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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881982/milestones-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-first-human-studies-to-current-developments
#1
REVIEW
Mateja Kralj Juric, Sakhila Ghimire, Justyna Ogonek, Eva M Weissinger, Ernst Holler, Jon J van Rood, Machteld Oudshoorn, Anne Dickinson, Hildegard T Greinix
Since the early beginnings, in the 1950s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary, and immunological diseases. This has become possible due to worldwide efforts of preclinical and clinical research focusing on issues of transplant immunology, reduction of transplant-associated morbidity, and mortality and efficient malignant disease eradication. The latter has been accomplished by potent graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effector cells contained in the stem cell graft...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823645/neuroblastoma-peripheral-neuroblastic-tumours
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Luksch, Maria Rita Castellani, Paola Collini, Bruno De Bernardi, Massimo Conte, Claudio Gambini, Lorenza Gandola, Alberto Garaventa, Davide Biasoni, Marta Podda, Angela Rita Sementa, Gemma Gatta, Gian Paolo Tonini
Peripheral neuroblastic tumours (PNTs), a family of tumours arising in the embryonal remnants of the sympathetic nervous system, account for 7-10% of all tumours in children. In two-thirds of cases, PNTs originate in the adrenal glands or the retroperitoneal ganglia. At least one third present metastases at onset, with bone and bone marrow being the most frequent metastatic sites. Disease extension, MYCN oncogene status and age are the most relevant prognostic factors, and their influence on outcome have been considered in the design of the recent treatment protocols...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814617/tumor-abolition-and-antitumor-immunostimulation-by-physico-chemical-tumor%C3%A2-ablation
#3
Yona Keisari
Tumor ablation by thermal, chemical and radiological sources has received substantial attention for the treatment of many localized malignancies. The primary goal of most ablation procedures is to eradicate all viable malignant cells within a designated target volume through the application of energy or chemicals. Methods such as radiotherapy, chemical and biological ablation, photodynamic therapy, cryoablation, high-temperature ablation (radiofrequency, microwave, laser, and ultrasound), and electric-based ablation have been developed for focal malignancies...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813697/radioprotective-effect-of-green-tea-and-grape-seed-extracts-mixture-on-gamma-irradiation-induced-immune-suppression-in-male-albino-rats
#4
W El-Desouky, A H Mahmoud, M M Abbas
: Green tea extract (GTE) and grape seed extract (GSE) have antioxidant and radioprotective effects. The current study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effect of GTE and GSE mixture on radiation induced immune suppression in rats. METHOD: 35 male albino rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (control rats). The 2(nd) and 3(rd) groups rats were exposed to a single dose of gamma radiation (5 and 10Gy) respectively. The 4(th) and 5(th) groups of rats were gamma irradiated with 5 and 10Gy respectively, then administrated by gavage with GTE and GSE mixture (100 mg: 200 mg/kg B...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803050/immunological-mechanisms-underneath-the-efficacy-of-cancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer
Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that the success of several anticancer agents-including some conventional chemotherapeutics, targeted anticancer agents as well as specific forms of radiotherapy-depends (at least in part) on their ability to stimulate anticancer immune responses. Such immunostimulatory effects can be "on-target," i.e., they originate within cancer cells, or "off-target," i.e., they develop from a heretofore unsuspected interaction between cancer therapy and the immune system...
November 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791459/tumor-infiltrating-t-lymphocytes-expressing-foxp3-ccr7-or-pd-1-predict-the-outcome-of-prostate-cancer-patients-subjected-to-salvage-radiotherapy-after-biochemical-relapse
#6
Valerio Nardone, Cirino Botta, Michele Caraglia, Elodia Claudia Martino, Maria Raffaella Ambrosio, Tommaso Carfagno, Paolo Tini, Leonardo Semeraro, Gabriella Misso, Anna Grimaldi, Mariarosaria Boccellino, Gaetano Facchini, Massimiliano Berretta, Gianluca Vischi, Bruno Jim Rocca, Aurora Barone, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Maria Teresa Del Vecchio, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale
Tumor immunologic microenvironment is strongly involved in tumor progression and the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with different phenotypes has been demonstrated to be of prognostic relevance in different malignancies. We investigated whether TIL infiltration of tumor tissues could also predict the outcome of prostate cancer patients. To this end, we carried out a retrospective analysis correlating the outcome of locally advanced prostate cancer patients undergone salvage radiotherapy upon relapse after radical surgery with the infiltration by different TIL populations...
