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immunology & radiobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888960/gene-expression-profiling-of-breast-cancer-cell-lines-treated-with-proton-and-electron-radiations
#1
Valentina Bravatà, Luigi Minafra, Francesco Paolo Cammarata, Pietro Pisciotta, Debora Lamia, Valentina Marchese, Lorenzo Manti, Giuseppe Ap Cirrone, Maria Carla Gilardi, Giacomo Cuttone, Giusi Irma Forte, Giorgio Russo
OBJECTIVE: Technological advances in radiation therapy are evolving with the use of hadrons, such as protons, indicated for tumors where conventional radiotherapy does not give significant advantages or for tumors located in sensitive regions, which need the maximum of dose-saving of the surrounding healthy tissues. The genomic response to conventional and non conventional Linear Energy Transfer exposure is a poor investigated topic and became an issue of radiobiological interest. The aim of this work was to analyze and compare molecular responses in term of gene expression profiles, induced by electron and proton irradiation in breast cancer cell lines...
June 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807577/progress-in-low-dose-health-risk-research-novel-effects-and-new-concepts-in-low-dose-radiobiology
#2
REVIEW
Dietrich Averbeck, Sisko Salomaa, Simon Bouffler, Andrea Ottolenghi, Vere Smyth, Laure Sabatier
People are more often exposed to low as opposed to high doses of ionising radiation (IR). Knowledge on the health risks associated with exposures to ionising radiation above 100 mGy is quite well established, while lower dose risks are inferred from higher level exposure information (ICRP). The health risk assessments are mainly based on epidemiological data derived from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, medical exposure studies and follow-up studies after nuclear accidents. For the estimation of long-term stochastic radiation health effects (such as cancer) and radiation protection purposes, a linear non-threshold (LNT) model is applied...
April 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582686/the-effects-of-radiotherapy-on-the-survival-of-patients-with-unresectable-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Paolo Tini, Valerio Nardone, Pierpaolo Pastina, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale, Antonio Giordano
Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer mortality across the worlds. At present, less than 30% of the patients can undergo curative surgery, while the majority of them (65%) are diagnosed with metastatic disease and directed to systemic treatments. In this context there is a subset of patients (25%) with locally advanced stage disease whose outcome might be improved by using combined strategies of treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Areas covered: Here we reviewed possible combination strategies aimed to improve the outcome of lung cancer patients, focusing on the role of radiotherapy both in the adjuvant and oligo-metastatic setting and in synergy with immunotherapy, and finally, we afforded the new challenges concerning the advanced RT and precision oncology...
June 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341227/pet-radiometals-for-antibody-labeling
#4
Eduardo Aluicio-Sarduy, Paul A Ellison, Todd E Barnhart, Weibo Cai, Robert Jerry Nickles, Jonathan W Engle
Recent advances in molecular characterization of tumors have made possible the emergence of new types of cancer therapies where the traditional cytotoxic drugs and nonspecific chemotherapy can be complemented with targeted molecular therapies. One of the main revolutionary treatments is the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that selectively target the disseminated tumor cells while sparing normal tissues. mAbs and related therapeutics can be efficiently radiolabeled with a wide range of radionuclides to facilitate preclinical and clinical studies...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325250/radiotherapy-in-the-age-of-cancer-immunology-current-concepts-and-future-developments
#5
REVIEW
Mauro Loi, Isacco Desideri, Daniela Greto, Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Icro Meattini, Carlotta Becherini, Francesca Terziani, Camilla Delli Paoli, Emanuela Olmetto, Pierluigi Bonomo, Lorenzo Livi
Major advances in the knowledge of cancer biology and its interactions with tumor immune environment led to the emergence, in the last five years of new immunotherapy-based treatment strategies in cancer patients. At the same time, improvement in radiation technique and progress in radiobiology allowed in the last decade to expand the applications of radiotherapy in a growing number of settings. At present, there are strong theoretical basis to propose immune-enhanced radiation therapy that may represent in the future a new paradigm of treatment, combining the intrinsic power of radiotherapy to elicit a specific, systemic, tumor-directed immune response with modern highly conformal and precise dose delivery, in order to maximize response at the major site of disease and obtain durable disease control...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934351/-the-effect-of-radiotherapy-on-the-antitumor-immune-response-possibilities-to-combine-radiotherapy-with-immunotherapy
#6
Katalin Lumniczky, Géza Sáfrány
The past three decades of immunology research led to a drastic increase in the knowledge of antitumor immune response mechanisms and in parallel to a rapid development in various antitumor immune therapy strategies. This will most probably result in the implementation of immunotherapeutic protocols within the standard anticancer regimens in a very near future. Though, it is obvious that combination of immunotherapy with traditional anticancer treatment modalities will only be legitimate if the combination has at least an additive, or perhaps a synergistic effect...
