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HIV clinical trials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337462/-antiretroviral-treatments-towards-simplified-regimens
#1
Olivier Nawej Tshikung, Alexandra Calmy
The chronicity of HIV infection and the use of antiretroviral therapy among all individuals living with HIV necessitate new treatment strategies. Alternatives to lifelong tri-therapy treatment are under investigation with the aim to improve the quality of life of patients. New therapies with longer half-lives or « biological » treatments are also under study in clinical trials in order to develop streamlined maintenance strategies. These simplified therapies represent the near future of HIV management both with regards to less toxic molecules and a change in the traditional dogma of tri-therapy, including the daily dose thanks to the possibility of dosage only on certain weekdays or via molecules under development with a long duration of action...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334885/2016-united-kingdom-national-guideline-on-the-sexual-health-care-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#2
Dan Clutterbuck, David Asboe, Tristan Barber, Carol Emerson, Nigel Field, Stuart Gibson, Gwenda Hughes, Rachael Jones, Martin Murchie, Achyuta V Nori, Michael Rayment, Ann Sullivan
This guideline is intended for use in UK Genitourinary medicine clinics and sexual health services but is likely to be of relevance in all sexual health settings, including general practice and Contraception and Sexual Health (CASH) services, where men who have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual health care or where addressing the sexual health needs of MSM may have public health benefits. For the purposes of this document, MSM includes all gay, bisexual and all other males who have sex with other males and both cis and trans men...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332035/an-aspartyl-cathepsin-targeted-pet-agent-application-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#3
Jonatan A Snir, Mojmir Suchy, Geron A Bindseil, Michael Kovacs, Blaine A Chronik, Robert H E Hudson, Stephen H Pasternak, Robert Bartha
BACKGROUND: Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is a serious challenge for both diagnosis and clinical trials. The aspartyl protease, Cathepsin D (CatD), is overexpressed in AD and could be a biomarker of disease. We have previously designed a unique contrast agent (CA) for dual-optical and magnetic resonance imaging of the activity of the CatD class of enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the uptake and retention of a novel, more sensitive, and clinically-translatable 68Ga PET tracer targeting CatD activity in 5XFAD mice and non-Tg littermates...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329763/efficacy-and-safety-of-varenicline-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-france-anrs-144-inter-activ-a-randomised-controlled-phase-3-clinical-trial
#4
Patrick Mercié, Julie Arsandaux, Christine Katlama, Samuel Ferret, Aurélie Beuscart, Christian Spadone, Claudine Duvivier, Jacques Reynes, Nathalie Wirth, Laetitia Moinot, Antoine Bénard, David Zucman, Xavier Duval, Jean-Michel Molina, Bruno Spire, Catherine Fagard, Geneviève Chêne
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is common in people living with HIV, but high-quality evidence on interventions for smoking cessation is not available in this population. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of varenicline with counselling to aid smoking cessation in people living with HIV. METHODS: The ANRS 144 Inter-ACTIV randomised, parallel, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was done at 30 clinical hospital sites in France. People living with HIV who had smoked at least ten cigarettes per day for 1 year or longer, were motivated to stop smoking, were not dependent on another psychoactive substance, and had no history of depression or suicide attempt were eligible...
January 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329113/therapeutic-hiv-1-vaccine-time-for-immunomodulation-and-combinatorial-strategies
#5
Nabila Seddiki, Yves Lévy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to recall some of the key immunological elements that are at the crossroad and need to be combined for developing a potent therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccines and cytokines have been commonly used to enhance and/or recall preexisting HIV-1 specific cell-mediated immune responses aiming to suppress virus replication. While the vaccine is important to stimulate HIV-1 specific T-cell responses, the cytokine may support the expansion of the stimulated virus-specific T cells...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324842/effect-of-analytical-treatment-interruption-and-reinitiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-hiv-reservoirs-and-immunologic-parameters-in-infected-individuals
#6
Katherine E Clarridge, Jana Blazkova, Kevin Einkauf, Mary Petrone, Eric W Refsland, J Shawn Justement, Victoria Shi, Erin D Huiting, Catherine A Seamon, Guinevere Q Lee, Xu G Yu, Susan Moir, Michael C Sneller, Mathias Lichterfeld, Tae-Wook Chun
Therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission in infected individuals are under active investigation. Considering the vast majority of HIV-infected individuals experience plasma viral rebound upon cessation of therapy, clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of curative strategies would likely require inclusion of ART interruption. However, it is unclear what impact short-term analytical treatment interruption (ATI) and subsequent reinitiation of ART have on immunologic and virologic parameters of HIV-infected individuals...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324227/getting-the-kill-into-shock-and-kill-strategies-to-eliminate-latent-hiv
#7
REVIEW
Youry Kim, Jenny L Anderson, Sharon R Lewin
Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is currently no HIV cure and treatment is life long. HIV persists during ART due to long-lived and proliferating latently infected CD4+ T cells. One strategy to eliminate latency is to activate virus production using latency reversing agents (LRAs) with the goal of triggering cell death through virus-induced cytolysis or immune-mediated clearance. However, multiple studies have demonstrated that activation of viral transcription alone is insufficient to induce cell death and some LRAs may counteract cell death by promoting cell survival...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321320/hiv-1-specific-iga-monoclonal-antibodies-from-an-hiv-1-vaccinee-mediate-galcer-blocking-and-phagocytosis
#8
Saintedym Wills, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Pinghuang Liu, S Moses Dennison, Matthew Zirui Tay, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara, Judith T Lucas, Robert Parks, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayapan, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Rasmi Thomas, Jerome H Kim, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Mike McRaven, David C Montefiori, Thomas J Hope, Hua-Xin Liao, M Anthony Moody, Guido Ferrari, Barton F Haynes, S Munir Alam, Mattia Bonsignori, Georgia D Tomaras
Vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses comprise an array of antibody forms and specificities with only a fraction contributing to protective host immunity. Elucidation of antibody effector functions responsible for protective immunity against HIV-1 acquisition is a major goal for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important part of the host defense against pathogens; however, little is known about the role of vaccine-elicited IgA and their capacity to mediate antiviral functions. To identify the antiviral functions of HIV-1-specific IgA elicited by vaccination, we cloned HIV-1 envelope specific IgA monoclonal antibodies by memory B cell cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an RV144 vaccinee and produced two IgA clonal cell lines (HG129 and HG130) producing native, non-recombinant IgA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321222/multiple-inhibitory-factors-act-in-the-late-phase-of-hiv-1-replication-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Jean-François Gélinas, Deborah R Gill, Stephen C Hyde
The use of lentiviral vectors for therapeutic purposes has shown promising results in clinical trials. The ability to produce a clinical-grade vector at high yields remains a critical issue. One possible obstacle could be cellular factors known to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To date, five HIV restriction factors have been identified, although it is likely that more factors are involved in the complex HIV-cell interaction. Inhibitory factors that have an adverse effect but do not abolish virus production are much less well described...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321046/application-of-causal-inference-methods-in-the-analyses-of-randomised-controlled-trials-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Ruth E Farmer, Daphne Kounali, A Sarah Walker, Jelena Savović, Alison Richards, Margaret T May, Deborah Ford
BACKGROUND: Applications of causal inference methods to randomised controlled trial (RCT) data have usually focused on adjusting for compliance with the randomised intervention rather than on using RCT data to address other, non-randomised questions. In this paper we review use of causal inference methods to assess the impact of aspects of patient management other than the randomised intervention in RCTs. METHODS: We identified papers that used causal inference methodology in RCT data from Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from 1986 to September 2014, using a forward citation search of five seminal papers, and a keyword search...
January 10, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321026/lay-health-worker-experiences-administering-a-multi-level-combination-intervention-to-improve-pmtct-retention
#11
Abby DiCarlo, Ruby Fayorsey, Masila Syengo, Duncan Chege, Martin Sirengo, William Reidy, Juliana Otieno, Jackton Omoto, Mark P Hawken, Elaine J Abrams
BACKGROUND: The recent scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services has rapidly accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa. The Mother and Infant Retention for Health (MIR4Health) study evaluates the impact of a combination intervention administered by trained lay health workers to decrease attrition among HIV-positive women initiating PMTCT services and their infants through 6 months postpartum...
January 10, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316909/the-health-impact-of-residential-retreats-a-systematic-review
#12
Dhevaksha Naidoo, Adrian Schembri, Marc Cohen
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy lifestyles are a major factor in the development and exacerbation of many chronic diseases. Improving lifestyles though immersive residential experiences that promote healthy behaviours is a focus of the health retreat industry. This systematic review aims to identify and explore published studies on the health, wellbeing and economic impact of retreat experiences. METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases were searched for residential retreat studies in English published prior to February 2017...
January 10, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316885/cash-transfer-interventions-for-sexual-health-meanings-and-experiences-of-adolescent-males-and-females-in-inner-city-johannesburg
#13
Nomhle Khoza, Jonathan Stadler, Catherine MacPhail, Admire Chikandiwa, Heena Brahmbhatt, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, there is growing interest in the use of cash transfer (CT) programs for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there is limited evidence of the consequences related to CT provision to adolescents in low-resourced urban settings. We explored the experiences of adolescents receiving CTs to assess the acceptability and unintended consequences of CT strategies in urban Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: We collected qualitative data during a pilot randomized controlled trial of three CT strategies (monthly payments unconditional vs...
