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"Spinal cord injury"

A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) with comparisons to car occupants who also have sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7yrs), assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered healthcare practitioner...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Hai-Juan Liu, Hua Yan, Jun Yan, Hao Li, Liang Chen, Li-Ren Han, Xiao-Fei Yang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB) in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI...
2016: PloS One
Michelle Hook, Sarah Woller, Eric Bancroft, Miriam Aceves, Mary Katherine Funk, John Hartman, Sandra M Garraway
Opioids and NSAIDs are commonly used to manage pain in the early phase of spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite its analgesic efficacy, however, our studies suggest that intrathecal (i.t.) morphine undermines locomotor recovery and increases lesion size in a rodent model of SCI. Similarly, intravenous (i.v.) morphine attenuates locomotor recovery. The current study explores whether i.v. morphine also increases lesion size after a spinal contusion (T12) injury, and quantifies the cell types that are affected by early opioid administration...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Marie-Pascale Côté, Marion Murray, Michel A Lemay
Body-weight supported locomotor training (BWST) promotes recovery of load-bearing stepping in lower mammals, but its efficacy in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited and highly dependent on injury severity. While animal models with complete spinal transections recover stepping with step-training, motor complete SCI individuals do not, despite similarly intensive training. In this review, we examine the significant differences between humans and animal models that may explain this discrepancy in the results obtained with BWST...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Eric Kerckhofs
PURPOSE: The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Akira Ikumi, Shigeki Kubota, Yukiyo Shimizu, Hideki Kadone, Aiki Marushima, Tomoyuki Ueno, Hiroaki Kawamoto, Yasushi Hada, Akira Matsumura, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Masashi Yamazaki
CONTEXT: Recently, locomotor training with robotic assistance has been found effective in treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Our case report examined locomotor training using the robotic suit hybrid assistive limb (HAL) in a patient with complete C4 quadriplegia due to chronic SCI. This is the first report examining HAL in complete C4 quadriplegia. FINDINGS: The patient was a 19-year-old man who dislocated C3/4 during judo 4 years previously. Following the injury, he underwent C3/4 posterior spinal fusion but remained paralyzed despite rehabilitation...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Özlem Taşoğlu, Engin Koyuncu, Rabia Daylak, Derya Yumuşak Karacif, Zerrin I Nce, Didem Yenigün, Neşe Özgirgin
OBJECTIVE: To define the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons with spinal cord injury, rehabilitated in a primary referral rehabilitation center in Turkey. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Methods: Medical records of all patients with spinal cord injury (acute-subacute-chronic) at a single academic referral center over the course of one year were reviewed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
David Reigada, Rosa María Navarro-Ruiz, Marcos Javier Caballero-López, Ángela Del Águila, Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano, Rodrigo M Maza, Manuel Nieto-Díaz
Reducing cell death during the secondary injury is a major priority in the development of a cure for traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). One of the earliest processes that follow SCI is the excitotoxicity resulting from the massive release of excitotoxicity mediators, including ATP, which induce an excessive and/or prolonged activation of their receptors and a deregulation of the calcium homeostasis. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) is an endogenous purinergic agonist, present in both extracellular and intracellular fluids, with promising cytoprotective effects in different diseases including neurodegenerative processes...
October 19, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Li F Chen, Hsuan K Chang, Yu C Chen, Jau C Wu, Wen C Huang, Henrich Cheng, Su S Lo
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the medical expenses and outcomes of central cord syndrome (CCS), comparing patients who received surgical and non-surgical management. METHODS: Using a 14-year nationwide database in Taiwan, this study followed-up all patients of CCS at least 5 years. The incidence rates, medical expenses, permanently disabled spinal cord injury (SCI), and mortality rates were compared for patients who underwent surgery and those who were managed conservatively...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
William J Readdy, Rajiv Saigal, William D Whetstone, Anthony N Mefford, Adam R Ferguson, Jason F Talbott, Tomoo Inoue, Jacqueline C Bresnahan, Michael S Beattie, Jonathan Pan, Geoffrey T Manley, Sanjay S Dhall
BACKGROUND: Increased spinal cord perfusion and blood pressure goals have been recommended for spinal cord injury (SCI). Penetrating SCI is associated with poor prognosis, but there is a paucity of literature examining the role of vasopressor administration for the maintenance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) goals in this patient population. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate this topic and to determine the efficacy of vasopressor administration in penetrating SCI by examining a case series of consecutive penetrating SCIs...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Saul Wilson, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, John W Miller, Chandan G Reddy, Sina Safayi, Douglas C Fredericks, Nicholas D Jeffery, Nicole A DeVries-Watson, Sara K Shivapour, Stephanus Viljoen, Brian D Dalm, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Michael D Johnson, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. STUDY DESIGN: The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Beth A Ekelman, Darcy L Allison, Dario Duvnjak, Dorothy R DiMarino, John Jodzio, Paolo V Iannarelli
Little is known about how participating in a wellness program influences the well-being of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study is to explore how men with SCI describe their experiences and meaning of participating in a wellness center program, how they perceived these experiences as influencing their well-being, and how these experiences relate to co-occupations and occupational spin-off concepts. Investigators employed a descriptive qualitative design. Four adult males with an SCI participated in the study...
October 6, 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Thomas Beez, Jennifer Brown
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare but severe sequela of high energy trauma. Children are at increased risk, due to their immature spine and biomechanical characteristics. LITERATURE REVIEW: The prevailing mechanism of injury is motor vehicle collision as passenger. AOD commonly presents with cardiorespiratory arrest, spinal cord injury or cranial nerve deficits. Concomitant injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, are frequently encountered...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
David Graham, Guillermo Becerril-Martinez, Jonathan Tang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: J Spine Surg
Larry E Miller, William G Herbert
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized...
2016: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Enrique Bárbara-Bataller, José Luis Méndez-Suárez, Carolina Alemán-Sánchez, Teresa Ramírez-Lorenzo, Manuel Sosa-Henríquez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological and clinical trends in acute traumatic spinal cord injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of traumatic spinal cord injury patients in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) from 2000 to 2014. Demographic and spinal injury severity trends were analysed by year of injury grouped into 3 periods: 2000-2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2014. RESULTS: The sample included 141 patients...
October 15, 2016: Neurocirugía
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
N R Zembower, A Zhu, M Malczynski, C Qi
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of brain and spinal cord injury (BSCI) patients among all patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) and to evaluate clinical characteristics and duration of colonization. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. METHODS: Electronic medical records of BSCI patients with KPC-KP from February 2009 to December 2014 were reviewed to determine clinical characteristics...
October 18, 2016: Spinal Cord
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