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HIV clinical trials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911357/pulmonary-tuberculosis-diagnostic-practices-among-people-living-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-lesotho
#1
D E O'Connor, K Frederix, S Saito, L B Maama, Y Hirsch-Moverman, B Pitt, E Hayes-Larson, L Lebelo, M Shale, A A Howard
SETTING: Twelve health facilities in Berea District, Lesotho, that participated in the Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial evaluating a combination intervention package to improve early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and anti-tuberculosis treatment success among patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To assess TB and HIV diagnostic practices among TB-HIV patients...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904329/latest-advances-in-the-efficacy-tolerability-and-monotherapy-of-integrase-inhibitors
#2
Qi Tang, Hongzhou Lu
More than 30 drugs for antiretroviral therapy (ART), including integrase inhibitors (INIs), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as of 2017. Integrase is the third essential enzyme in the cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. INIs can effectively inhibit the replication of HIV and HIV is less prone to develop resistance to INIs clinically. Previous studies based on 7 phase III clinic trials indicate that INIs have satisfactory efficacy and tolerability in patients infected with HIV...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902412/interventions-for-treating-tuberculous-pericarditis
#4
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Lehana Thabane, Jimmy Volmink, Dumisani Majombozi, Freedom Gumedze, Shaheen Pandie, Bongani M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pericarditis can impair the heart's function and cause death; long term, it can cause the membrane to fibrose and constrict causing heart failure. In addition to antituberculous chemotherapy, treatments include corticosteroids, drainage, and surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of treatments for tuberculous pericarditis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 March 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2017, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 March 2017); Embase (1974 to 27 March 2017); and LILACS (1982 to 27 March 2017)...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902073/cryotherapy-reduces-progression-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-grade-1-in-south-african-hiv-infected-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Cynthia Firnhaber, Avril Swarts, Bridgette Goeieman, Ntombi Rakhombe, Masangu Mulongo, Anna-Lise Williamson, Pam Michelow, Sibongile Ramotshela, Mark Faesen, Simon Levin, Timothy Wilkin
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk of cervical cancer, especially in resource-limited countries. Cervical cancer prevention strategies focus treating cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The management of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in HIV-infected women is unknown. SETTING: HIV treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa METHODS:: We randomized HIV-infected women with histologic cervical LSIL to cervical cryotherapy vs...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898114/diagnostic-challenges-of-kidney-diseases-in-hiv-infected-patients
#6
Robin Chazot, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Anne Frésard, Nicolas Maillard, Christophe Mariat, Frédéric Lucht, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a prevalent comorbidity in persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) associated with an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality. Furthermore, early diagnosis of CKD is difficult in PLWH. Areas covered: We reviewed the main diagnostic tools for CKD in PLWH, and discussed their strengths and limits. We performed a literature search on Pubmed to identify reviews and clinical trials dealing with attractive kidney biomarkers of CKD in PLWH, with the following key words: "HIV AND kidney", "HIV AND Kidney biomarkers", "CKD AND Kidney biomarkers"...
