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Mild concussions

Richard Wennberg, Carmen Hiploylee, Peter Tai, Charles H Tator
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is associated with a twofold or greater increase in relative risk for the development of post-traumatic epilepsy. To assess the clinical validity of these findings, we analyzed the incidence of epilepsy in a large cohort of post-concussion patients in whom concussion was strictly defined according to international guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 330 consecutive post-concussion patients followed by a single concussion specialist...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Peter C Fino, Lucy Parrington, Will Pitt, Douglas N Martini, James C Chesnutt, Li-Shan Chou, Laurie A King
BACKGROUND: While a growing number of studies have investigated the effects of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on gait, many studies use different experimental paradigms and outcome measures. The path for translating experimental studies for objective clinical assessments of gait is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: This review asked 2 questions: 1) is gait abnormal after concussion/mTBI, and 2) what gait paradigms (single-task, dual-task, complex gait) detect abnormalities after concussion...
March 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
Ryan C Kruse, Zhuo Li, Cara C Prideaux, Allen W Brown
BACKGROUND: Depression and traumatic brain injury (TBI) substantially contribute to the United States healthcare burden. Depression is a known risk factor for prolonged recovery after TBI. However, the effect of depression treatment on health care utilization has yet to be studied. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether an association exists between pharmacologic treatment of depression at the time of mild or concussive TBI and the number of subsequent clinician visits for persistent injury-related symptoms...
March 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos, Sambit Mohapatra, Maria Santos, Adriana M Degani
Understanding the long-term effects of concussive events remains a challenge for the development of modern medical practices and the prevention of recurrent traumas. In this study, we utilized indices of oculomotor performance and the ability to react to simple environmental stimuli to assess the long-term motor effects of traumatic brain injury in its mildest form (mTBI). We performed analysis of eye movement accuracy, investigated the presence of abnormal eye movements, and quantified time to react to simple environmental stimuli on long-term mTBI survivors...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Philip W Cameron, Noelle C Soltero, Justin Byers
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are common in contact sports. There is an association between mTBIs and altered motor function. BioSway technology measures individuals' balance using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Prior to incorporating BESS testing in concussion protocol, other variables that influence the BESS test require review. The objective of this study is to determine if game fatigue in hockey players also influences the BESS score. 23 male (21.08 ± 1.09) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes were tested using the BioSway™ (Biodex, USA)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Matthew Eisenberg, Rebekah Mannix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concussion is an increasingly common injury in children. We aim to review the basic epidemiology and management of acute concussion and highlight recent studies that have contributed to our understanding of care for this injury. RECENT FINDINGS: While concussion is considered a 'mild' form of traumatic brain injury, recent evidence suggests that as many as 30% of children are still symptomatic 1 month after injury. Although there is increasing interest in finding objective measures of injury and recovery, emerging imaging and serum biomarkers are not ready for routine clinical use...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Michelle Borzik Goreth, Michelle Palokas
The question of this review is: What is the association of premorbid neuropsychological conditions with mild traumatic brain injury/concussion recovery time and symptom severity in children?
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Douglas B Cooper, Glenn Curtiss, Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Heather G Belanger, David F Tate, Matthew Reid, Amy O Bowles, Carmen S Velez, Jan E Kennedy, Rodney D Vanderploeg
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53)...
March 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Arundhati Undurti, Elizabeth A Colasurdo, Carl L Sikkema, Jaclyn S Schultz, Elaine R Peskind, Kathleen F Pagulayan, Charles W Wilkinson
The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25-50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Rebecca Cooksley, Emma Maguire, Natasha A Lannin, Carolyn A Unsworth, Michelle Farquhar, Claire Galea, Biswadev Mitra, Julia Schmidt
BACKGROUND/AIM: Approximately, 80% of traumatic brain injuries are considered mild in severity. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may cause temporary or persisting impairments that can adversely affect an individual's ability to participate in daily occupations and life roles. This study aimed to identify symptoms, factors predicting level of symptoms and functional and psycho-social outcomes for participants with mTBI three months following injury. METHOD: Patients discharged from the Emergency Department of a major metropolitan hospital with a diagnosis of mTBI were contacted by telephone three months after injury...
