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Claudia Stöllberger, Josef Finsterer
BACKGROUND: The direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) rivaroxaban, an oral Factor Xa inhibitor, is increasingly used as an alternative to vitamin-K-antagonists (VKAs). Absorption and elimination of DOACs are dependent on the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protein system, and DOACs are substrates of the hepatic cytochrome P 450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes. Therefore, drug-interactions may occur when DOACs are administered with drugs affecting the activity of P-gp or CYP3A4 systems...
March 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Sixun Yu, Haifeng Shu, Tao Yang, Haidong Huang, Song Li, Ziyi Zhao, Yongqin Kuang
Nogo-A and its receptor (NgR) were first described as myelin-associated inhibitors of neuronal regeneration in response to injury. In recent years, knowledge about the important role of the Nogo-A protein in several neuronal pathologies has grown considerably. Here, we employed a neonatal cortex freeze-lesion (NFL) model in neonatal rats and measured the expression of Nogo-A and NgR in the resulting cerebrocortical microdysgenesis 5-75 days after freezing injury. We observed marked upregulation of Nogo-A and NgR in protein levels...
April 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sarat P Chandra, Nilesh S Kurwale, Sarabjit Singh Chibber, Jyotirmoy Banerji, Rekha Dwivedi, Ajay Garg, Chandrashekhar Bal, Madhavi Tripathi, Chitra Sarkar, Manjari Tripathi
BACKGROUND: Corpus callosotomy is a palliative procedure especially for Lennox-Gastaut semiology without localization with drop attacks. OBJECTIVE: To describe endoscopic-assisted complete corpus callosotomy combined with anterior, hippocampal, and posterior commissurotomy. METHODS: Patients with drug refractory epilepsy having drop attacks as the predominant seizure type, bilateral abnormalities on imaging, and moderate to severe mental retardation were included...
May 2016: Neurosurgery
Sarat P Chandra, Manjari Tripathi
BACKGROUND: The use of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery is fast emerging in many subspecialties of neurosurgery as an effective alternative to the open procedures. OBJECTIVE: The author describe a novel technique of using an endoscope for performing a corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy. A description of endoscopic disconnection for a hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) and a review of the literature is also presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty four patients underwent endoscopic procedures between January 2010 and March 2015...
July 2015: Neurology India
Heiko J Luhmann
Pharmaco-resistant epilepsies, and also some neuropsychiatric disorders, are often associated with malformations in hippocampal and neocortical structures. The mechanisms leading to these cortical malformations causing an imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory system are largely unknown. Animal models using chemical or physical manipulations reproduce different human pathologies by interfering with cell generation and neuronal migration. The model of in utero injection of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate mimics periventricular nodular heterotopia...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Xiaoming Jin, Kewen Jiang, David A Prince
A variety of major developmental cortical malformations are closely associated with clinically intractable epilepsy. Pathophysiological aspects of one such disorder, human polymicrogyria, can be modeled by making neocortical freeze lesions (FL) in neonatal rodents, resulting in the formation of microgyri. Previous studies showed enhanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission and connectivity in cortical layer V pyramidal neurons in the paramicrogyral cortex. In young adult transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in parvalbumin positive fast-spiking (FS) interneurons, we used laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) of caged glutamate to map excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity onto FS interneurons in layer V of paramicrogyral cortex in control and FL groups...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Neurophysiology
Manuela Cucerea, Monika Rusneac, Marta Simon, Carmen Movileanu
SESSION TITLE: Pediatric PostersSESSION TYPE: Poster PresentationsPRESENTED ON: Saturday, March 22, 2014 at 01:15 PM - 02:15 PMPURPOSE: Neonatal respiratory distress is any difficulty in breathing during the first 28 days of life. Clinical manifestations include a wide range depending on gestational age and its triggering causes. METHODS: we present the case of a newborn who manifested respiratory disorders due to intermittent intracranial hypertension, a case involving difficulties in establishing an accurate diagnosis and prognosis...
