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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781275/light-driven-nano-oscillators-for-label-free-single-molecule-monitoring-of-microrna
#1
Zixuan Chen, Yujiao Peng, Yue Cao, Hui Wang, Jian-Rong Zhang, Hong-Yuan Chen, Jun-Jie Zhu
Here, we present a mapping tool based on individual light-driven nano-oscillators for label-free single-molecule monitoring of microRNA. This design uses microRNA as a single-molecule damper for nano-oscillators by forming a rigid dual-strand structure in the gap between nano-oscillators and the immobilized surface. The ultrasensitive detection is attributed to comparable dimensions of the gap and microRNA. A developed surface plasmon-coupled scattering imaging technology enables us to directly measure the real-time gap distance vibration of multiple nano-oscillators with high accuracy and fast dynamics...
May 22, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778785/oral-ibuprofen-differentially-affects-plasma-and-sweat-lipid-mediator-profiles-in-healthy-adult-males
#2
Karan Agrawal, Rémy Bosviel, Brian D Piccolo, John W Newman
Sweat contains a variety of lipid mediators, but whether they originate from the plasma filtrate or from the cutaneous sweat glandular tissues themselves is unknown. To explore this knowledge gap, we collected plasma and sweat from healthy men (n = 9) immediately before and 0.5, 2 and 4 h after oral administration of 400 mg ibuprofen. Of the over 100 lipid mediators assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, ~45 were detected in both plasma and sweat, and 36 were common to both matrices...
May 17, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778092/magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-detecting-root-avulsions-in-traumatic-adult-brachial-plexus-injuries-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#3
Ryckie G Wade, Yemisi Takwoingi, Justin C R Wormald, John P Ridgway, Steven Tanner, James J Rankine, Grainne Bourke
BACKGROUND: Adult brachial plexus injuries (BPI) are becoming more common. The reconstruction and prognosis of pre-ganglionic injuries (root avulsions) are different to other types of BPI injury. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used to identify root avulsions, but the evidence from studies of its diagnostic accuracy are conflicting. Therefore, a systematic review is needed to address uncertainty about the accuracy of MRI and to guide future research. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic search of electronic databases alongside reference tracking...
May 19, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777926/epidemiology-of-acute-febrile-illness-in-latin-america
#4
REVIEW
José Moreira, Clarisse S Bressan, Patricia Brasil, Andre M Siqueira
BACKGROUND: The causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Latin America (LA) are diverse and its complexity increase as the proportion of fever due to malaria decreases as control and new pathogens emerge in the region. In this context, it is important to shed light over the gaps on the epidemiological characteristics and the geographic range for many AFI aetiologies. AIMS: To review studies on community-acquired fever etiology other than malaria in LA, and to highlight knowledge gaps and challenges needing further investigation...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776382/sternal-instability-measured-with-radiostereometric-analysis-a-study-of-method-feasibility-accuracy-and-precision
#5
Rikke Falsig Vestergaard, Kjeld Søballe, John Michael Hasenkam, Maiken Stilling
BACKGROUND: A small, but unstable, saw-gap may hinder bone-bridging and induce development of painful sternal dehiscence. We propose the use of Radiostereometric Analysis (RSA) for evaluation of sternal instability and present a method validation. METHODS: Four bone analogs (phantoms) were sternotomized and tantalum beads were inserted in each half. The models were reunited with wire cerclage and placed in a radiolucent separation device. Stereoradiographs (n = 48) of the phantoms in 3 positions were recorded at 4 imposed separation points...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776380/use-of-designed-sequences-in-protein-structure-recognition
#6
Gayatri Kumar, Richa Mudgal, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Sankaran Sandhya
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the protein structure is a pre-requisite for improved understanding of molecular function. The gap in the sequence-structure space has increased in the post-genomic era. Grouping related protein sequences into families can aid in narrowing the gap. In the Pfam database, structure description is provided for part or full-length proteins of 7726 families. For the remaining 52% of the families, information on 3-D structure is not yet available. We use the computationally designed sequences that are intermediately related to two protein domain families, which are already known to share the same fold...