March 2, 2016: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897718/radioimmunotherapy-for-treatment-of-acute-leukemia
#7
REVIEW
Caroline Bodet-Milin, Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Thomas Eugène, François Guérard, Joëlle Gaschet, Clément Bailly, Marie Mougin, Mickaël Bourgeois, Alain Faivre-Chauvet, Michel Chérel, Patrice Chevallier
Acute leukemias are characterized by accumulation of immature cells (blasts) and reduced production of healthy hematopoietic elements. According to the lineage origin, two major leukemias can be distinguished: acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Although the survival rate for pediatric ALL is close to 90%, half of the young adults with AML or ALL and approximately 90% of older patients with AML or ALL still die of their disease, raising the need for innovative therapeutic approaches...
March 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26128919/tu-cd-303-04-radiation-induced-long-distance-tumor-cell-migration-into-and-out-of-the-radiation-field-and-its-clinical-implication
#8
E Graves
UNLABELLED: Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage...
June 2015: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26128915/tu-cd-303-02-beyond-radiation-induced-double-strand-breaks-a-new-horizon-for-radiation-therapy-research
#9
S Chang
UNLABELLED: Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage...
June 2015: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26128914/tu-cd-303-05-unveiling-tumor-heterogeneity-by-molecular-imaging
#10
R Jeraj
UNLABELLED: Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage...
June 2015: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26128913/tu-cd-303-03-localized-radiation-can-induce-systemic-anti-cancer-immune-and-non-immune-responses-and-how-we-might-utilize-it
#11
M Ahmed
UNLABELLED: Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage...
June 2015: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26127793/su-e-t-124-anthropomorphic-phantoms-for-confirmation-of-linear-accelerator-based-small-animal-irradiation
#12
J Perks, S Lucero, S Benedict
PURPOSE: To document the support of radiobiological small animal research by a modern radiation oncology facility. This study confirms that a standard, human use linear accelerator can cover the range of experiments called for by researchers performing animal irradiation. A number of representative, anthropomorphic murine phantoms were made. The phantoms confirmed the small field photon and electron beams dosimetry validated the use of the linear accelerator for rodents. METHODS: Laser scanning a model, CAD design and 3D printing produced the phantoms...
June 2015: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26117368/degro-practical-guidelines-for-radiotherapy-of-non-malignant-disorders-part-i-physical-principles-radiobiological-mechanisms-and-radiogenic-risk
#13
Berthold Reichl, Andreas Block, Ulrich Schäfer, Christoph Bert, Reinhold Müller, Horst Jung, Franz Rödel
PURPOSE: Synopsis of the introductory paragraph of the DEGRO consensus S2e-guideline recommendations for the radiotherapy of benign disorders, including physical principles, radiobiological mechanisms, and radiogenic risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This work is based on the S2e-guideline recommendations published November 14, 2013. The basic principles of radiation physics and treatment delivery, evaluation of putative underlying radiobiological mechanisms, and the assessment of genetic and cancer risk following low-dose irradiation will be presented...
September 2015: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24766384/ascorbic-acid-its-role-in-immune-system-and-chronic-inflammation-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Angela Sorice, Eliana Guerriero, Francesca Capone, Giovanni Colonna, Giuseppe Castello, Susan Costantini
Ascorbic acid (AA), also known as vitamin C, was initially identified as the factor preventing the scurvy disease, and became very popular for its antioxidant properties. It is an important co-substrate of a large class of enzymes, and regulates gene expression by interacting with important transcription factors. AA is important in all stressful conditions that are linked to inflammatory processes and involve immunity. It has been known for decades that the persistence of an inflammatory stimulus is responsible for the onset of many diseases...
