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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530684/tackling-hiv-and-aids-contributions-by-non-human-primate-models
#1
Koen K A Van Rompay
During the past three decades, non-human primate (NHP) models have gained an increasing importance in HIV basic and translational research. In contrast to natural host models, infection of macaques with virulent simian or simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, SHIV) results in a disease that closely resembles HIV infection and AIDS. Although there is no perfect animal model, and each of the available models has its benefits and limitations, carefully designed NHP studies with selection of experimental variables have unraveled important questions of basic pathogenesis and have provided the tools to explore and screen intervention strategies...
May 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530494/review-anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-in-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-is-screening-and-treatment-justified
#2
Peter Wasserman, David S Rubin, Glenn Turett
Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the fourth most prevalent cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in over 90% of anal carcinoma biopsy specimens from MSM, and is considered a necessary, but alone, insufficient factor for carcinogenesis. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) may be precursive for SCC, and screening cytology with referral of persons with abnormality for high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy, and AIN treatment, has been recommended for prevention...
May 22, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528463/facebook-advertising-to-recruit-young-urban-women-into-an-hiv-prevention-clinical-trial
#3
Rachel Jones, Lorraine J Lacroix, Eloni Porcher
Advertising via Facebook to elicit involvement in clinical trials has demonstrated promise in expanding geographic reach while maintaining confidentiality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate Facebook advertising to reach at-risk, predominately African American or Black women in higher HIV prevalence communities for an HIV prevention clinical trial, and to compare baseline characteristics to those recruited on-the-ground. Maintaining confidentiality and the practical aspects of creating and posting ads on Facebook are described...
May 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521717/analysis-of-site-heterogeneity-and-hiv-outcomes-across-rural-and-urban-study-sites-in-phidisa-ii-a-multi-site-randomized-controlled-antiretroviral-treatment-trial-in-a-south-african-military-cohort
#4
John Steytler, Pamela A Shaw, Alice K Pau, Paul Khabo, Gyan Joshi, Pieter Oelofse
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials frequently enroll subjects from different study sites. Few such studies provide analysis by individual site. Between 2004-2007, the South African Military Health System (SAMHS) established 6 research sites (3 urban, 3 rural) to build capacity for clinical research and HIV care. We explore differences in clinical, virologic and CD4 outcomes by site in the context of a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Phidisa-II is the first randomised controlled trial conducted in the South African military setting, which compared 4 antiretroviral regimens in treatment-naïve advanced HIV subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520768/mobile-phone-reminders-and-peer-counseling-improve-adherence-and-treatment-outcomes-of-patients-on-art-in-malaysia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Lekhraj Rampal, Faisal Ibrahim, Anuradha P Radhakrishnan, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Norlijah Othman
BACKGROUND: Adherence to treatment remains the cornerstone of long term viral suppression and successful treatment outcomes among patients receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE(S): Evaluate the effectiveness of mobile phone reminders and peer counseling in improving adherence and treatment outcomes among HIV positive patients on ART in Malaysia. METHODS: A single-blind, parallel group RCT conducted in Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia in which 242 adult Malaysian patients were randomized to intervention or control groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520610/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-dolutegravir
#6
Pedro Cahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review addresses the role of dolutegravir (DTG) in first-line therapy. In the era of test and treat, where United Nations AIDS Program and WHO have set the ambitious targets of 90/90/90, new efficacious, well tolerated, and simple therapeutic options are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: DTG has been tested in large clinical trials in treatment-naïve patients, showing noninferiority to raltegravir and superiority compared with efavirenz and ritonavir-boosted darunavir, respectively...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#7
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515963/eliminating-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-aids-clinical-trials-in-the-united-states-a-qualitative-exploration-of-an-efficacious-social-behavioral-intervention
#8
Amanda Ritchie, Marya Viorst Gwadz, David Perlman, Rebecca De Guzman, Noelle R Leonard, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) are under-represented in AIDS clinical trials (ACTs) in the United States. Barriers AABH-PLWH experience to ACTs are multi-faceted, including distrust of medical research, low levels of knowledge, unsupportive social norms, lack of referral, and challenges navigating ACT systems. In past research we found a multi-component peer-driven intervention was efficacious in boosting rates of screening for/enrollment into ACTs...