October 28, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765756/safety-and-efficacy-of-nivolumab-and-standard-chemotherapy-drug-combination-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-four-arms-phase-ib-study
#7
S Kanda, K Goto, H Shiraishi, E Kubo, A Tanaka, H Utsumi, K Sunami, S Kitazono, H Mizugaki, H Horinouchi, Y Fujiwara, H Nokihara, N Yamamoto, H Hozumi, T Tamura
BACKGROUND: The human IgG4 monoclonal antibody nivolumab targets programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and promotes antitumor response by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands. This single-center phase Ib study investigated the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of nivolumab combined with standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who had stage IIIB without indication for definitive radiotherapy, stage IV, or recurrent NSCLC were eligible...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743027/rationale-and-evidence-to-combine-radiation-therapy-and-immunotherapy-for-cancer-treatment
#8
Dan Ishihara, Laurentiu Pop, Tsuguhide Takeshima, Puneeth Iyengar, Raquibul Hannan
Cancer immunotherapy exploits the immune system's ability to differentiate between tumor target cells and host cells. Except for limited success against a few tumor types, most immunotherapies have not achieved the desired clinical efficacy until recently. The field of cancer immunotherapy has flourished with a variety of new agents for clinical use, and remarkable progress has been made in the design of effective immunotherapeutic regimens. Furthermore, the therapeutic outcome of these novel agents is enhanced when combined with conventional cancer treatment modalities including radiotherapy (RT)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708204/evidence-for-the-efficacy-of-immunotherapy-in-children-with-high-risk-neuroblastoma
#9
Elwira Szychot, Jarosław Peregud-Pogorzelski, Paweł Wawryków, Andrzej Brodkiewicz
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial malignancy of childhood, with the highest incidence in children younger than 4 years. The prognosis depends on many factors, such as age at diagnosis, stage of disease and molecular genetic subtype. More than 50% of children who present with the disease are deemed to have high-risk neuroblastoma. The standard therapy for children with high-risk neuroblastoma consists of intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, myeloablative consolidation with autologous haematopoietic stem cell rescue followed by the treatment of minimal residual disease with 13-cis-retinoic acid...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669501/cd8-t-cell-response-to-human-papillomavirus-16-e7-is-able-to-predict-survival-outcome-in-oropharyngeal-cancer
#10
Liam Masterson, Matt Lechner, Sarah Loewenbein, Hassan Mohammed, Cameron Davies-Husband, Tim Fenton, Holger Sudhoff, Piyush Jani, Peter Goon, Jane Sterling
INTRODUCTION: Immunological response to human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development and progression of HPV16+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) (accounting for the majority of viral associated cases) is largely unknown and may provide important insights for new therapeutic strategies. METHODS: In this prospective clinical trial (UKCRN11945), we examined cell-mediated immune responses to HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 in peripheral blood using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619800/a-phase-i-trial-of-pre-operative-margin-intensive-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-the-sparc-trial-protocol
#11
Daniel L P Holyoake, Elizabeth Ward, Derek Grose, David McIntosh, David Sebag-Montefiore, Ganesh Radhakrishna, Neel Patel, Michael Silva, Somnath Mukherjee, Victoria Y Strauss, Lang'o Odondi, Emmanouil Fokas, Alan Melcher, Maria A Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for borderline-resectable pancreatic cancer in the UK is surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy, but rates of resection with clear margins are unsatisfactory and overall survival remains poor. Meta-analysis of single-arm studies shows the potential of neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy but the relative radio-resistance of pancreatic cancer means the efficacy of conventional dose schedules is limited. Stereotactic radiotherapy achieves sufficient accuracy and precision to enable pre-operative margin-intensive dose escalation with the goal of increasing rates of clear resection margins and local disease control...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619247/exploiting-gene-expression-kinetics-in-conventional-radiotherapy-hyperfractionation-and-hypofractionation-for-targeted-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Adeola Y Makinde, Iris Eke, Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Mansoor M Ahmed, C Norman Coleman
The dramatic changes in the technological delivery of radiation therapy, the repertoire of molecular targets for which pathway inhibitors are available, and the cellular and immunologic responses that can alter long-term clinical outcome provide a potentially unique role for using the radiation-inducible changes as therapeutic targets. Various mathematical models of dose and fractionation are extraordinarily useful in guiding treatment regimens. However, although the model may fit the clinical outcome, a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular effect of the individual dose size and the adaptation to repeated exposure, called multifraction (MF) adaptation, may provide new therapeutic targets for use in combined modality treatments using radiochemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy...
October 2016: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598516/immunological-effects-of-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-against-brain-tumors
#13
Tobias Weiss, Michael Weller, Patrick Roth
INTRODUCTION: The mainstays of brain tumor therapy are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy is explored as an additional treatment modality. However, emerging evidence indicates that also radio- and chemotherapy have immunological effects in addition to their cytotoxic and cytostatic activities. AREA COVERED: We summarize the literature on radio- and chemotherapy-mediated immunological effects in primary and secondary brain tumors and outline open questions within the field...
