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Gap detection

Elisabeth Waldmann, Georg Heinze, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Irina GessI, Daniela Sallinger, Philip Jeschek, Martha Britto-Arias, Petra Salzl, Elisabeth Fasching, Bernd Jilma, Michael Kundi, Michael Trauner, Monika Ferlitsch
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of (pre)cancerous colorectal lesions are higher in men than in women, although transition rates from advanced lesions to cancer is similar in both sexes. Our aim was to investigate whether the sex-specific difference in incidence of premalignant colorectal lesions might be explained by the impact of risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study analysing health check-up examinations and screening colonoscopies performed within a national quality assurance program...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ahmet Özen, Perran Boran, Fatih Torlak, Elif Karakoç-Aydıner, Safa Barış, Melda Karavuş, Işıl Barlan
BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases with a potential for anaphylaxis pose a critical public health issue in schools. AIMS: This study was carried out to identify the current status of prevention and management of anaphylaxis in school children with the main goal of establishing such an action plan. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Schools were randomly selected from 11 different regions of Istanbul. A questionnaire was filled out by 2596 teachers/school principals from 232 public schools...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Andrew P Jaciw, Li Lin, Boya Ma
BACKGROUND: Prior research has investigated design parameters for assessing average program impacts on achievement outcomes with cluster randomized trials (CRTs). Less is known about parameters important for assessing differential impacts. OBJECTIVES: This article develops a statistical framework for designing CRTs to assess differences in impact among student subgroups and presents initial estimates of critical parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN: Effect sizes and minimum detectable effect sizes for average and differential impacts are calculated before and after conditioning on effects of covariates using results from several CRTs...
October 18, 2016: Evaluation Review
Victor Agadjanian, Karine Markosyan
Unlike in most of the world, HIV incidence in the former Soviet Union continues to rise. While international labor migration has been identified as a potentially important contributor to this trend, most attention has been focused on risks of male migrants themselves. This study uses recent household survey data to examine HIV-related perceptions and actions of migrants' left-behind wives in Armenia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses show that migrants' wives are significantly more likely to suspect their husbands of extramarital sex than are non-migrants' wives...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Care
Daniel Haselbach, Wassim Raffoul, Lorenz Larcher, Mathias Tremp, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Pietro G di Summa
INTRODUCTION: Hindlimb autophagy is common after rat sciatic total axotomy and is considered as a sign of neuropathic pain. We applied adult stem cells in a fibrin conduit in a total sciatic axotomy model to improve nerve regeneration, investigating whether a correlation could be detected between stem cells effects on regeneration and limb autophagy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After sciatic nerve section, a 1-cm sciatic gap was crossed using fibrin conduits. EXPERIMENTAL: groups included empty fibrin conduits, fibrin conduits seeded with primary Schwann cells, and fibrin conduits seeded with Schwann cell-like differentiated mesenchymal or adipose-derived stem cells (dMSCs and dASCs)...
October 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Dwayne Van Eerd, Kristine Newman, Ryan DeForge, Robin Urquhart, Evelyn Cornelissen, Katie N Dainty
BACKGROUND: Developing a healthcare delivery system that is more responsive to the future challenges of an aging population is a priority in Canada. The World Health Organization acknowledges the need for knowledge translation frameworks in aging and health. Knowledge brokering (KB) is a specific knowledge translation approach that includes making connections between people to facilitate the use of evidence. Knowledge gaps exist about KB roles, approaches, and guiding frameworks. The objective of the scoping review is to identify and describe KB approaches and the underlying conceptual frameworks (models, theories) used to guide the approaches that could support healthy aging...
October 19, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Anne Catharina Brockhaus, Stefan Sauerland, Stefan Saad
BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) requires only one umbilical port site and (depending on technique) a specimen extraction site. The aim of this study was the assessment of the available evidence for the comparison of SILC to conventional multi-port laparoscopic colectomy (MLC) in adult patients, in whom elective colectomy is indicated because of malignant or benign disease. First, previous meta-analyses on this topic were assessed. Secondly, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, was performed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Surgery
Guilherme V T Ribeiro, Alberto L Teixido, Newton P U Barbosa, Fernando A O Silveira
Sampling biases permeate ecological research and result in knowledge gaps that have vital consequences for conservation planning. The consequences of knowledge gaps on species identity and distribution (the Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls, respectively) have become apparent recently, but we know little about the extent that research biases and knowledge gaps on traits that influence species' niches (the Hutchinsonian shortfall) affect conservation policy. To examine whether knowledge of species' traits based on seed ecology is geographically, phylogenetically, and ecologically biased, we retrieved research data on seed germination, seed dormancy, seed dispersal, seed banks, seed predation, and seed removal from a database of 847 papers, 1648 species, and 5322 cases...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Dominique Van de Velde, Ank Eijkelkamp, Wim Peersman, Patricia De Vriendt
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, there has been a paradigm shift from a purely biomedical towards a bio-psycho-social (BPS) conception of disability and illness, which has led to a change in contemporary healthcare. However, there seems to be a gap between the rhetoric and reality of working within a BPS model. It is not clear whether healthcare professionals show the necessary skills and competencies to act according to the BPS model. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was (1) to develop a scale to monitor the BPS competencies of healthcare professionals, (2) to define its factor-structure, (3) to check internal consistency, (4) test-retest reliability and (5) feasibility...