March 1, 2014: Chest
Andrew Bell, Kimberle M Jacobs
Despite early disruption of developmental processes, hyperexcitability is often delayed after the induction of cortical malformations. In the freeze-lesion model of microgyria, interictal activity cannot be evoked in vitro until postnatal day (P)12, despite the increased excitatory afferent input to the epileptogenic region by P10. In order to determine the most critical time period for assessment of epileptogenic mechanisms, here we have used low-Mg(2+) aCSF as a second hit after the neonatal freeze lesion to examine whether there is an increased susceptibility prior to the overt expression of epileptiform activity...
February 2014: Epilepsy Research
Hai-Feng Shu, Yong-Qin Kuang, Shi-Yong Liu, Si-Xun Yu, Chun-Qing Zhang, Da-Hai Zheng, Jian-Wen Gu, Hui Yang
Microgyria is associated with epilepsy and due to developmental disruption of neuronal migration. However, the role of endogenous subventricular zone-derived neural progenitors (SDNPs) in formation and hyperexcitability has not been fully elucidated. Here, we establish a neonatal cortex freeze-lesion (FL) model, which was considered as a model for focal microgyria, and simultaneously label SDNPs by CM-DiI. Morphological investigation showed that SDNPs migrated into FL and differentiated into neuronal and glia cell types, suggesting the involvement of endogenous SDNPs in the formation of FL-induced microgyria...
April 2014: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Steven W Threlkeld, Courtney A Hill, Caitlin E Szalkowski, Dongnhu T Truong, Glenn D Rosen, R Holly Fitch
Neocortical neuronal migration anomalies such as microgyria and heterotopia have been associated with developmental language learning impairments in humans, and rapid auditory processing deficits in rodent models. Similar processing impairments have been suggested to play a causal role in human language impairment. Recent data from our group has shown spatial working memory deficits associated with neocortical microgyria in rats. Similar deficits have also been identified in humans with language learning impairments...
December 1, 2012: Behavioural Brain Research
Antonio Chiaretti, Alessandro Narducci, Federica Novegno, Alessia Antonelli, Filomena Pierri, Claudia Fantacci, Concezio Di Rocco, Gianpiero Tamburrini
AIM: The effects on neural repair of intraparenchymal nerve growth factor (NGF) administration were evaluated in neonate Wistar rats with experimentally induced focal microgyria. METHODS: A freezing focal polymicrogyric lesion was induced on the frontal cortex in 35 newborn Wistar rats on postnatal day 1. NGF was administered in 15 cases, with 20 pups as controls. Animals were sacrificed at 72 h and 7 days after NGF administration. Real-time PCR was used for the quantification of the expression of TrkA, p75, and doublecortin (DCX) at the level of the cortical lesion in seven different groups of animals: control 72 h (n = 5), control 7 days (n = 5), microgyria 72 h (n = 5), microgyria 7 days (n = 5), microgyria + NGF 72 h (n = 5), microgyria + NGF 7 days (n = 5), and control + NGF (n = 5)...
December 2011: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Steven W Threlkeld, Courtney A Hill, Caitlin E Cleary, Dongnhu T Truong, Glenn D Rosen, R Holly Fitch
Developmental malformations of neocortex-including microgyria, ectopias, and periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH)-have been associated with language learning impairments in humans. Studies also show that developmental language impairments are frequently associated with deficits in processing rapid acoustic stimuli, and rodent models have linked cortical developmental disruption (microgyria, ectopia) with rapid auditory processing deficits. We sought to extend this neurodevelopmental model to evaluate the effects of embryonic (E) day 15 exposure to the anti-mitotic teratogen methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) on auditory processing and maze learning in rats...
September 2009: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Luis A Pando-Orellana, Alfonso Buendía-Hernández, Juan Calderón-Colmenero, José Antonio Razo-Pinete, Emilia J Patiño, Jorge Luis Cervantes-Salazar, Aloha Meave-González, David Bialostozky, Iván Corral-Mejorado, Pedro José Curi-Curi
A case of a two month infant with complex congenital heart disease (aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect) associated to a cellular brain migration failure is presented. The management strategy consisted on the correction of congenital heart disease by means of a two-stage surgery without a further preoperative evaluation of the neurological status. The patient developed several perioperative complications such as two episodes of cardiac arrest, reconnection to cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac tamponade, chilothorax and septic shock...
