Read by QxMD icon Read

immunology radiotherapy

S Kanda, K Goto, H Shiraishi, E Kubo, A Tanaka, H Utsumi, K Sunami, S Kitazono, H Mizugaki, H Horinouchi, Y Fujiwara, H Nokihara, N Yamamoto, H Hozumi, T Tamura
BACKGROUND: The human IgG4 monoclonal antibody nivolumab targets programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and promotes antitumor response by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands. This single-center phase Ib study investigated the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of nivolumab combined with standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who had stage IIIB without indication for definitive radiotherapy, stage IV, or recurrent NSCLC were eligible...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Dan Ishihara, Laurentiu Pop, Tsuguhide Takeshima, Puneeth Iyengar, Raquibul Hannan
Cancer immunotherapy exploits the immune system's ability to differentiate between tumor target cells and host cells. Except for limited success against a few tumor types, most immunotherapies have not achieved the desired clinical efficacy until recently. The field of cancer immunotherapy has flourished with a variety of new agents for clinical use, and remarkable progress has been made in the design of effective immunotherapeutic regimens. Furthermore, the therapeutic outcome of these novel agents is enhanced when combined with conventional cancer treatment modalities including radiotherapy (RT)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Elwira Szychot, Jarosław Peregud-Pogorzelski, Paweł Wawryków, Andrzej Brodkiewicz
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial malignancy of childhood, with the highest incidence in children younger than 4 years. The prognosis depends on many factors, such as age at diagnosis, stage of disease and molecular genetic subtype. More than 50% of children who present with the disease are deemed to have high-risk neuroblastoma. The standard therapy for children with high-risk neuroblastoma consists of intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, myeloablative consolidation with autologous haematopoietic stem cell rescue followed by the treatment of minimal residual disease with 13-cis-retinoic acid...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Liam Masterson, Matt Lechner, Sarah Loewenbein, Hassan Mohammed, Cameron Davies-Husband, Tim Fenton, Holger Sudhoff, Piyush Jani, Peter Goon, Jane Sterling
INTRODUCTION: Immunological response to human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development and progression of HPV16+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) (accounting for the majority of viral associated cases) is largely unknown and may provide important insights for new therapeutic strategies. METHODS: In this prospective clinical trial (UKCRN11945), we examined cell-mediated immune responses to HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 in peripheral blood using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Daniel L P Holyoake, Elizabeth Ward, Derek Grose, David McIntosh, David Sebag-Montefiore, Ganesh Radhakrishna, Neel Patel, Michael Silva, Somnath Mukherjee, Victoria Y Strauss, Lang'o Odondi, Emmanouil Fokas, Alan Melcher, Maria A Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for borderline-resectable pancreatic cancer in the UK is surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy, but rates of resection with clear margins are unsatisfactory and overall survival remains poor. Meta-analysis of single-arm studies shows the potential of neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy but the relative radio-resistance of pancreatic cancer means the efficacy of conventional dose schedules is limited. Stereotactic radiotherapy achieves sufficient accuracy and precision to enable pre-operative margin-intensive dose escalation with the goal of increasing rates of clear resection margins and local disease control...
2016: BMC Cancer
Adeola Y Makinde, Iris Eke, Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Mansoor M Ahmed, C Norman Coleman
The dramatic changes in the technological delivery of radiation therapy, the repertoire of molecular targets for which pathway inhibitors are available, and the cellular and immunologic responses that can alter long-term clinical outcome provide a potentially unique role for using the radiation-inducible changes as therapeutic targets. Various mathematical models of dose and fractionation are extraordinarily useful in guiding treatment regimens. However, although the model may fit the clinical outcome, a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular effect of the individual dose size and the adaptation to repeated exposure, called multifraction (MF) adaptation, may provide new therapeutic targets for use in combined modality treatments using radiochemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy...
October 2016: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
Tobias Weiss, Michael Weller, Patrick Roth
INTRODUCTION: The mainstays of brain tumor therapy are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy is explored as an additional treatment modality. However, emerging evidence indicates that also radio- and chemotherapy have immunological effects in addition to their cytotoxic and cytostatic activities. AREA COVERED: We summarize the literature on radio- and chemotherapy-mediated immunological effects in primary and secondary brain tumors and outline open questions within the field...
