Alqasoumi
The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid-liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n-butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n-hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl3 fraction...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205176/determining-the-topology-of-membrane-bound-proteins-using-pegylation
#17
Vicky Howe, Andrew J Brown
Biochemical methods can help elucidate the membrane topology of hydrophobic membrane proteins where X-ray crystallography is difficult or impractical, providing important structural data. Here, we describe the method of PEGylation, which uses a cysteine-reactive molecule, maleimide polyethylene glycol (mPEG), to determine the cytosolic accessibility of introduced cysteine residues. This accessibility is visualized using Western blotting to detect a band shift that indicates cysteine labeling by mPEG. Using scanning cysteine mutagenesis, followed by PEGylation, one can map the accessibility of the introduced cysteines, hence inferring the membrane topology of the protein...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202377/characterization-of-a-new-fungal-immunomodulatory-protein-fip-dsq2-from-dichomitus-squalens
#18
Shuying Li, Zhonghao Jiang, Lichao Sun, Xin Liu, Ying Huang, Fengzhong Wang, Fengjiao Xin
FIP-dsq2, a new immunomodulatory protein, was identified in Basidiomycota Dichomitus squalens by gene mining. FIP-dsq2 contained 111 amino acids with a molecular weight of 12.51kDa. FIP-dsq2 had a homology range of 51-65% to the reported FIPs. The predicted 3-dimensional model had more similar identical folding patterns in LZ-8 than for FIP-fve. Evolutionary analysis indicated substantial phylogenetic differences were existed with the other FIPs. Overexpression of a 14.07kDa soluble recombinant FIP-dsq2 (rFIP-dsq2) was achieved in Rosetta (pGEX-6P-1) and the purified recombinant protein was homodimer verified by gel filtration chromatography analysis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197609/computational-studies-on-the-cyclization-of-squalene-to-the-steroids-and-hopenes
#19
REVIEW
B Andes Hess
A review of computational studies of the related biosyntheses of steroids and hopenes reported during the last two decades is presented. Computations in the gas phase and those that include the enzyme are covered. Based on the numerical results conclusions have been drawn about the biosynthetic mechansims of these all important biological reactions.
February 15, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190805/mass-spectrometric-discrimination-of-squalene-monohydroperoxide-isomers
#20
Naoki Shimizu, Hannah Bersabe, Junya Ito, Shunji Kato, Ryo Towada, Takahiro Eitsuka, Shigefumi Kuwahara, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa
Squalene (SQ), a main component of human sebum, is readily photooxidized by exposure to sunlight, producing six squalene monohydroperoxide (SQ-OOH) isomers. Despite its known connection to various skin conditions, few studies have sought to analyze SQ-OOH at the isomeric level. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to discriminate each SQ-OOH isomer with the use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The six standard SQ-OOH isomers were prepared by photooxidizing SQ in the presence of rose bengal, a photosensitizer, and isolated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
keyword
keyword
52905
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"