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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419531/differential-prognostic-impact-of-strong-pd-l1-expression-and-18f-fdg-uptake-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#1
Seo Hee Choi, Jee Suk Chang, Ja Seung Koo, Jong Won Park, Joo Hyuk Sohn, Ki Chang Keum, Chang-Ok Suh, Yong Bae Kim
OBJECTIVES: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) is an aggressive disease and often associated with early distant metastases, which negate the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. We studied the clinical utility of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and other available factors in predicting clinical outcome in TNBC. METHODS: Of the 539 patients with newly diagnosed TNBC between 2004 and 2011, we analyzed 117 patients who had both tumor samples which PD-L1 protein expression could be evaluated using immunohistochemistry and initial staging F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data to find available immunologic or metabolic factors...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413421/inflammatory-reprogramming-with-ido1-inhibitors-turning-immunologically-unresponsive-cold-tumors-hot
#2
REVIEW
George C Prendergast, Arpita Mondal, Souvik Dey, Lisa D Laury-Kleintop, Alexander J Muller
We discuss how small-molecule inhibitors of the tryptophan (Trp) catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) represent a vanguard of new immunometabolic adjuvants to safely enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, radiotherapy, or 'immunogenic' chemotherapy by leveraging responses to tumor neoantigens. IDO inhibitors re-program inflammatory processes to help clear tumors by blunting tumor neovascularization and restoring immunosurveillance. Studies of regulatory and effector pathways illuminate IDO as an inflammatory modifier...
January 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384527/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-promote-colorectal-cancer-cell-death-under-low-dose-irradiation
#3
Hao Feng, Jing-Kun Zhao, Tobias S Schiergens, Pu-Xiongzhi Wang, Bao-Chi Ou, Rami Al-Sayegh, Ming-Lun Li, Ai-Guo Lu, Shuai Yin, Wolfgang E Thasler
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy remains one of the cornerstones to improve the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Radiotherapy of the CRC not only help to destroy cancer cells but also remodel the tumour microenvironment by enhancing tumour-specific tropism of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) from the peripheral circulation. However, the role of local MSCs and recruited BM-MSC under radiation were not well defined. Indeed, the functions of BM-MSC without irradiation intervention remained controversial in tumour progression: BM-MSC was previously shown to modulate the immune function of major immune cells, resulting in an impaired immunological sensitivity and to induce an increased risk of tumour recurrence...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371832/xenogeneic-cell-therapy-provides-a-novel-potential-therapeutic-option-for-cancers-by-restoring-tissue-function-repairing-cancer-wound-and-reviving-anti-tumor-immune-responses
#4
Chi-Ping Huang, Chi-Cheng Chen, Chih-Rong Shyr
Conventional cancer treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, not only destruct tumors, but also injure the normal tissues, resulting in limited efficacy. Recent advances in cancer therapy have aimed at changing the host milieu of cancer against its development and progression by targeting tumor microenvironment and host immune system to eradicate tumors. To the host body, tumors arise in tissues. They impair the normal healthy tissue physiological function, become chronically inflamed and develop non-healing or overhealing wounds as well as drive immuno-suppressive activity to escape immunity attack...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355614/head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-genomics-and-emerging-biomarkers-for-immunomodulatory-cancer-treatments
#5
REVIEW
Benjamin Solomon, Richard J Young, Danny Rischin
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the squamous epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. While many HNSCCs are related to classical etiologic factors of smoking and alcohol, a clinically, genomically, and immunologically distinct subgroup of tumors arise from the epithelium of the tonsil and the base of tongue as a result of infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In this review we describe the genomic and immunologic landscape of HNSCC, highlighting differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC...
January 17, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341162/impact-of-genomics-on-the-surgical-management-of-melanoma
#6
REVIEW
P M Ferguson, G V Long, R A Scolyer, J F Thompson
BACKGROUND: Although surgery for early-stage melanoma offers the best chance of cure, recent advances in molecular medicine have revolutionized the management of late-stage melanoma, leading to significant improvements in clinical outcomes. Research into the genomic drivers of disease and cancer immunology has not only ushered in a new era of targeted and immune-based therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma, but has also provided new tools for monitoring disease recurrence and selecting therapeutic strategies...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258856/emerging-biomarkers-for-the-combination-of-radiotherapy-and-immune-checkpoint-blockers
#7
REVIEW
Claire Lhuillier, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Silvia Chiara Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Over the past few years, multiple immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have achieved unprecedented clinical success and have been approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of an increasing number of malignancies. However, only a limited fraction of patients responds to ICBs employed as a standalone intervention, calling for the development of combinatorial regimens. Radiation therapy (RT) stands out as a very promising candidate for this purpose. Indeed, RT mediates antineoplastic effects not only by cytotoxic and cytostatic mechanisms, but also by modulating immunological functions, both locally (within the irradiated field) and systemically...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247502/immunotherapy-excluding-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-stage-i-to-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-surgery-or-radiotherapy-with-curative-intent
#8
REVIEW
Jianwei Zhu, Rui Li, Eva Tiselius, Raheleh Roudi, Olivia Teghararian, Chen Suo, Huan Song
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer, accounting for approximately 80% to 85% of all cases. For patients with localised NSCLC (stages I to III), it has been speculated that immunotherapy may be helpful for reducing postoperative recurrence rates, or improving the clinical outcomes of current treatment for unresectable tumours. While several new agents have now entered phase III clinical trials, we felt a systematic review was needed to address the question of the effectiveness and safety of immunotherapy in patients with stages I to III NSCLC...