March 2, 2018: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Raquel Langdon, Sharief Taraman
After sustaining a concussion or mild traumatic brain injury, headaches are one of the most common complaints. The pathophysiologic changes that occur in the setting of injury likely contribute to or cause posttraumatic headaches. Posttraumatic headaches often present as migraine or tension-type headaches. Unlike pain from other types of injuries, headaches following mild traumatic brain injury are more likely to persist. Preexisting conditions such as migraine and mood disorders may influence posttraumatic headache and complicate management...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Nicola J Starkey, Kelly Jones, Rosalind Case, Alice Theadom, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Valery Feigin
OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common injury during childhood and adolescence but the long-term outcomes are poorly understood. This study examined post-concussive symptoms and behavioural outcomes in children and adolescents up to 24 months post-mTBI. METHOD: Parents of children aged 8-15 years with mTBI completed the BASC-2 and Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire at baseline, 1-, 6-, 12- and 24 months post-injury. An age-matched traumatic brain injury-free cohort was recruited and assessed at 12- and 24 months...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Meeryo Choe, Karen M Barlow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the impact and complications of mild traumatic brain injury and concussion in children and outlines the recent evidence for its assessment and early management. Useful evidence-based management strategies are provided for children who have a typical recovery following concussion as well as for those who have persistent postconcussion syndrome. Cases are used to demonstrate the commonly encountered pathologies of headache, cognitive issues, and mood disturbances following injury...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
José Manuel Ortega Zufiría, Noemí Lomillos Prieto, Bernardino Choque Cuba, Martin Tamarit Degenhardt, Pedro Poveda Núñez, María Remedios López Serrano, Azahara Belén López Raigada
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major health concern, because a sizeable number of patients with mild TBI will develop potentially life-threatening complications. The target of this study was to describe a large series of adult patients suffering from mild TBI, treated at University Hospital of Getafe, between 2010 and 2015 (n = 2480). We examined the patients' epidemiological and baseline clinical profile, diagnosis, treatment and ultimate outcomes, to identify major prognostic factors that influence the final result...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Daniel Cushman, John Hendrick, Masaru Teramoto, Benjamin Fogg, Sean Bradley, Colby Hansen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the Balance Error Scoring System's (BESS) intraclass reliability in a cohort of patients with prolonged symptoms using variance component analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). SETTING: Outpatient sports medicine/concussion clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 241 paediatric and 102 adult patients with symptoms lasting longer than 10 days. INTERVENTIONS: BESS testing...
February 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Deborah L Snell, Rachelle Martin, A D Macleod, Lois J Surgenor, Richard J Siegert, E Jean C Hay-Smith, Tracy Melzer, Gary J Hooper, Tim Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Post-concussion-like symptoms (PCS) are common in patients without a history of brain injury, such as those with chronic pain (CP). This exploratory study examined neuro-cognitive and psychological functioning in patients with PCS following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or CP, to assess unique and overlapping phenomenology. METHODS: In this case-control study, participants (n = 102) with chronic symptoms after mTBI (n = 45) were matched with mTBI recovered (n = 31) and CP groups (n = 26), on age, gender, ethnicity and education...
February 1, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Alice Theadom, Nicola Starkey, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Kelly Jones, Shanthi Ameratunga, Valery Feigin
There is increasing evidence that some people can experience persistent symptoms for up to a year following mild TBI. However, few longitudinal studies of mild TBI exist and the longer-term impact remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) four-years later. Adults (aged ≥16 years) identified as part of a TBI incidence study who experienced a mild-TBI four-years ago (N = 232) were compared to age-sex matched controls (N = 232)...
2018: PloS One
Benoit C Mouzon, Corbin Bachmeier, Joseph O Ojo, Christopher M Acker, Scott Ferguson, Daniel Paris, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Gogce Crynen, Peter Davies, Michael Mullan, William Stewart, Fiona Crawford
Objective: Exposure to repetitive concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), has been linked with increased risk of long-term neurodegenerative changes, specifically chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To date, preclinical studies largely have focused on the immediate aftermath of mTBI, with no literature on the lifelong consequences of mTBI in these models. This study provides the first account of lifelong neurobehavioral and histological consequences of repetitive mTBI providing unique insight into the constellation of evolving and ongoing pathologies with late survival...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Audrey McKinlay, Kimberly Buck
PURPOSE: To examine educational professionals' knowledge and understanding of childhood brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Educational professionals from all schools in the state of Victoria, Australia, were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey consisting of 20 questions assessing knowledge of concussion and 30 questions examining knowledge of traumatic brain injury (n = 364). RESULTS: On average, participants correctly answered 16/20 (80%) questions about concussion and 24...
January 28, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Lia Maria Hocke, Chris C Duszynski, Chantel T Debert, Diane Dleikan, Jeffrey F Dunn
Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), accounts for approximately 80% of all traumatic brain injuries across North America. The majority of mTBI patients recover within days to weeks, however, 14-36% of the time acute mTBI symptoms persist for months or even years and develop into persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS). There is a need to find biomarkers in patients with PPCS, to improve prognostic ability and to provide insight into the pathophysiology underlying chronic symptoms. Recent research has pointed towards impaired network integrity and cortical communication as a biomarker...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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