October 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592476/impact-of-the-radiotherapy-combined-with-cisplatin-plus-paclitaxel-chemotherapy-on-the-immunologic-functions-in-the-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#14
Ru Liu, Jianlong Zhang, Chunyu He, Qiong Jiang, Jinsong Liu, Ruitai Fan
To study the impact of radiotherapy combined with cisplatin plus paclitaxel chemotherapy on the immunologic functions in the patients with esophageal cancer, from July 2012 to September 2014, 82 patients of esophageal cancer which were receiving treatment in our hospital chose out for this research. Among them, 42 patients received radiotherapy only, as the control group; while the other 40 patients with concurrent cisplatin plus paclitaxel chemo radiotherapy was taken as the observation group. Then the immunologic functions, toxic and side effects were compared between the two groups as well as the survival rates after 3-year-followup-visit, Th level of the total T cells, Th cells and the ratio of Th cells to Ts cells after receiving treatment all increased significantly compared with prior treatment...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570942/radiotherapy-combination-opportunities-leveraging-immunity-for-the-next-oncology-practice
#15
Fernanda G Herrera, Jean Bourhis, George Coukos
Approximately one-half of patients with newly diagnosed cancer and many patients with persistent or recurrent tumors receive radiotherapy (RT), with the explicit goal of eliminating tumors through direct killing. The current RT dose and schedule regimens have been empirically developed. Although early clinical studies revealed that RT could provoke important responses not only at the site of treatment but also on remote, nonirradiated tumor deposits-the so-called "abscopal effect"- the underlying mechanisms were poorly understood and were not therapeutically exploited...
August 29, 2016: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558821/cancer-cell-death-inducing-radiotherapy-impact-on-local-tumour-control-tumour-cell-proliferation-and-induction-of-systemic-anti-tumour-immunity
#16
Benjamin Frey, Anja Derer, Heike Scheithauer, Roland Wunderlich, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl
Radiotherapy (RT) predominantly is aimed to induce DNA damage in tumour cells that results in reduction of their clonogenicity and finally in tumour cell death. Adaptation of RT with higher single doses has become necessary and led to a more detailed view on what kind of tumour cell death is induced and which immunological consequences result from it. RT is capable of rendering tumour cells immunogenic by modifying the tumour cell phenotype and the microenvironment. Danger signals are released as well as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514316/combined-modality-therapy-for-thoracic-and-head-and-neck-cancers-a-review-of-updated-literature-based-on-a-consensus-meeting
#17
Pierfrancesco Franco, Alba Fiorentino, Francesco Dionisi, Michele Fiore, Silvia Chiesa, Stefano Vagge, Francesco Cellini, Luciana Caravatta, Mario Tombolini, Fiorenza De Rose, Icro Meattini, Gianluca Mortellaro, Giuseppina Apicella, Lorenza Marino, Daniela Greto
PURPOSE: Combined modality therapy is a mainstay option for thoracic malignancies and head and neck cancers. The integration of different strategies is based on the multidisciplinary approach of modern clinical oncology. Radiation oncologists have to be educated, trained, and updated to provide state-of-the-art care to cancer patients and thus educational meetings are crucial. METHODS: The Italian Association of Radiation Oncology Young Members Working Group (AIRO Giovani) organized its 8th national meeting, focused on combination therapy in lung, esophageal, and head and neck cancer (with a specific focus on larynx-preservation strategies for larynx/hypopharynx tumors), involving young professionals working in Italy...
October 13, 2016: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383328/clinical-application-of-highly-agglutinative-staphylococcin-in-cancer-treatment-updates-of-the-literature
#18
X-L Tian, Z Yan, J Chen, W-H Zhao, W Guo
This review article summarized 100 published research papers and reviewed the application status of highly agglutinative staphylococcin in the clinical treatment of cancer. Highly agglutinative staphylococcin (HAS) derives from the superantigen of Staphylococcus aureus metabolite. Studies have shown that HAS can inhibit and kill tumors, repair tissues and cells, increase white blood cell count and improve the immune function. Its immunological effect acts through the following mechanism: activating T-cells and natural killer cells, enhancing phagocytes' phagocytosis and killing ability of lymphocytes, increasing white blood cell count in peripheral blood, repairing impaired histocytes, and inhibit the growth of tumor cells...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330805/effects-of-definitive-chemoradiation-on-circulating-immunologic-angiogenic-cytokines-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#19
Vishwajith Sridharan, Danielle N Margalit, Stephanie A Lynch, Mariano Severgnini, F Stephen Hodi, Robert I Haddad, Roy B Tishler, Jonathan D Schoenfeld
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies suggest a synergistic effect between radiation, immunotherapy and anti-angiogenic therapy, although the mechanisms are unclear. Angiogenic cytokines are known to affect the immune system, and their levels may be associated with response to immunotherapy. Here, we assess changes in circulating VEGF, as well as angiogenic cytokines angiopoietin-1 and -2 (Ang1, Ang2), and placental growth factor (PLGF) that occur during definitive chemo-radiotherapy in HNSCC patients...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318390/-case-report-rapidly-growing-abdominal-wall-giant-desmoid-tumour-during-pregnancy
#20
Jorge Tadeo Palacios-Zertuche, Servando Cardona-Huerta, María Luisa Juárez-García, Everardo Valdés-Flores, Gerardo Enrique Muñoz-Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. CLINICAL CASE: The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound...
June 15, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
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