January 2017: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514277/a-commitment-contract-to-achieve-virologic-suppression-in-poorly-adherent-patients-with-hiv-aids
#9
Marcella Alsan, John Beshears, Wendy S Armstrong, James J Choi, Brigitte C Madrian, Minh Ly T Nguyen, Carlos Del Rio, David Laibson, Vincent C Marconi
OBJECTIVE: Assess whether a commitment contract informed by behavioral economics leads to persistent virologic suppression among HIV-positive patients with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. DESIGN: Single-center pilot randomized clinical trial, plus a non-randomized control group. SETTING: Publicly-funded HIV clinic in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. INTERVENTION: The study involved three arms. (i) Participants in the provider visit incentive arm received $30 after attending each scheduled provider visit...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513067/interventions-for-cutaneous-molluscum-contagiosum
#10
REVIEW
Johannes C van der Wouden, Renske van der Sande, Emma J Kruithof, Annet Sollie, Lisette Wa van Suijlekom-Smit, Sander Koning
BACKGROUND: Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a pox virus and occurs mainly in children. The infection usually resolves within months in people without immune deficiency, but treatment may be preferred for social and cosmetic reasons or to avoid spreading the infection. A clear evidence base supporting the various treatments is lacking.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006, and updated previously in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of specific treatments and management strategies, including waiting for natural resolution, for cutaneous, non-genital molluscum contagiosum in people without immune deficiency...
May 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508155/retention-of-south-african-adolescents-in-a-54-month-longitudinal-hiv-risk-reduction-trial
#11
Larry D Icard, John B Jemmott, Craig Carty, Ann O'Leary, Lulama Sidloyi, Janet Hsu, JoAnn Tyler, Omar Martinez
Retention of participants in clinical trials is a central concern of HIV/STI behavioral researchers and research sponsors. This article describes the strategies used for addressing the challenges in retaining South African adolescents for a 54-month longitudinal study. The objective of the South African adolescent health promotion long-term follow-up trial was to test the sustainability of the effects of an HIV/STI risk reduction intervention, "Let Us Protect Our Future," on young adolescents as they aged into middle and late adolescence...
May 15, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507772/clinically-significant-depressive-symptoms-and-sexual-behaviour-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
Ada R Miltz, Alison J Rodger, Janey Sewell, Andrew Speakman, Andrew N Phillips, Lorraine Sherr, Richard J Gilson, David Asboe, Nneka C Nwokolo, Amanda Clarke, Mark M Gompels, Sris Allan, Simon Collins, Fiona C Lampe
BACKGROUND: The relationship between depression and sexual behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM) is poorly understood. AIMS: To investigate prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10) and the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behaviour among MSM reporting recent sex. METHOD: The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) is a cross-sectional study of UK genitourinary medicine clinic attendees without diagnosed HIV (2013-2014)...
May 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499418/early-morning-urine-collection-to-improve-urinary-lateral-flow-lam-assay-sensitivity-in-hospitalised-patients-with-hiv-tb-co-infection
#13
Phindile Gina, Philippa J Randall, Tapuwa E Muchinga, Anil Pooran, Richard Meldau, Jonny G Peter, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. METHODS: Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498835/is-traditional-male-circumcision-effective-as-an-hiv-prevention-strategy-evidence-from-lesotho
#14
Elisa M Maffioli
In many developing countries, male circumcision has been promoted as an effective HIV prevention strategy, and medical randomized controlled trials have indeed shown a causal link. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support this conclusion in countries where individuals can voluntary opt for different types of circumcision. The present study considers male circumcision in Lesotho, where HIV prevalence is among the highest in the world (23%). Here, men can opt for one of two types of circumcision: traditional male circumcision in initiation schools, or the medical option in health clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498191/impact-of-facility-based-mother-support-groups-on-retention-in-care-and-pmtct-outcomes-in-rural-zimbabwe-the-epaz-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Geoff Foster, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Hélène Font, Abigail Kangwende, Vhumani Magezi, Tonderai Sengai, Simba Rusakaniko, Bridget Shumba, Pemberai Zambezi, Talent Maphosa