December 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220290/synovial-sarcoma-current-concepts-and-future-perspectives
#9
Silvia Stacchiotti, Brian Andrew Van Tine
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare sarcoma driven by a translocation between SS18 and SSX 1, 2, or 4. With approximately 800 to 1,000 cases a year in the United States, it most commonly affects young adults between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The resultant tumors are either monophasic (pure sarcomas), biphasic (a combination or epithelioid and sarcomatous components), or poorly differentiated. The hybrid transcription factor SS18:SSX alters SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling and global methylation patterns that may allow for future therapeutic opportunities...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192723/radiation-suppresses-neointimal-hyperplasia-through-affecting-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#10
Liqin Yuan, Chang Shu, Xiao Zhou, Jiehua Li, Lunchang Wang, Xin Li, Xiang Xiong, Lun Li
PURPOSE: To study the effect of x-ray radiotherapy on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and elucidate the mechanisms in preventing neointimal hyperplasia of prosthetic vascular grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In model I, twelve mongrel dogs underwent revascularization with prosthetic grafts and half the dogs underwent irradiation of the grafts at 28 Gy. In model II, human VSMCs (hVSMCs) were maintained and divided into six groups to which external radiation was applied at six different doses: 0 Gy, 2 Gy, 8 Gy, 16 Gy, 24 Gy and 30 Gy...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171098/can-bladder-preservation-therapy-come-to-the-center-stage
#11
REVIEW
Teruo Inamoto, Naokazu Ibuki, Kazumasa Komura, Hiroshi Juri, Kiyohito Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Kazutoshi Fujita, Norio Nonomura, Yoshifumi Narumi, Haruhito Azuma
Decision-making in urological cancer care requires a multidisciplinary approach for refinement, but its impact on urothelial carcinoma of the bladder has not been fully addressed for the past three decades, except for the latest immunological checkpoint inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer that is resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. For the time being, radical cystectomy is the gold standard of curative therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#12
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145885/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-melanoma-bridge-napoli-november-30th-3rd-december-2016
#13
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv S Agarwala, Gennaro Ciliberto, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Connie P M Duong, Soldano Ferrone, Silvia C Formenti, Claus Garbe, Ruth Halaban, Samir Khleif, Jason J Luke, Lluis M Mir, Willem W Overwijk, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Paul Sondel, Janis M Taube, Per Thor Straten, David F Stroncek, Jennifer A Wargo, Hassane Zarour, Magdalena Thurin
Major advances have been made in the treatment of cancer with targeted therapy and immunotherapy; several FDA-approved agents with associated improvement of 1-year survival rates became available for stage IV melanoma patients. Before 2010, the 1-year survival were quite low, at 30%; in 2011, the rise to nearly 50% in the setting of treatment with Ipilimumab, and rise to 70% with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy in 2013 was observed. Even more impressive are 1-year survival rates considering combination strategies with both targeted therapy and immunotherapy, now exceeding 80%...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109964/immunotherapy-as-a-promising-treatment-for-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Marlena Janiczek, Łukasz Szylberg, Anna Kasperska, Adam Kowalewski, Martyna Parol, Paulina Antosik, Barbara Radecka, Andrzej Marszałek
Prostate cancer treatment is currently based on surgical removal, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy. In recent years, another therapeutic method has emerged-immunological treatment. Immunotherapy modulates and strengthens one's immune responses against cancer. Neoplastic cells naturally escape from the control of the immune system, and the main goal of immune therapy is to bring the control back. Satisfying outcomes after treatment of advanced melanoma and lung cancer suggest a great potential of immunotherapy as an approach for other tumors' treatment, especially in patients primarily introduced to palliative care...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108250/local-irradiation-does-not-enhance-the-effect-of-immunostimulatory-adcd40l-gene-therapy-combined-with-low-dose-cyclophosphamide-in-melanoma-patients
#15
Sandra Irenaeus, Aglaia Schiza, Sara M Mangsbo, Jessica Wenthe, Emma Eriksson, Johan Krause, Anders Sundin, Håkan Ahlström, Thomas H Tötterman, Angelica Loskog, Gustav J Ullenhag
