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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743063/glutamate-pathways-of-the-beta-cell-and-the-control-of-insulin-secretion
#1
REVIEW
Pierre Maechler
Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in response to circulating glucose, thereby maintaining euglycemia. Inside the beta-cell, glucose is transformed into intracellular signals stimulating exocytosis. While calcium is an obligatory messenger, this ion is not sufficient to promote the full secretory response. Accordingly, glucose metabolism produces the additive factor glutamate that participates to an amplifying pathway of the calcium signal. Although intracellular glutamate potentiates insulin secretion, extracellular glutamate may activate ionotropic receptors...
July 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743062/peripheral-leucocytes-and-tissue-gene-expression-of-granzyme-b-perforin-system-and-serpinb9-impact-on-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-coronary-atherosclerosis
#2
Eman F Sanad, Nadia M Hamdy, Adel K El-Etriby, Samer A Sebak, Hala O El-Mesallamy
AIM: The imbalance between proapoptotic granzyme B (GZB)/perforin (PRF) system and proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9; serpinB9); the only known inhibitor of human GZB, has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis. However, their role in atherosclerosis with the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as their contribution to hallmarks of atherosclerosis is not clear. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: ELISA for serum insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and GZB levels in atherosclerotic coronary artery diseases (CAD) patients were estimated in comparison to apparently healthy controls, while GZB, PRF and PI-9 mRNA expression levels were quantified by Taqman RT-PCR in both peripheral leucocytes and atherosclerotic tissues...
July 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743061/circulating-ctrp9-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-and-correlated-with-insulin-resistance
#3
Yanjun Jia, Xiaohe Luo, Ying Ji, Jingwen Xie, Han Jiang, Mao Fu, Xiaoqiang Li
AIMS: C1q/TNF-related protein-9 (CTRP9) is a novel adipokine that has been shown to promote lipid metabolism, enhance insulin sensitivity and protect against cardiovascular disease. However, previous studies in humans have produced controversial results regarding the association between CTRP9 and insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between CTRP9 and insulin resistance in Chinese population. METHODS: Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=108), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=92), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM, n=106) were recruited to determining the circulating CTRP9 and adiponectin levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743060/glucose-fluctuation-and-the-resultant-endothelial-injury-are-correlated-with-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Makoto Murata, Hitoshi Adachi, Shigeru Oshima, Masahiko Kurabayashi
AIMS: We evaluated whether glucose fluctuation (GF) causes vascular endothelial injury and affects glucometabolic factors during lengthy oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: We enrolled consecutive 116 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who were performed coronary angiography and 4-h OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and 4h after glucose load to measure endothelial injury factor [von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vWF/a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 motifs 13 (ADAMTS-13) ratio]...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742858/reduction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-interactions-in-beta-cells-from-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Charles Thivolet, Guillaume Vial, Romeo Cassel, Jennifer Rieusset, Anne-Marie Madec
Type 2 diabetes develops when beta cells are not able to fulfill insulin needs. The role of the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria junction in coordinating the functions of these two organelles throughout the natural history of type 2 diabetes is determinant and may explain the alterations of insulin biosynthesis. Our goal was to study endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial interactions in human beta cells from organ donors with type 2 diabetes. Pancreas samples were obtained via the network for pancreatic organ donors with diabetes (nPOD) based on disease status with 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 9 non-diabetic controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742680/individualized-metabolic-surgery-score-procedure-selection-based-on-diabetes-severity
#6
Ali Aminian, Stacy A Brethauer, Amin Andalib, Amy S Nowacki, Amanda Jimenez, Ricard Corcelles, Zubaidah Nor Hanipah, Suriya Punchai, Deepak L Bhatt, Sangeeta R Kashyap, Bartolome Burguera, Antonio M Lacy, Josep Vidal, Philip R Schauer
OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a scoring system for evidence-based selection of bariatric and metabolic surgery procedures according to severity of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) account for >95% of bariatric procedures in United States in patients with T2DM. To date, there is no validated model to guide procedure selection based on long-term glucose control in patients with T2DM. METHODS: A total of 659 patients with T2DM who underwent RYGB and SG at an academic center in the United States and had a minimum 5-year follow-up (2005-2011) were analyzed to generate the model...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742619/use-of-topical-insulin-to-treat-refractory-neurotrophic-corneal-ulcers
#7
Angeline L Wang, Eric Weinlander, Brandon M Metcalf, Neal P Barney, David M Gamm, Sarah M Nehls, Michael C Struck
PURPOSE: To report the clinical course of 6 patients with refractory neurotrophic corneal ulcers that were treated with topical insulin drops. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients who had neurotrophic corneal ulcers or epithelial defects refractory to standard medical and surgical treatment. Insulin drops, prepared by mixing regular insulin in artificial tears with a polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol base at a concentration of 1 unit per milliliter, were prescribed 2 to 3 times daily...
