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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644338/hypothesis-can-the-abscopal-effect-explain-the-impact-of-adjuvant-radiotherapy-on-breast-cancer-mortality
#1
REVIEW
Ismail Jatoi, John R Benson, Ian Kunkler
Radiotherapy is an integral component of loco-regional therapy for breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials indicate that increasing the extent of extirpative surgery primarily reduces the risk of local recurrences, while the addition of radiotherapy to surgery can also reduce the risk of distant recurrences, thereby lowering breast cancer-specific mortality. This may suggest an "abscopal" effect beyond the immediate zone of loco-regional irradiation that favorably perturbs the natural history of distant micrometastases...
2018: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628799/clinical-and-immunological-correlates-of-long-term-survival-in-glioblastoma
#2
REVIEW
Bartosz Czapski, Szymon Baluszek, Christel Herold-Mende, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in adults. It represents 54% of all gliomas and 16% of all brain tumours (Ostrom et al. 2016). Despite surgery and treatment with radiotherapy plus an oral alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), tumours invariably recur, and the patient survival is an average of ~14-16 months. In this review we summarise the current understanding of multiple factors that may affect survival of patients with GBMs. In particular, we discuss recent advancements in surgery and detection of genomic-based markers with prognostic values, such as IDH1/2 mutations, MGMT gene promoter methylation, and TERT gene promoter alterations...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594250/anti-pd-l1-durvalumab-combined-with-cetuximab-and-radiotherapy-in-locally-advanced-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-a-phase-i-ii-study-ducro
#3
Pierluigi Bonomo, Isacco Desideri, Mauro Loi, Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Livia Marrazzo, Cinzia Talamonti, Daniela Greto, Stefania Pallotta, Lorenzo Livi
Introduction and background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been increasingly recognized as an immune suppressive malignancy. The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI's) in the context of recurrent/metastatic (R/M) setting anticipates the possible integration of immunotherapy into the therapeutic armamentarium of locally advanced disease. Durvalumab (DUR) is a humanized monoclonal IgG1, anti-PD-L1 antibody with promising data in R/M HNSCC. The aim of our study is to test the antitumor activity of a combined regimen incorporating an immune checkpoint inhibitor into a conventional bio-radiation strategy for the cure of unfavorable locally advanced HNSCC...
February 2018: Clinical and translational radiation oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592896/harnessing-and-optimizing-the-interplay-between-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy-to-improve-survival-outcomes
#4
Kalpana Mujoo, Clayton R Hunt, Raj K Pandita, Mauro Ferrari, Sunil Krishnan, John P Cooke, Stephen Hahn, Tej K Pandita
In the past, radiation therapy was primarily used to control local disease but recent technological advances in accurate, high-dose ionizing radiation (IR) delivery have not only increased local tumor control but in some cases reduced metastatic burden. These "off target" therapeutic effects of IR at non-irradiated tumor sites, also known as abscopal effects, are thought to be mediated by tumor antigen-primed T cells that travel to metastatic sites and promote tumor regression. Similarly, early indications reveal that IR in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) and nivolumab (anti-PD-1), can provide superior therapeutic responses...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582686/the-effects-of-radiotherapy-on-the-survival-of-patients-with-unresectable-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Paolo Tini, Valerio Nardone, Pierpaolo Pastina, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale, Antonio Giordano
Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer mortality across the worlds. At present, less than 30% of the patients can undergo curative surgery, while the majority of them (65%) are diagnosed with metastatic disease and directed to systemic treatments whose effects on the outcome of these patients depends by their performance status, disease-stage, histology, targetable-driving-mutation, and susceptibility to immunotherapy. In this context there is a subset of patients (25%) with locally advanced stage disease whose outcome might be greatly improved by using combined strategies of treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery...