September 12, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895090/effort-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-hiv-infected-individuals-on-stable-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Robert Paul, Gina Rhee, Laurie M Baker, Florin Vaida, Sarah A Cooley, Beau M Ances
The expression of cognitive symptoms associated with HIV varies over time and across individuals. This pattern may reflect transient contextual factors, including the degree of effort exerted by individuals undergoing cognitive testing. The present study examined whether effort corresponds to the expression of persistent HIV-related cognitive impairment among individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV+ individuals (n = 111) averaged 48.2 (14.9) years of age and 13.0 (2.7) years of education and HIV- individuals (n = 92) averaged 34...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893758/antiretroviral-therapy-for-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-or-hepatitis-b-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Reed A Siemieniuk, Farid Foroutan, Reza Mirza, Jinell Mah Ming, Paul E Alexander, Arnav Agarwal, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Arnaud Merglen, Yaping Chang, Yuan Zhang, Hassan Mir, Elliot Hepworth, Yung Lee, Dena Zeraatkar, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of various antiretroviral/antiviral regimens in pregnant women living with HIV or hepatitis B virus (HBV). DESIGN: We performed random effects meta-analysis for HIV-related outcomes and network meta-analysis for HBV outcomes, and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to assess quality separately for each outcome. DATA SOURCES: Embase and Medline to February 2017...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893304/preventing-hiv-infection-without-targeting-the-virus-how-reducing-hiv-target-cells-at-the-genital-tract-is-a-new-approach-to-hiv-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Julie Lajoie, Lucy Mwangi, Keith R Fowke
For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893277/development-of-an-hiv-vaccine-using-a-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vector-expressing-designer-hiv-1-envelope-glycoproteins-to-enhance-humoral-responses
#10
REVIEW
Trina Racine, Gary P Kobinger, Eric J Arts
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), like many other Rhabdoviruses, have become the focus of intense research over the past couple of decades based on their suitability as vaccine vectors, transient gene delivery systems, and as oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy. VSV as a vaccine vector platform has multiple advantages over more traditional viral vectors including low level, non-pathogenic replication in diverse cell types, ability to induce both humoral and cell-mediate immune responses, and the remarkable expression of foreign proteins cloned into multiple intergenic sites in the VSV genome...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891788/week-48-resistance-analysis-of-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-versus-atazanavir-ritonavir-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-in-hiv-1-infected-women-waves-study-gs-us-236-0128
#11
Rima Kulkarni, Sally L Hodder, Huyen Cao, Silvia Chang, Michael D Miller, Kirsten L White
Background Women and those with non-B subtype HIV-1 are typically underrepresented in clinical trials. WAVES (GS-US-236-0128) was a double-blind phase 3b study among treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected women that demonstrated that elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; N = 289) was superior to atazanavir + ritonavir + FTC/TDF (ATV + RTV + FTC/TDF; N = 286) for HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL by FDA snapshot analysis at week 48. Here, we describe resistance development through week 48 in women with virologic failure and determine the impact of pre-existing mutations and HIV-1 subtype on viral suppression...
July 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888485/immunobiology-of-the-il-15-il-15r%C3%AE-complex-as-an-antitumor-and-antiviral-agent
#12
REVIEW
Yin Guo, Liming Luan, Naeem K Patil, Edward R Sherwood
Interleukin (IL)-15 is essential for natural killer (NK), NKT and memory (m) CD8(+) T cell development and function, and is currently under investigation as an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. Recently, the creation of IL-15 superagonist by complexing IL-15 and its high affinity receptor alpha (IL-15 Rα) in solution, inspired by the natural trans-presentation of IL-15, advances the potential of IL-15-based tumor immunotherapy. IL-15 superagonist shows promising advantages over monomeric IL-15 such as sustaining high circulating concentrations due to prolonged half-life and more potently stimulating NK and CD8(+) T effector lymphocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883973/vectored-immunoprophylaxis-an-emerging-adjunct-to-traditional-vaccination
#13
REVIEW
John W Sanders, Todd A Ponzio
The successful development of effective vaccines has been elusive for many of the world's most important infectious diseases. Additionally, much of the population, such as the aged or immunocompromised, are unable to mount an effective immunologic response for existing vaccines. Vectored Immunoprophylaxis (VIP) is a novel approach designed to address these challenges. Rather than utilizing an antigen to trigger a response from the host's immune system as is normally done with traditional vaccines, VIP genetically engineers the production of tailored antibodies from non-hematopoietic cells, bypassing the humoral immune system...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883928/cpap-impact-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-trial-of-bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-versus-standard-care-for-high-risk-children-with-severe-pneumonia-using-adaptive-design-methods