July 24, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742518/severe-hypertriglyceridemia-at-new-onset-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Tyler Fick, Julie Jack, Amy L Pyle-Eilola, Rohan K Henry
BACKGROUND: Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) as well as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are complications of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). HTG is an exceedingly rare complication in the pediatric population and herein we report a case of HTG at new-onset T1DM in DKA and discuss management and potential complications. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11-year-old previously well patient with a history of fatigue and weight loss presented with: glucose >600 mg/dL, venous blood gas: pH 7...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742368/borapetoside-e-a-clerodane-diterpenoid-extracted-from-tinospora-crispa-improves-hyperglycemia-and-hyperlipidemia-in-high-fat-diet-induced-type-2-diabetes-mice
#9
Yuhui Xu, Yanfen Niu, Yuan Gao, Fang Wang, Wanying Qin, Yanting Lu, Jing Hu, Li Peng, Jikai Liu, Wenyong Xiong
An insidious increase in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia has led to an epidemic of type 2 diabetes worldwide. Tinospora crispa (T. crispa) is a familiar plant traditionally used in herbal medicine for diabetes; however, the major active ingredients of this plant are still unclear. In this study, we identified the therapeutic effects of borapetoside E, a small molecule extracted from T. crispa, in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. The therapeutic effects of borapetoside E in HFD-induced obese mice were assessed physiologically, histologically, and biochemically following intraperitoneal injection...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742366/femtosecond-laser-enhanced-amyloid-fibril-formation-of-insulin
#10
Tsung-Han Liu, Ken-Ichi Yuyama, Takato Hiramatsu, Naoki Yamamoto, Eri Chatani, Hiroshi Miyasaka, Teruki Sugiyama, Hiroshi Masuhara
Femtosecond (fs) laser-induced crystallization as a novel crystallization technique was proposed for the first time by our group, where crystallization time can be significantly shortened under fs laser irradiation. Similarly, we have further extended our investigation to amyloid fibril formation also known as a nucleation-dependence process. Here we demonstrate that necessary time for amyloid fibril formation can be much shortened by fs laser irradiation leading to favorable enhancement. The enhancement was confirmed by both spectral measurements and direct observations of amyloid fibrils...
July 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742225/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-lixisenatide-in-a-predominantly-asian-population-with-type-2-diabetes-insufficiently-controlled-with-basal-insulin-the-getgoal-l-c-randomized-trial
#11
W Yang, K Min, Z Zhou, L Li, X Xu, D Zhu, A Venkateshwar Rao, L S Murthy, N Zhang, I Li, E Niemoeller, S Shang
AIMS: To assess the effects on glycaemic control of lixisenatide versus placebo as add-on treatment to basal insulin (BI) ± metformin on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction in patients with insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Patients (n = 448) with inadequately controlled T2D were randomized (1:1) to lixisenatide or placebo as add-on to BI ± metformin for 24 weeks after an 8-week run-in phase, during which BI was titrated to a target self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG; 4...
July 25, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742013/first-canadian-experience-with-donation-after-cardiac-death-simultaneous-pancreas-and-kidney-transplants
#12
Patrick T Anderson, Shahid Aquil, Kelly McLean, Vivian C McAlister, Alp Sener, Patrick P Luke
BACKGROUND: Compared with neurologic determination of death (NDD) donor organs, donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor organs have traditionally been considered of inferior quality owing to warm ischemia experienced during procurement. We present, to our knowledge, the first analysis of simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplants using DCD donor organs in Canada. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study of SPK transplants from 13 DCD and 68 NDD donors performed between October 2008 and July 2016...
August 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741970/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#13
Xueying Tan, Xiaojing Cao, Minzhi Zhou, Ping Zou, Jingbo Hu
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia resulting from progressive deficient of insulin in patients with a background of insulin resistance. Current treatment algorithms recommended by American Diabetes Association/The European Association for the Study of Diabetes promote a patient-centered approach that takes into account a comprehensive consideration of pharmacological properties of drugs, including glucose-lowering action, effects on body weight, correction on multiple pathophysiologic defects, tolerability, and long-term safety...