Background: AdCD40L is an immunostimulatory gene therapy under evaluation for advanced melanoma, including ocular melanoma. Herein, we present the final data of a Phase I/IIa trial using AdCD40L alone or in combination with low dose cyclophosphamide +/- radiation therapy. Methods: AdCD40L is a replication-deficient adenovirus carrying the gene for CD40 ligand (CD40L). Twenty-four patients with advanced melanoma were enrolled and treated with AdCD40L monotherapy, or combined with cyclophosphamide +/- single fraction radiotherapy...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100279/radiotherapy-prolongs-the-survival-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-undergone-to-an-immune-modulating-treatment-with-dose-fractioned-cisplatin-and-metronomic-etoposide-and-bevacizumab-mpebev
#16
Pierpaolo Pastina, Valerio Nardone, Cirino Botta, Stefania Croci, Paolo Tini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Veronica Ricci, Maria Grazia Cusi, Claudia Gandolfo, Gabriella Misso, Silvia Zappavigna, Michele Caraglia, Antonio Giordano, Donatella Aldinucci, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale
Radiotherapy (RT), together with a direct cytolytic effect on tumor tissue, also elicits systemic immunological events, which sometimes result in the regression of distant metastases (abscopal effect). We have shown the safety and anti-tumor activity of a novel metronomic chemotherapy (mCH) regimen with dose-fractioned cisplatin, oral etoposide and bevacizumab, a mAb against the vasculo-endothelial-growth-factor (mPEBev regimen), in metastatic non-small-cell-lung cancer (mNSCLC). This regimen, designed on the results of translational studies, showed immune-modulating effects that could trigger and empower the immunological effects associated with tumor irradiation...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081765/breast-cancer-vaccines-new-insights
#17
REVIEW
Rosaria Benedetti, Carmela Dell'Aversana, Cristina Giorgio, Roberta Astorri, Lucia Altucci
Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and recurrence with different modalities...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081195/-impact-of-intensified-maintenance-therapy-on-the-prognosis-of-children-and-adolescents-with-advanced-lymphoblastic-lymphoma
#18
K B Yang, X F Sun, Z Z Zhen, S Y Lu, J Zhu, F F Sun, J Wang, J T Huang, R R Chen, L T Ye, Y Liu, Z Y You
Objective: To investigate the impact of intensified maintenance therapy on the prognosis of children and adolescents with advanced lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) . Methods: Retrospective analysis on the treatment results of children and adolescents with stage Ⅲ and stage Ⅳ LBL who underwent BFM-NHL-90/-95 regimen without prophylactic radiotherapy. The intensified therapy group included the patients admitted from 1998 to 2005, while others were classified as the non-intensified therapy group. Patients in the intensified therapy group were intravenously treated with "etoposide phosphate plus cytrarabine" and high-dose methotrexate alternately per 2...
September 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072302/merkel-cell-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Jürgen C Becker, Andreas Stang, James A DeCaprio, Lorenzo Cerroni, Celeste Lebbé, Michael Veness, Paul Nghiem
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive skin cancer with neuroendocrine features. MCC pathogenesis is associated with either the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus or chronic exposure to ultraviolet light (UV), which can cause a characteristic pattern of multiple DNA mutations. Notably, in the Northern hemisphere, the majority of MCC cases are of viral aetiology; by contrast, in areas with high UV exposure, UV-mediated carcinogenesis is predominant. The two aetiologies share similar clinical, histopathological and prognostic characteristics...
October 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064420/immunogenomic-classification-of-colorectal-cancer-and-therapeutic-implications
#20
REVIEW
Jessica Roelands, Peter J K Kuppen, Louis Vermeulen, Cristina Maccalli, Julie Decock, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola, Davide Bedognetti, Wouter Hendrickx
The immune system has a substantial effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Additionally, the response to immunotherapeutics and conventional treatment options (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies) is influenced by the immune system. The molecular characterization of colorectal cancer (CRC) has led to the identification of favorable and unfavorable immunological attributes linked to clinical outcome. With the definition of consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs) based on transcriptomic profiles, multiple characteristics have been proposed to be responsible for the development of the tumor immune microenvironment and corresponding mechanisms of immune escape...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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