#14
Andrew G Smith, Michelle Eckerle, Tisungane Mvalo, Brian Weir, Francis Martinson, Alfred Chalira, Norman Lufesi, Innocent Mofolo, Mina Hosseinipour, Eric D McCollum
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality among children in low-resource settings. Mortality is greatest among children with high-risk conditions including HIV infection or exposure, severe malnutrition and/or severe hypoxaemia. WHO treatment recommendations include low-flow oxygen for children with severe pneumonia. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a non-invasive support modality that provides positive end-expiratory pressure and oxygen. bCPAP is effective in the treatment of neonates in low-resource settings; its efficacy is unknown for high-risk children with severe pneumonia in low-resource settings...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883510/disseminated-tuberculosis-among-hospitalised-hiv-patients-in-south-africa-a-common-condition-that-can-be-rapidly-diagnosed-using-urine-based-assays
#15
Andrew D Kerkhoff, David A Barr, Charlotte Schutz, Rosie Burton, Mark P Nicol, Stephen D Lawn, Graeme Meintjes
HIV-associated disseminated TB (tuberculosis) has been under-recognised and poorly characterised. Blood culture is the gold-standard diagnostic test, but is expensive, slow, and may under-diagnose TB dissemination. In a cohort of hospitalised HIV patients, we aimed to report the prevalence of TB-blood-culture positivity, performance of rapid diagnostics as diagnostic surrogates, and better characterise the clinical phenotype of disseminated TB. HIV-inpatients were systematically investigated using sputum, urine and blood testing...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882882/how-i-treat-patients-with-hiv-related-hematological-malignancies-using-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#16
Joseph C Alvarnas, John A Zaia, Stephen J Forman
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has now been shown to be safe and effective for selected HIV-infected patients with hematological malignancies. Autologous HCT is now standard of care for patients with HIV-related lymphomas who otherwise meet standard transplant criteria. Limited data also supports use of allogeneic HCT (alloHCT) in selected HIV-infected patients who meet standard transplant criteria. We recommend enrolling patients on clinical trials that offer access to CCR5Δ32 homozygous donors, if available...
September 7, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880995/vitamin-a-supplements-for-reducing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission
#17
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Valantine N Ndze, Eugene J Kongnyuy, Muki S Shey
BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) include lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive women, exclusive breastfeeding from birth for six weeks plus nevirapine or replacement feeding plus nevirapine from birth for four to six weeks, elective Caesarean section delivery, and avoiding giving children chewed food. In some settings, these interventions may not be practical, feasible, or affordable. Simple, inexpensive, and effective interventions (that could potentially be implemented even in the absence of prenatal HIV testing programmes) would be valuable...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880948/prevention-of-vaginal-and-rectal-hiv-transmission-by-antiretroviral-combinations-in-humanized-mice
#18
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Manjula Gunawardana, Richard B Pyles, Mark A Marzinke, John A Moss, Marc M Baum
With more than 7,000 new HIV infections daily worldwide, there is an urgent need for non-vaccine biomedical prevention (nBP) strategies that are safe, effective, and acceptable. Clinical trials have demonstrated that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals (ARVs) can be effective at preventing HIV infection. In contrast, other trials using the same ARVs failed to show consistent efficacy. Topical (vaginal and rectal) dosing is a promising regimen for HIV PrEP as it leads to low systematic drug exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880880/volunteer-motivators-for-participating-in-hiv-vaccine-clinical-trials-in-nairobi-kenya
#19
Borna A Nyaoke, Gaudensia N Mutua, Rose Sajabi, Delvin Nyasani, Marianne W Mureithi, Omu A Anzala
BACKGROUND: 1.5 million Kenyans are living with HIV/AIDS as per 2015 estimates. Though there is a notable decline in new HIV infections, continued effort is still needed to develop an efficacious, accessible and affordable HIV vaccine. HIV vaccine clinical trials bear risks, hence a need to understand volunteer motivators for enrolment, retention and follow-up. Understanding the factors that motivate volunteers to participate in a clinical trial can help to strategize, refine targeting and thus increase enrolment of volunteers in future HIV vaccine clinical trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880698/cost-effectiveness-of-a-chronic-pain-intervention-for-people-living-with-hiv-plwh
#20
Jessica S Merlin, Andrew O Westfall, Mallory O Johnson, Robert D Kerns, Matthew J Bair, Stefan Kertesz, Janet M Turan, Olivio J Clay, Joanna L Starrels, Meredith Kilgore
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a common, disabling, and costly comorbidity, particularly in people living with HIV (PLWH). We developed and pilot tested a pain self-management intervention for chronic pain tailored to PLWH called Skills TO Manage Pain (STOMP). OBJECTIVES: Given the additional resources needed to deliver STOMP in HIV clinical settings, an important objective of the pilot study was to assess not only STOMP's preliminary efficacy, but also its cost-effectiveness...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
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