January 10, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316883/active-ingredients-of-a-person-centred-intervention-for-people-on-hiv-treatment-analysis-of-mixed-methods-trial-data
#14
Keira Lowther, Richard Harding, Victoria Simms, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Nancy Gikaara, Lorraine Sherr, Hellen Kariuki, Irene J Higginson, Lucy Ellen Selman
BACKGROUND: A new model of care is required to meet the changing needs of people living with HIV (PLWH), particularly in low and middle-income countries, where prevalence is highest. We evaluated a palliative care intervention for PLWH in Mombasa, Kenya. Although we found no effect on pain (primary outcome), there was a positive effect on mental health (secondary outcome) in the intervention group. To inform replication and implementation, we have determined the active ingredients of the intervention and their mechanisms of action...
January 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315112/what-is-new-in-perinatal-hiv-prevention
#15
Mary G Fowler, Patricia Flynn, Jim Aizire
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe recent clinical trial, laboratory and observational findings that highlight both the progress that can be achieved in elimination of new pediatric infections in international clinical trial settings among HIV-infected breastfeeding women while also describing recent safety concerns related to currently used antiretroviral regimens. The article will also address the ongoing adherence challenges for HIV-infected mothers in taking their antiretroviral drugs...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306990/peer-support-and-the-hiv-continuum-of-care-results-from-a-multi-site-randomized-clinical-trial-in-three-urban-clinics-in-the-united-states
#16
Howard J Cabral, Kendra Davis-Plourde, Mariana Sarango, Jane Fox, Joseph Palmisano, Serena Rajabiun
Racial/ethnic minorities living with HIV and behavioral health co-morbidities are more likely to be disengaged from HIV primary care. Peer programs have been effective in HIV outreach and prevention but effectiveness of such programs for retention in care and viral suppression is understudied. Subjects (n = 348) were randomized in equal allocation to a peer navigation and education intervention versus standard clinical care at three urban clinics in the United States. The intervention group received seven structured interventions plus weekly contact to address medical and social needs...
January 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305761/patterns-of-substance-use-and-arrest-histories-among-hospitalized-hiv-drug-users-a-latent-class-analysis
#17
Karen Shiu-Yee, Ahnalee M Brincks, Daniel J Feaster, Jemima A Frimpong, Ank Nijhawan, Raul N Mandler, Robert Schwartz, Carlos Del Rio, Lisa R Metsch
Using baseline data from the NIDA Clinical Trials Network 0049 study (Project HOPE), we performed latent class analyses (LCA) to identify discrete classes, or clusters, of people living with HIV (PLWH) based on their past year substance use behaviors and lifetime arrest history. We also performed multinomial logistic regressions to identify key characteristics associated with class membership. We identified 5 classes of substance users (minimal drug users, cocaine users, substantial cocaine/hazardous alcohol users, problem polysubstance users, substantial cocaine/heroin users) and 3 classes of arrest history (minimal arrests, non-drug arrests, drug-related arrests)...
January 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305405/real-world-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-second-generation-direct-acting-antivirals-initial-results-from-a-multicentre-canadian-retrospective-cohort-of-diverse-patients
#18
Alex I Aspinall, Abdel A Shaheen, Golasa S Kochaksaraei, Breean Haslam, Samuel S Lee, Gisela Macphail, Jeff Kapler, Oscar E Larios, Kelly W Burak, Mark G Swain, Meredith A Borman, Carla S Coffin
BACKGROUND: High hepatitis C cure rates have been observed in registration trials with second-generation direct-acting antivirals. Real-world data also indicate high sustained viral response (SVR) rates. Our objective was to determine real-world SVR rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who were treated with second-generation direct-acting antivirals in the first 18 months of their availability in Canada. METHODS: Four centres in Calgary contributed their treatment data for a diverse patient population including those who had or had not undergone liver transplantation, those coinfected with HIV and vulnerable populations...
January 5, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305322/a-systematic-review-of-palliative-care-intervention-outcomes-and-outcome-measures-in-low-resource-countries
#19
REVIEW
Maryellen Potts, Kathleen B Cartmell, Lynne Nemeth, Gautam Bhattacharjee, Suparna Qanungo
CONTEXT: To meet the growing need for palliative care in low-resource countries, palliative care programs should be evidence-based and contextually appropriate. This study was conducted to synthesize the current evidence to guide future programmatic and research efforts. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review evaluated palliative care outcome measures, outcomes, and interventions in low resource countries. METHODS: Following title searches, abstracts and full text articles were screened for inclusion...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300769/validation-of-an-automated-system-for-aliquoting-of-hiv-1-env-pseudotyped-virus-stocks
#20
Anke Schultz, Anja Germann, Martina Fuss, Marcella Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Daniel A Ozaki, David C Montefiori, Heiko Zimmermann, Hagen von Briesen
The standardized assessments of HIV-specific immune responses are of main interest in the preclinical and clinical stage of HIV-1 vaccine development. In this regard, HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses play a central role for the evaluation of neutralizing antibody profiles and are produced according to Good Clinical Laboratory Practice- (GCLP-) compliant manual and automated procedures. To further improve and complete the automated production cycle an automated system for aliquoting HIV-1 pseudovirus stocks has been implemented...
2018: PloS One
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