October 2010: Archivos de Cardiología de México
Amanda L George, Kimberle M Jacobs
Neuronal intrinsic properties control action potential firing rates and serve to define particular neuronal subtypes. Changes in intrinsic properties have previously been shown to contribute to hyperexcitability in a number of epilepsy models. Here we examined whether a developmental insult producing the cortical malformation of microgyria altered the identity or firing properties of layer V pyramidal neurons and two interneuron subtypes. Trains of action potentials were elicited with a series of current injection steps during whole cell patch clamp recordings...
February 16, 2011: Brain Research
Y Tsutsui, M Nagahama, A Mizutani
We retrospectively analyzed 58 autopsy cases of cerebral palsy which were clinically diagnosed at the Aichi Prefecture Colony Hospital. Most of the cases of cerebral palsy had brainweights that were 60-70% of the normal brainweight for their ages. However, approximately 20% of the brains were not small, especially in cases over 20 years of age. The brains of cerebral palsy cases showed wide morphological variation, and were classified into thinned cerebral mantle type (10 cases), hydrocephalus type (three cases) and microgyria-pachygyria type (45 cases)...
January 1999: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Steven W Threlkeld, Courtney A Hill, Glenn D Rosen, R Holly Fitch
Auditory temporal processing deficits have been suggested to play a causal role in language learning impairments, and evidence of cortical developmental anomalies (microgyria (MG), ectopia) has been reported for language-impaired populations. Rodent models have linked these features, by showing deficits in auditory temporal discrimination for rats with neuronal migration anomalies (MG, ectopia). Since evidence from human studies suggests that training with both speech and non-speech acoustic stimuli may improve language performance in developmentally language-disabled populations, we were interested in whether/how maturation and early experience might influence auditory processing deficits seen in male rats with induced focal cortical MG...
June 2009: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Daniel Rial, João C Xikota, Alessandro Miozzo, Victor E A Cruz, Rui D S Prediger, Roger Walz
Sexual dimorphism during mammalian neural development seems to contribute to differential gender-related incidence in malformations of cortical development in both humans and rodents. Here we investigated the existence of differential gender-related susceptibility to learning and memory deficits and brain injury severity in mice submitted to a microgyria model. Newborn male and female C57BL/6 mice (P0) were submitted to a unilateral freezing lesion (FL) using a cooled steel probe, placed over the right midline anteroposterior plane...
May 29, 2009: Brain Research Bulletin
Y Chu, I Parada, D A Prince
Na(+),K(+)-ATPase contributes to the asymmetrical distribution of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane and to maintenance of the membrane potential in many types of cells. Alterations in this protein may play a significant role in many human neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We studied expression of the alpha3 isoform of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the freeze lesion (FL) microgyrus model of developmental epileptogenesis to test the hypothesis that it is downregulated following neonatal cortical injury...
August 18, 2009: Neuroscience
Chihiro Sawai, Tomoyuki Takano, Yoshihiro Takeuchi
To examine the role of subventricular zone in cortical dysplasia, an experimental model was established using a neuronal tracing study. Ibotenate is a glutamate receptor agonist, and its intracerebral injection produces excitotoxic lesions mimicking microgyria and heterotopia. A total of 72 newborn hamsters were subjected. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the ganglionic eminence for the neuronal tracer. The cortical lesions and apoptotic cells were analyzed. In the microgyric cortex, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2' -deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin end labeling-positive cells were increased and accumulated in the cortical folding...
March 2009: Journal of Child Neurology
João C Xikota, Daniel Rial, Daniel Ruthes, Rafael Pereira, Cláudia P Figueiredo, Rui D S Prediger, Roger Walz
The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been implicated with the modulation of neuronal apoptosis, adhesion, neurite outgrowth and maintenance which are processes involved in the neocortical development. Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are frequently associated with neurological conditions including mental retardation, autism, and epilepsy. Here we investigated the behavioral performance of female adult PrP(C)-null mice (Prnp(0/0)) and their wild-type controls (Prnp(+/+)) presenting unilateral polymicrogyria, a MCD experimentally induced by neonatal freeze-lesion in the right hemisphere...
November 19, 2008: Brain Research
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