2016: PloS One
Tilen Čadež, Pedro D Sacramento
We study Majorana zero energy modes (MZEM) that occur in an s-wave superconducting surface, at the ends of a ferromagnetic (FM) chain of adatoms, in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) considering both non self-consistent and self-consistent superconducting order. We find that in the self-consistent solution, the average superconducting gap function over the adatom sites has a discontinuous drop with increasing exchange interaction at the same critical value where the topological phase transition occurs...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Zhongyan Hua, Xiao Gu, Yudi Dong, Fei Tan, Zhihui Liu, Carol J Thiele, Zhijie Li
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in neuroblastoma (NB) patients. Our previous studies indicated that BDNF activation of TrkB induces chemo-resistance through activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of BDNF/TrkB on metastasis in NB. A tetracycline-regulated TrkB-expressing NB cell line (TB3) was used. Scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber migration, and invasion assays were performed to study the migration and invasion of TB3 cells...
October 17, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Shutu Xu, Qianqian Sun, Xiaohua Zhou, Xiao Tan, Man Xiao, Wei Zhu, Ming Li
The 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA-ITS, cpcBA-IGS, mcy gene and several polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes (epsL and TagH) were analyzed along with the identification of the morphology of Microcystis colonies collected in Lake Taihu in 2014. M. wesenbergii colonies could be distinguished directly from other colonies using espL. TagH divided all of the samples into two clusters but failed to distinguish different phenotypes. Our results indicated that neither morphology nor molecular tools including 16S rDNA, 16S-23S ITS and cpcBA-IGS could distinguish toxic and non-toxic species among the identified Microcystis species...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Thiart, A Ikram, R P Lamberts
INTRODUCTION: Although fragment specific fixation has proved to be an effective treatment regime, it has not been established how successfully this treatment could be performed using fluoroscopy and what the added value of arthroscopy could be. Establish gap and step-off distances after in intra-articular distal radius fractures that have been treated with fragment specific fixation while using fluoroscopy. MATERIAL: Forty-four patients with an intra-articular distal radius fracture were treated with fragment specific fixation while using fluoroscopy...
October 14, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Joel Songok, Martti Toivakka
Paper-based microfluidic devices have received considerable interest due to their benefits with regards to low manufacturing costs, simplicity and the wide scope of applications. However, limitations including sample retention in paper matrix and evaporation as well as low liquid flow rates have often been overlooked. This paper presents a paper-based capillary-driven flow system that speeds up flow rates by utilizing narrow gap geometry between two parallel surfaces separated by a spacer. The top surface is hydrophobic while the bottom surface is a hydrophobic paper substrate with a microfluidic channel defined by a hydrophilic pathway, leaving sides of the channel open to air...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marco Sturaro, Enrico Della Gaspera, Niccolò Michieli, Carlo Cantalini, Seyed Mahmoud Emamjomeh, Massimo Guglielmi, Alessandro Martucci
Highly doped wide band gap metal oxides nanocrystals have recently been proposed as building blocks for applications as transparent electrodes, electrochromics, plasmonics, and optoelectronics in general. Here we demonstrate the application of gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) nanocrystals as novel plasmonic and chemiresistive sensors for the detection of hazardous gases including hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). GZO nanocrystals with a tunable surface plasmon resonance in the near infrared are obtained using a colloidal heat-up synthesis...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dennis Wang, Nhu-An Pham, Jiefei Tong, Shingo Sakashita, Ghassan Allo, Lucia Kim, Naoki Yanagawa, Vibha Raghavan, Yuhong Wei, Christine To, Quang M Trinh, Maud H W Starmans, Michelle A Chan-Seng-Yue, Dianne Chadwick, Lei Li, Chang-Qi Zhu, Ni Liu, Ming Li, Sharon Lee, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Dan Strumpf, Paul Taylor, Nadeem Moghal, Geoffrey Liu, Paul C Boutros, Thomas Kislinger, Melania Pintilie, Igor Jurisica, Frances A Shepherd, John D McPherson, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, Michael F Moran, Ming-Sound Tsao
Availability of lung cancer models that closely mimic human tumors remains a significant gap in cancer research, as tumor cell lines and mouse models may not recapitulate the spectrum of lung cancer heterogeneity seen in patients. We aimed to establish a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) resource from surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fresh tumor tissue from surgical resection was implanted and grown in the subcutaneous pocket of non-obese severe combined immune deficient (NOD SCID) gamma mice...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ilenia Idda, Nadia Spano, Marco Ciulu, Valeria M Nurchi, Angelo Panzanelli, Maria I Pilo, Gavino Sanna
Saccharides are functional constituents of milk. Although d-lactose represents almost the totality of the saccharides in the milk, minor species, like d-glucose, d-galactose, myo-inositol and, as a result of severe thermal treatments, monosaccharides like d-tagatose, are also detectable. Although chromatography has been the main analytical approach used for accomplishing this task, quite surprisingly a validated gas chromatographic method aimed at the simultaneous determination of these compounds is still needed...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Rajkishor Mishra, Himanshu Kumar Sanju, Prawin Kumar
Introduction "Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar and abnormalities in insulin secretion and action" (American Diabetes Association). Previous literature has reported connection between diabetes mellitus and hearing impairment. There is a dearth of literature on auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Objective The main objective of the present study was to assess auditory temporal resolution ability through GDT (Gap Detection Threshold) in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 with high frequency hearing loss...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
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