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission elimination goals are hampered by low rates of retention in care. The Eliminating Paediatric AIDS in Zimbabwe project assessed whether mother support groups (MSGs) improve rates of retention in care of HIV-exposed infants and their HIV-positive mothers, and maternal and infant outcomes. METHODS: The study involved 27 rural clinics in eastern Zimbabwe. MSGs were established in 14 randomly selected clinics and met every 2 weeks coordinated by volunteer HIV-positive mothers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498190/patterns-of-hiv-care-clinic-attendance-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-context-of-option-b-in-zimbabwe
#16
Alison S Erlwanger, Jessica Joseph, Tendai Gotora, Blandina Muzunze, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Solomon Mukungunugwa, Tim Farley, Alexio-Zambezi Mangwiro
BACKGROUND: Consistent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding reduces the likelihood of mother-to-child HIV transmission. All pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV in Zimbabwe are offered ART with same-day initiation regardless of CD4 count (Option B+). We investigated patterns of clinic attendance and adherence to ART among HIV-infected pregnant women in Zimbabwe. METHODS: The Evidence for Elimination cluster-randomized trial evaluating point-of-care CD4 testing included 1150 HIV-infected ART-naive women attending antenatal care between January 2014 and June 2015...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498189/impact-of-point-of-care-cd4-testing-on-retention-in-care-among-hiv-positive-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-in-the-context-of-option-b-in-zimbabwe-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Jessica Joseph, Tendai Gotora, Alison S Erlwanger, Angela Mushavi, Simukai Zizhou, Nyasha Masuka, Caroline E Boeke, Alexio-Zambezi Mangwiro
INTRODUCTION: Scale-up of Option B+ in Zimbabwe has increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage but patient loss-to-follow-up remains high; thus, effective strategies to improve retention in care are needed. Evidence for Elimination, a cluster randomized controlled trial, evaluated the impact of point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing with CD4 count-specific adherence counseling on rates of retention among 1150 HIV-positive pregnant women initiating ART in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Thirty-two primary care health facilities were randomized to offer either standard-of-care (SOC) or POC CD4 testing plus CD4-specific counseling to clients (POC Plus)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498186/using-small-tests-of-change-to-improve-pmtct-services-in-northern-nigeria-experiences-from-implementation-of-a-continuous-quality-improvement-and-breakthrough-series-program
#18
Bamidele Osibo, Frank Oronsaye, Oluwafemi D Alo, Abimbola Phillips, Renaud Becquet, Nathan Shaffer, Francis Ogirima, Collins Imarhiagbe, Bernice Ameh, Obioma Ezebuka, Sodzi Sodzi-Tettey, Adaobi Obi, Olusegun T Afolabi, Abutu Inedu, Chukwuma Anyaike, Bolanle Oyeledun
BACKGROUND: Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is a process where health teams systematically collect and regularly reflect on local data to inform decisions and modify local practices and so improve delivery of services. We implemented a cluster randomized trial to examine the effects of CQI interventions on Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) services. Here, we report our experiences and challenges establishing CQI in 2 high HIV prevalence states in northern Nigeria...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498181/impact-of-mother-infant-pair-clinics-and-short-text-messaging-service-sms-reminders-on-retention-of-hiv-infected-women-and-hiv-exposed-infants-in-emtct-care-in-malawi-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#19
Victor Mwapasa, Jessica Joseph, Timothy Tchereni, Aurelie Jousset, Andrews Gunda
BACKGROUND: Poor retention of mothers and HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) in HIV care threatens efforts to eliminate pediatric HIV. Novel strategies are required to address this challenge. We compared 12-month maternal and HEI postpartum retention in health facilities implementing the following HIV care delivery models: integrated HIV and maternal, neonatal, and child health services [mother-infant pair (MIP) clinics], MIP clinics plus short-text messaging service (SMS) reminders to prevent default (MIP + SMS), and standard of care (SOC)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498179/improving-retention-in-care-among-pregnant-women-and-mothers-living-with-hiv-lessons-from-inspire-and-implications-for-future-who-guidance-and-monitoring
#20
Nigel C Rollins, Shaffiq M Essajee, Nita Bellare, Meg Doherty, Gottfried O Hirnschall
Identifying women living with HIV, initiating them on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART), and retaining them in care are among the important challenges facing this generation of health care managers and public health researchers. Implementation research attempts to solve a wide range of implementation problems by trying to understand and work within real-world conditions to find solutions that have a measureable impact on the outcomes of interest. Implementation research is distinct from clinical research in many ways yet demands similar standards of conceptual thinking and discipline to generate robust evidence that can be, to some extent, generalized to inform policy and service delivery...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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