May 9, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775998/high-pressure-raman-study-of-type-i-collagen
#7
Amalia Maria Paschou, Maria Katsikini, Dimitrios Christofilos, John Arvanitidis, Sotirios Ves
The high pressure response of type-I collagen from bovine Achilles tendon is investigated with micro-Raman spectroscopy. Fluorinert™ and methanol-ethanol mixtures were used as pressure transmitting media (PTM) in a diamond anvil cell. The Raman spectrum of collagen is dominated by three bands centred at approximately 1450, 1660 and 2930 cm-1 , attributed to C-H deformation, C=O stretching of the peptide bond (amide-I band) and C-H stretching modes, respectively. Upon pressure increase, using Fluorinert™ as PTM, a shift towards higher frequencies of the C-H stretching and deformation peaks is observed...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775921/toxicological-investigation-in-blood-samples-from-suspected-impaired-driving-cases-in-the-milan-area-possible-loss-of-evidence-due-to-late-blood-sampling
#8
Davide Ferrari, Monica Manca, Simone Premaschi, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli
Driving under the influence of illicit drugs (DUID) represents a significant menace to public safety and is therefore sanctioned with severe fines and penalties such as driving disqualification or even arrest in case the accident has caused serious injury or death. In Italy, DUID is regulated by the article 187 of the National Street Code, however, the list of the substances to be searched and their threshold concentrations are left to the 20 Italian regional authorities. A further lack of legislative standardization concerns the type of detection methods and moreover the time gap between the car accident and blood sampling...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774584/-i-can-see-fine-patient-knowledge-of-eye-care
#9
Elizabeth L Irving, Alisa M Sivak, Marlee M Spafford
PURPOSE: To learn more about the perceptions and attitudes toward eye care of members of the public - in particular, their knowledge of the purpose, components and providers of eye examinations, their ability to self-monitor ocular status and their awareness of major sight threatening eye conditions. METHODS: This study used the qualitative research strategy, grounded theory. Participants were recruited via poster and social media. Two researchers, one with optometric knowledge and one without, moderated seven 60- to 90-min, semi-structured focus group discussions, which were audiotaped and transcribed...
May 17, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774041/report-on-the-current-inventory-of-the-toolbox-for-plant-cell-wall-analysis-proteinaceous-and-small-molecular-probes
#10
REVIEW
Maja G Rydahl, Aleksander R Hansen, Stjepan K Kračun, Jozef Mravec
Plant cell walls are highly complex structures composed of diverse classes of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and polyphenolics, which have numerous roles throughout the life of a plant. Significant research efforts aim to understand the biology of this cellular organelle and to facilitate cell-wall-based industrial applications. To accomplish this, researchers need to be provided with a variety of sensitive and specific detection methods for separate cell wall components, and their various molecular characteristics in vitro as well as in situ ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774015/comparative-proteomic-and-morphological-change-analyses-of-staphylococcus-aureus-during-resuscitation-from-prolonged-freezing
#11
Biao Suo, Hua Yang, Yuexia Wang, Haipeng Lv, Zhen Li, Chao Xu, Zhilu Ai
When frozen, Staphylococcus aureus survives in a sublethally injured state. However, S. aureus can recover at a suitable temperature, which poses a threat to food safety. To elucidate the resuscitation mechanism of freezing survived S. aureus , we used cells stored at -18°C for 90 days as controls. After resuscitating the survived cells at 37°C, the viable cell numbers were determined on tryptic soy agar with 0.6% yeast extract (TSAYE), and the non-injured-cell numbers were determined on TSAYE supplemented with 10% NaCl...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773478/preventive-strategies-for-mental-health
#12
REVIEW
Celso Arango, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Patrick D McGorry, Judith Rapoport, Iris E Sommer, Jacob A Vorstman, David McDaid, Oscar Marín, Elena Serrano-Drozdowskyj, Robert Freedman, William Carpenter
Available treatment methods have shown little effect on the burden associated with mental health disorders. We review promising universal, selective, and indicated preventive mental health strategies that might reduce the incidence of mental health disorders, or shift expected trajectories to less debilitating outcomes. Some of these interventions also seem to be cost-effective. In the transition to mental illness, the cumulative lifetime effect of multiple small effect size risk factors progressively increases vulnerability to mental health disorders...
May 14, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772734/high-pressure-treatment-of-non-hydrated-flour-affects-structural-characteristics-and-hydration
#13
Sabina Jakobi, Mario Jekle, Thomas Becker
In recent years, high-pressure treatment (HPT) has become an established process concerning the preservation of food. However, studies dealing with the structural, and consequently functional modification of non-hydrated starchy matrices (moisture content ≤ 15%) by HPT are missing. To close this knowledge gap, pressure (0⁻600 MPa, 10 min) and pressurization time depending (0⁻20 min, 450 MPa) alterations of wheat flour were investigated. Pressure rise from 0 to 600 MPa or pressurization time rise from 0 to 20 min resulted in a decline of amylopectin content from 68...