March 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578440/-phytocorrection-of-immunological-and-biochemical-changes-in-the-combined-impact-of-coal-dust-and-high-dose-of-radiation
#6
L Chulenbayeva, O Ilderbayev, Zh Taldykbayev, G Ilderbayeva, A Argynbekova
The objective of this researsh is to study the effects of Eminium Regelii phytopreparation (ERP) on immune status and free radical oxidation in the tissues of the adrenal glands and immunocompetent organs after combined exposure to 6 Gy dose of gamma irradiation and coal dust (remote period). The study was realized on 30 white laboratory male rats of the Wistar line, weighing 240±20g, that were divided into equal 3 groups: I group - intact, ІІ group - were exposured to combined effects of coal dust and gamma irradiation, III group - were exposured to combined effects and in parallel taking phytopreparation Eminium Regel...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534356/-clinicopathologic-characteristics-of-burkitt-like-lymphoma-with-chromosome-11q-aberration
#7
P Wei, Y L Zhang, J L Xie, Y Y Zheng, W Liu, X G Zhou
Objective: To analyze clinical, pathological, molecular and genetic characteristics of Burkitt-like lymphoma with chromosome 11q aberration. Methods: A case of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration was presented at Beijing Friendship Hospital in November 2016 with detailed clinicopathological features, immunophenotypes, Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) status and molecular genetic characteristics. Results: The patient was a 38-year-old man presenting with the cervical lymphadenopathy. In morphology, the tumor had the similar characteristics of Burkitt lymphoma, including diffuse infiltration of medium to large lymphoid cells, and presence of"starry sky"phenomenon...
March 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500633/impaired-lymphocyte-function-in-patients-with-hepatic-malignancies-after-selective-internal-radiotherapy
#8
Aglaia Domouchtsidou, Vahé Barsegian, Stefan P Mueller, Jan Best, Judith Ertle, Sotiria Bedreli, Peter A Horn, Andreas Bockisch, Monika Lindemann
The purpose of our study was to assess the immune function of patients with inoperable hepatic malignancies after treatment with selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) and to identify possible correlations with clinical parameters. In 25 patients receiving SIRT lymphocyte proliferation and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-10) after stimulation with mitogens and microbial antigens were tested prior to therapy, directly after therapy (day 1) and at day 2, 7 and 28 post therapy using the lymphocyte transformation test and enzyme-linked immunospot assays...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419531/differential-prognostic-impact-of-strong-pd-l1-expression-and-18f-fdg-uptake-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#9
Seo Hee Choi, Jee Suk Chang, Ja Seung Koo, Jong Won Park, Joo Hyuk Sohn, Ki Chang Keum, Chang-Ok Suh, Yong Bae Kim
OBJECTIVES: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) is an aggressive disease and often associated with early distant metastases, which negate the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. We studied the clinical utility of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and other available factors in predicting clinical outcome in TNBC. METHODS: Of the 539 patients with newly diagnosed TNBC between 2004 and 2011, we analyzed 117 patients who had both tumor samples which PD-L1 protein expression could be evaluated using immunohistochemistry and initial staging F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data to find available immunologic or metabolic factors...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413421/inflammatory-reprogramming-with-ido1-inhibitors-turning-immunologically-unresponsive-cold-tumors-hot
#10
REVIEW
George C Prendergast, Arpita Mondal, Souvik Dey, Lisa D Laury-Kleintop, Alexander J Muller
We discuss how small-molecule inhibitors of the tryptophan (Trp) catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) represent a vanguard of new immunometabolic adjuvants to safely enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, radiotherapy, or 'immunogenic' chemotherapy by leveraging responses to tumor neoantigens. IDO inhibitors re-program inflammatory processes to help clear tumors by blunting tumor neovascularization and restoring immunosurveillance. Studies of regulatory and effector pathways illuminate IDO as an inflammatory modifier...
January 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384527/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-promote-colorectal-cancer-cell-death-under-low-dose-irradiation
#11
Hao Feng, Jing-Kun Zhao, Tobias S Schiergens, Pu-Xiongzhi Wang, Bao-Chi Ou, Rami Al-Sayegh, Ming-Lun Li, Ai-Guo Lu, Shuai Yin, Wolfgang E Thasler
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy remains one of the cornerstones to improve the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Radiotherapy of the CRC not only help to destroy cancer cells but also remodel the tumour microenvironment by enhancing tumour-specific tropism of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) from the peripheral circulation. However, the role of local MSCs and recruited BM-MSC under radiation were not well defined. Indeed, the functions of BM-MSC without irradiation intervention remained controversial in tumour progression: BM-MSC was previously shown to modulate the immune function of major immune cells, resulting in an impaired immunological sensitivity and to induce an increased risk of tumour recurrence...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371832/xenogeneic-cell-therapy-provides-a-novel-potential-therapeutic-option-for-cancers-by-restoring-tissue-function-repairing-cancer-wound-and-reviving-anti-tumor-immune-responses
#12
Chi-Ping Huang, Chi-Cheng Chen, Chih-Rong Shyr
Conventional cancer treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, not only destruct tumors, but also injure the normal tissues, resulting in limited efficacy. Recent advances in cancer therapy have aimed at changing the host milieu of cancer against its development and progression by targeting tumor microenvironment and host immune system to eradicate tumors. To the host body, tumors arise in tissues. They impair the normal healthy tissue physiological function, become chronically inflamed and develop non-healing or overhealing wounds as well as drive immuno-suppressive activity to escape immunity attack...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355614/head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-genomics-and-emerging-biomarkers-for-immunomodulatory-cancer-treatments
#13
REVIEW
Benjamin Solomon, Richard J Young, Danny Rischin
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the squamous epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. While many HNSCCs are related to classical etiologic factors of smoking and alcohol, a clinically, genomically, and immunologically distinct subgroup of tumors arise from the epithelium of the tonsil and the base of tongue as a result of infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In this review we describe the genomic and immunologic landscape of HNSCC, highlighting differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC...