July 25, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741967/iglarlixi-a-titratable-once-daily-fixed-ratio-combination-of-basal-insulin-and-lixisenatide-for-intensifying-type-2-diabetes-management-for-patients-inadequately-controlled-on-basal-insulin-with-or-without-oral-agents
#14
Neil Skolnik, Renell S Dupree, Eric L Johnson
BACKGROUND: Achieving and maintaining glycemic control is important for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in order to reduce disease-related complications and mortality; however, about half of US patients fail to meet glycemic targets. iGlarLixi, a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (iGlar) and lixisenatide for once-daily administration, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in adults with T2D inadequately controlled on basal insulin (<60 U daily) or lixisenatide...
July 25, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741871/pharmacodynamics-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-the-novel-dual-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-rg7697-after-single-subcutaneous-administration-in-healthy-subjects
#15
Agnès Portron, Shirin Jadidi, Neena Sarkar, Richard DiMarchi, Christophe Schmitt
AIMS: To evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety of single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of ascending doses of RG7697, a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide/glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, in healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 51 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating RG7697 doses ranging from 0.03 to 5 mg. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored and drug concentrations, fasting glycaemic variables, vital signs, ECG, antibody formation and routine laboratory variables were assessed...
July 25, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741456/effects-of-oral-and-non-insulin-injectable-antidiabetic-treatment-in-hypertension-a-systematic-review
#16
Vasiliki Katsi, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Dimitrios Oikonomou, Maria Megapanou, John Skoumas, Charalampos Vlachopoulos, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) often co-exists with hypertension, and this aggregation of co-morbidities amplifies the risk for future cardiovascular events. Therefore, it appears crucial to understand the essence of choosing oral and non-insulin injectable anti-diabetic drugs (ADs) with a favorable hemodynamic impact that could partially attenuate the increased baseline cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effect of ADs on blood pressure (BP) indices and to assess the potential role of certain ADs towards hypertension treatment...
May 19, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741385/efficacy-and-safety-of-teneligliptin-add-on-to-insulin-monotherapy-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-16-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-with-an-open-label-period
#17
Takashi Kadowaki, Kazuoki Kondo, Noriyuki Sasaki, Kyoko Miyayama, Shoko Yokota, Ryuji Terata, Maki Gouda
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin as add-on to insulin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a 16-week, double-blind period, 148 Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control with insulin and diet/exercise therapies were randomized to placebo or teneligliptin 20 mg. In a subsequent 36-week, open-label period, all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c at the end of the double-blind period...
July 25, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741383/adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-brca-mutation-carriers
#18
Eleonora Bruno, Siranoush Manoukian, Elisabetta Venturelli, Andreina Oliverio, Francesca Rovera, Giovanna Iula, Daniele Morelli, Bernard Peissel, Jacopo Azzolini, Eliana Roveda, Patrizia Pasanisi
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with higher breast cancer (BC) penetrance in BRCA mutation carriers. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), an insulin resistance syndrome, can be reversed by adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). In a dietary intervention trial on BRCA mutation carriers, we evaluated adherence to the MedDiet, and the association with the MetS, by analyzing data from the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). METHODS: BRCA mutation carriers, with or without BC, aged 18 to 70 years, were eligible for the trial...
July 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741369/bolus-advisors-sources-of-error-targets-for-improvement
#19
John Walsh, Ruth Roberts, Timothy S Bailey, Lutz Heinemann
Bolus advisors that are designed to improve the accuracy of individual bolus doses relative to a meal's carb content and the current glucose have not substantially changed since they were introduced 15 years ago despite an obvious need for enhancement and innovation. Although some glycemic benefits have been demonstrated, bolus advisors largely ignore the large amounts of clinical data they gather that could have a significant impact on glucose outcomes. Concerns have also been raised regarding the aggressive nature of largely unpublished or poorly explained bolus advisor algorithms...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741264/why-are-diabetes-medications-so-expensive-and-what-can-be-done-to-control-their-cost
#20
REVIEW
Laura N McEwen, Sarah Stark Casagrande, Shihchen Kuo, William H Herman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this study were to describe how medication prices are established, to explain why antihyperglycemic medications have become so expensive, to show trends in expenditures for antihyperglycemic medications, and to highlight strategies to control expenditures in the USA. RECENT FINDINGS: In the U.S., pharmaceutical manufacturers set the prices for new products. Between 2002 and 2012, expenditures for antihyperglycemic medications increased from $10 billion to $22 billion...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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