May 16, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772701/speed-consistency-in-the-smart-tachograph
#14
Daniele Borio, Eduardo Cano, Gianmarco Baldini
In the transportation sector, safety risks can be significantly reduced by monitoring the behaviour of drivers and by discouraging possible misconducts that entail fatigue and can increase the possibility of accidents. The Smart Tachograph (ST), the new revision of the Digital Tachograph (DT), has been designed with this purpose: to verify that speed limits and compulsory rest periods are respected by drivers. In order to operate properly, the ST periodically checks the consistency of data from different sensors, which can be potentially manipulated to avoid the monitoring of the driver behaviour...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771211/the-benefit-of-extending-oral-anticoagulation-treatment-excoa-after-acute-cerebral-vein-thrombosis-cvt-excoa-cvt-cluster-randomized-trial-protocol
#15
Bruno Miranda, Sanjith Aaron, Antonio Arauz, Fernando Barinagarrementeria, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi, Marta Carvalho, Adriana B Conforto, Jonathan M Coutinho, Jan Stam, Patrícia Canhão, José M Ferro
Rationale After a cerebral vein thrombosis, there is an increased risk of further venous thromboembolic events. The optimal duration of anticoagulation after cerebral vein thrombosis is unknown. Aim To compare efficacy and safety of a policy of short- (3-6 months) versus long-term (12 months) anticoagulation (any type venous thromboembolic events) after cerebral vein thrombosis for the prevention of venous thromboembolic events. Sample size estimates A sample of 1428 patients (749 per arm) allows detecting a reduction from 10 to 5% in the risk of venous thromboembolic event recurrence with 80% power at 5% significance, with 3% dropout rate...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769388/lineage-tracing-and-fate-mapping-in-xenopus-embryos
#16
Sally A Moody
Fate mapping approaches reveal what types of cells, tissues, and organs are derived from specific embryonic cells. Classical fate maps were made by microscopic techniques using embryos comprising small numbers of transparent cells. More complex and opaque embryos require use of a vital or lipophilic dye that labels small groups of cells. Intracellular injection of a lineage tracer that labels the injected cell and all of its descendants can be used to mark a single cell in Xenopus embryos, whose large cells are easy to microinject and usually cleave in regular patterns...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762087/genomics-and-epigenomics-of-congenital-heart-defects-expert-review-and-lessons-learned-in-africa
#17
Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Kevin Dzobo, Nana Akyaa Yao, Emile Chimusa, Jonathan Evans, Emmanuel Okai, Paul Kruszka, Maximilian Muenke, Gordon Awandare, Ambroise Wonkam, Collet Dandara
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are structural malformations found at birth with a prevalence of 1%. The clinical trajectory of CHD is highly variable and thus in need of robust diagnostics and therapeutics. Major surgical interventions are often required for most CHDs. In Africa, despite advances in life sciences infrastructure and improving education of medical scholars, the limited clinical data suggest that CHD detection and correction are still not at par with the rest of the world. But the toll and genetics of CHDs in Africa has seldom been systematically investigated...
May 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761488/psychological-therapies-for-treatment-resistant-depression-in-adults
#18
REVIEW
Sharea Ijaz, Philippa Davies, Catherine J Williams, David Kessler, Glyn Lewis, Nicola Wiles
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are a first-line treatment for adults with moderate to severe major depression. However, many people prescribed antidepressants for depression don't respond fully to such medication, and little evidence is available to inform the most appropriate 'next step' treatment for such patients, who may be referred to as having treatment-resistant depression (TRD). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance suggests that the 'next step' for those who do not respond to antidepressants may include a change in the dose or type of antidepressant medication, the addition of another medication, or the start of psychotherapy...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759684/how-aging-impacts-the-encoding-of-binaural-cues-and-the-perception-of-auditory-space
#19
REVIEW
Ann Clock Eddins, Erol J Ozmeral, David A Eddins
Over the years, the effect of aging on auditory function has been investigated in animal models and humans in an effort to characterize age-related changes in both perception and physiology. Here, we review how aging may impact neural encoding and processing of binaural and spatial cues in human listeners with a focus on recent work by the authors as well as others. Age-related declines in monaural temporal processing, as estimated from measures of gap detection and temporal fine structure discrimination, have been associated with poorer performance on binaural tasks that require precise temporal processing...
May 5, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759233/critical-review-of-dog-detection-and-the-influences-of-physiology-training-and-analytical-methodologies
#20
REVIEW
J E Hayes, P D McGreevy, S L Forbes, G Laing, R M Stuetz
Detection dogs serve a plethora of roles within modern society, and are relied upon to identify threats such as explosives and narcotics. Despite their importance, research and training regarding detection dogs has involved ambiguity. This is partially due to the fact that the assessment of effectiveness regarding detection dogs continues to be entrenched within a traditional, non-scientific understanding. Furthermore, the capabilities of detection dogs are also based on their olfactory physiology and training methodologies, both of which are hampered by knowledge gaps...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
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