October 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Ru Liu, Jianlong Zhang, Chunyu He, Qiong Jiang, Jinsong Liu, Ruitai Fan
To study the impact of radiotherapy combined with cisplatin plus paclitaxel chemotherapy on the immunologic functions in the patients with esophageal cancer, from July 2012 to September 2014, 82 patients of esophageal cancer which were receiving treatment in our hospital chose out for this research. Among them, 42 patients received radiotherapy only, as the control group; while the other 40 patients with concurrent cisplatin plus paclitaxel chemo radiotherapy was taken as the observation group. Then the immunologic functions, toxic and side effects were compared between the two groups as well as the survival rates after 3-year-followup-visit, Th level of the total T cells, Th cells and the ratio of Th cells to Ts cells after receiving treatment all increased significantly compared with prior treatment...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fernanda G Herrera, Jean Bourhis, George Coukos
Approximately one-half of patients with newly diagnosed cancer and many patients with persistent or recurrent tumors receive radiotherapy (RT), with the explicit goal of eliminating tumors through direct killing. The current RT dose and schedule regimens have been empirically developed. Although early clinical studies revealed that RT could provoke important responses not only at the site of treatment but also on remote, nonirradiated tumor deposits-the so-called "abscopal effect"- the underlying mechanisms were poorly understood and were not therapeutically exploited...
August 29, 2016: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Benjamin Frey, Anja Derer, Heike Scheithauer, Roland Wunderlich, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl
Radiotherapy (RT) predominantly is aimed to induce DNA damage in tumour cells that results in reduction of their clonogenicity and finally in tumour cell death. Adaptation of RT with higher single doses has become necessary and led to a more detailed view on what kind of tumour cell death is induced and which immunological consequences result from it. RT is capable of rendering tumour cells immunogenic by modifying the tumour cell phenotype and the microenvironment. Danger signals are released as well as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Pierfrancesco Franco, Alba Fiorentino, Francesco Dionisi, Michele Fiore, Silvia Chiesa, Stefano Vagge, Francesco Cellini, Luciana Caravatta, Mario Tombolini, Fiorenza De Rose, Icro Meattini, Gianluca Mortellaro, Giuseppina Apicella, Lorenza Marino, Daniela Greto
PURPOSE: Combined modality therapy is a mainstay option for thoracic malignancies and head and neck cancers. The integration of different strategies is based on the multidisciplinary approach of modern clinical oncology. Radiation oncologists have to be educated, trained, and updated to provide state-of-the-art care to cancer patients and thus educational meetings are crucial. METHODS: The Italian Association of Radiation Oncology Young Members Working Group (AIRO Giovani) organized its 8th national meeting, focused on combination therapy in lung, esophageal, and head and neck cancer (with a specific focus on larynx-preservation strategies for larynx/hypopharynx tumors), involving young professionals working in Italy...
October 13, 2016: Tumori
X-L Tian, Z Yan, J Chen, W-H Zhao, W Guo
This review article summarized 100 published research papers and reviewed the application status of highly agglutinative staphylococcin in the clinical treatment of cancer. Highly agglutinative staphylococcin (HAS) derives from the superantigen of Staphylococcus aureus metabolite. Studies have shown that HAS can inhibit and kill tumors, repair tissues and cells, increase white blood cell count and improve the immune function. Its immunological effect acts through the following mechanism: activating T-cells and natural killer cells, enhancing phagocytes' phagocytosis and killing ability of lymphocytes, increasing white blood cell count in peripheral blood, repairing impaired histocytes, and inhibit the growth of tumor cells...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Vishwajith Sridharan, Danielle N Margalit, Stephanie A Lynch, Mariano Severgnini, F Stephen Hodi, Robert I Haddad, Roy B Tishler, Jonathan D Schoenfeld
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies suggest a synergistic effect between radiation, immunotherapy and anti-angiogenic therapy, although the mechanisms are unclear. Angiogenic cytokines are known to affect the immune system, and their levels may be associated with response to immunotherapy. Here, we assess changes in circulating VEGF, as well as angiogenic cytokines angiopoietin-1 and -2 (Ang1, Ang2), and placental growth factor (PLGF) that occur during definitive chemo-radiotherapy in HNSCC patients...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Jorge Tadeo Palacios-Zertuche, Servando Cardona-Huerta, María Luisa Juárez-García, Everardo Valdés-Flores, Gerardo Enrique Muñoz-Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. CLINICAL CASE: The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound...