May 2014: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24300415/functional-interrogation-of-adult-hypothalamic-neurogenesis-with-focal-radiological-inhibition
#15
Daniel A Lee, Juan Salvatierra, Esteban Velarde, John Wong, Eric C Ford, Seth Blackshaw
The functional characterization of adult-born neurons remains a significant challenge. Approaches to inhibit adult neurogenesis via invasive viral delivery or transgenic animals have potential confounds that make interpretation of results from these studies difficult. New radiological tools are emerging, however, that allow one to noninvasively investigate the function of select groups of adult-born neurons through accurate and precise anatomical targeting in small animals. Focal ionizing radiation inhibits the birth and differentiation of new neurons, and allows targeting of specific neural progenitor regions...
2013: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23828380/optimization-of-physico-chemical-properties-of-carbon-enterosorbents-and-evaluation-of-their-sorption-activity-for-use-in-the-treatment-of-paraneoplastic-syndrome-and-other-endogenous-intoxications-in-cancer-patients
#16
V V Sarnatskaya, A S Sidorenko, D A Klymchuk, I M Khohulya, L A Yushko, V N Maslenniy, V G Nikolaev
AIM: Development of carbon enterosorbents with optimal physical-chemical properties and high adsorptive capacity for their usage in the treatment of paraneoplastic syndrome and other endogenous intoxication in cancer patients. METHODS: physical-chemical and biochemical methods of investigation. RESULTS: In the work it has been shown that performance of additional steam activation on pilot plant developed in R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology NAS of Ukraine, allows produce highly active granulated and fibrous carbon enterosorbents which possess well developed porous surface providing potent sorption potential toward compounds of hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature...
June 2013: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20334512/links-between-innate-immunity-and-normal-tissue-radiobiology
#17
REVIEW
Dörthe Schaue, William H McBride
The body senses "danger" from "damaged self" molecules through members of the same receptor superfamily it uses for microbial "non-self", triggering canonical signaling pathways that lead to the generation of acute inflammatory responses. For this reason, the biology of normal tissue responses to moderate and clinically relevant doses of radiation is inextricably connected to innate immunity. The complex sequence of inflammatory events that ensues causes further cell and tissue damage to eliminate potential invaders but also leads to cytoprotective responses that limit the spread of damage and to wound healing through tissue regeneration or replacement...
April 2010: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19799367/-an-experimental-model-of-studynig-radiation-oppression-of-antitumor-resistance
#18
A A Ivanov, T A Nasonova, N G Darenskaia, O A Dobrynina, G I Sidorovich
In experiences on mice (CBA x C57Bl) F1 the experimental model for studying action of radiation on antineoplastic resistance is developed. Adequate ways of statistical processing of the received data testifying to amplification of tumoral growth in the irradiated organism are offered. The use of model of the solid form of the tumor developing after introduction in a shin of a hinder leg of the mouse of 1000 cells ascetic carcinoma of Ehrlich in a combination to radiating depression of antineoplastic resistance at animals after an irradiation on installation IGUR (137Cs) in a doze 6 Gy is proved...
July 2009: Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19330149/radiobiological-basis-for-cancer-therapy-by-total-or-half-body-irradiation
#19
Kiyohiko Sakamoto
The tumor control effects by total-body irradiation (TBI) or half-body irradiation (HBI) on tumor-bearing mice and human cancer were investigated. In fundamental studies using a murine experimental system, mice that received 10 or 15 cGy of TBI showed a high value of TD(50) (number of tumor cells required for successful transplantation to a half group of injected sites) compared with nonirradiated control mice. The combination of low doses of TBI and local irradiation on tumor-bearing mice demonstrated enhanced tumor cell killing compared with only local irradiation, but this tumor-cell killing effect was not observed following 10 or 15 cGy of TBI alone...
October 2004: Nonlinearity in Biology, Toxicology, Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19249647/cancer-stem-cells-and-tumor-response-to-therapy-current-problems-and-future-prospects
#20
REVIEW
Luka Milas, Walter N Hittelman
The presence of a subpopulation of cells within tumors, so-called cancer stemlike cells, that is uniquely capable of reestablishing the tumor during and after definitive radio(chemo)therapy and must be effectively controlled for a long-term cure is being increasingly appreciated. The existence and physiology of a rare cancer cell population, termed cancer cell clonogens, with similar properties has been extensively described in the radiobiology literature for several decades based on studies using tumor cells transplanted into syngeneic or immunodeficient animals...
April 2009: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
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