January 30, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341162/impact-of-genomics-on-the-surgical-management-of-melanoma
#14
REVIEW
P M Ferguson, G V Long, R A Scolyer, J F Thompson
BACKGROUND: Although surgery for early-stage melanoma offers the best chance of cure, recent advances in molecular medicine have revolutionized the management of late-stage melanoma, leading to significant improvements in clinical outcomes. Research into the genomic drivers of disease and cancer immunology has not only ushered in a new era of targeted and immune-based therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma, but has also provided new tools for monitoring disease recurrence and selecting therapeutic strategies...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258856/emerging-biomarkers-for-the-combination-of-radiotherapy-and-immune-checkpoint-blockers
#15
REVIEW
Claire Lhuillier, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Silvia Chiara Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Over the past few years, multiple immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have achieved unprecedented clinical success and have been approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of an increasing number of malignancies. However, only a limited fraction of patients responds to ICBs employed as a standalone intervention, calling for the development of combinatorial regimens. Radiation therapy (RT) stands out as a very promising candidate for this purpose. Indeed, RT mediates antineoplastic effects not only by cytotoxic and cytostatic mechanisms, but also by modulating immunological functions, both locally (within the irradiated field) and systemically...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247502/immunotherapy-excluding-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-stage-i-to-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-surgery-or-radiotherapy-with-curative-intent
#16
REVIEW
Jianwei Zhu, Rui Li, Eva Tiselius, Raheleh Roudi, Olivia Teghararian, Chen Suo, Huan Song
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer, accounting for approximately 80% to 85% of all cases. For patients with localised NSCLC (stages I to III), it has been speculated that immunotherapy may be helpful for reducing postoperative recurrence rates, or improving the clinical outcomes of current treatment for unresectable tumours. While several new agents have now entered phase III clinical trials, we felt a systematic review was needed to address the question of the effectiveness and safety of immunotherapy in patients with stages I to III NSCLC...
December 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220290/synovial-sarcoma-current-concepts-and-future-perspectives
#17
Silvia Stacchiotti, Brian Andrew Van Tine
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare sarcoma driven by a translocation between SS18 and SSX 1, 2, or 4. With approximately 800 to 1,000 cases a year in the United States, it most commonly affects young adults between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The resultant tumors are either monophasic (pure sarcomas), biphasic (a combination or epithelioid and sarcomatous components), or poorly differentiated. The hybrid transcription factor SS18:SSX alters SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling and global methylation patterns that may allow for future therapeutic opportunities...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192723/radiation-suppresses-neointimal-hyperplasia-through-affecting-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Liqin Yuan, Chang Shu, Xiao Zhou, Jiehua Li, Lunchang Wang, Xin Li, Xiang Xiong, Lun Li
PURPOSE: To study the effect of x-ray radiotherapy on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and elucidate the mechanisms in preventing neointimal hyperplasia of prosthetic vascular grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In model I, twelve mongrel dogs underwent revascularization with prosthetic grafts and half the dogs underwent irradiation of the grafts at 28 Gy. In model II, human VSMCs (hVSMCs) were maintained and divided into six groups to which external radiation was applied at six different doses: 0 Gy, 2 Gy, 8 Gy, 16 Gy, 24 Gy and 30 Gy...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171098/can-bladder-preservation-therapy-come-to-the-center-stage
#19
REVIEW
Teruo Inamoto, Naokazu Ibuki, Kazumasa Komura, Hiroshi Juri, Kiyohito Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Kazutoshi Fujita, Norio Nonomura, Yoshifumi Narumi, Haruhito Azuma
Decision-making in urological cancer care requires a multidisciplinary approach for refinement, but its impact on urothelial carcinoma of the bladder has not been fully addressed for the past three decades, except for the latest immunological checkpoint inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer that is resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. For the time being, radical cystectomy is the gold standard of curative therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer...
February 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#20
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
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