June 15, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
João Paulo Figueiró Longo, Luis Alexandre Muehlmann, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela, Flávia Arruda Portilho, Ludmilla Regina de Souza, Jaqueline Rodrigues Silva, Zulmira Guerrero Marques Lacava, Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca, Sacha Braun Chaves, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo
The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of photodynamic therapy mediated by aluminum-chlorophthalocyanine contained in a polymeric nanostructured carrier composed by methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride (PVM/MA) against local subcutaneous breast cancer tumors and its effects against distant metastasis in a mouse tumor model. In our results, we observed a decrease in breast cancer tumor growth, prevention of distant lung metastases, and a significant increased survival in mice treated with photodynamic therapy...
April 2016: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Samuel K Kim, Cheng-Chia Wu, David P Horowitz
With recent advances in imaging modalities and radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has allowed for the delivery of high doses of radiation with accuracy and precision. As such, SBRT has generated favorable results in the treatment of several cancers. Although the role of radiation has been controversial for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) due to rather lackluster results in clinical trials, SBRT may offer improved outcomes, enhance the quality of life, and aid in palliative care settings for PDAC patients...
June 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Simon J Dovedi, Grazyna Lipowska-Bhalla, Stephen A Beers, Eleanor J Cheadle, Lijun Mu, Martin J Glennie, Timothy M Illidge, Jamie Honeychurch
Tumor cells dying after cytotoxic therapy are a potential source of antigen for T-cell priming. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) can cross-present MHC I-restricted peptides after the uptake of dying cells. Depending on the nature of the surrounding environmental signals, APCs then orchestrate a spectrum of responses ranging from immune activation to inhibition. Previously, we had demonstrated that combining radiation with either agonistic monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD40 or a systemically administered TLR7 agonist could enhance CD8 T-cell-dependent protection against syngeneic murine lymphoma models...
July 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Mihail Tuşaliu, Viorel Zainea, Carmen Aurelia Mogoantă, Ana Alexandra Dragu, Cristina Maria GoanŢă, Maria NiŢescu, Marina Ruxandra OŢelea, Vlad Andrei Budu
Among head and neck malignancies, lymphoma is the second most frequent cause. They can develop in the head and neck lymph nodes or as extranodal determinations. The onset of malignant lymphoma outside of lymph node registers increasingly frequent, currently over 30% of malignant lymphoma are diagnosed as taking place outside the lymph nodes. The aim of this paper is bringing in discussion and the presentation of current elements on the diagnosis and treatment in case of malignant sinonasal lymphoma, a pathological entity with a growing incidence...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Hana Jedlickova, Veronika Durčanská, Vladimír Vašků
Dear Editor, Scleroderma associated with neoplasia is rare, with only a small number of cases reported. We describe 4 patients with paraneoplastic scleroderma who were treated at the I. Department of Dermatovenereology, St. Anna Hospital, during the period between 2004 and 2014. The patients were diagnosed with cholangiogenic carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and adenoma of the suprarenal gland. In the case of concurrent scleroderma and tumor, four situations may occur: they can develop independently of each other; scleroderma may be induced by the tumor; the tumor can develop in the scleroderma; or the tumor can be induced by immunosuppressive therapy...
April 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Sara Carvalho, Esther G C Troost, Judith Bons, Paul Menheere, Philippe Lambin, Cary Oberije
AIM: Improve the prognostic prediction of clinical variables for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), by selecting from blood-biomarkers, non-invasively describing hypoxia, inflammation and tumour load. METHODS: Model development and validation included 182 and 181 inoperable stage I-IIIB NSCLC patients treated radically with radiotherapy (55.2%) or chemo-radiotherapy (44.8%). Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), selected from blood-biomarkers related to hypoxia [osteopontin (OPN) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX)], inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP)], and tumour load [carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (Cyfra 21-1)]...
June 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"