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Gap detection

Wei Ji, Xue Zhang, Jianzhang Zhao, Ye Gao, Wei Song, Yukihiro Ozaki
A simple and ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay for heparin detection has been demonstrated based on an in situ hot spot assembly method using N,N'-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonium)propylamine]-3,4,9,10-perylenediimide (bis-quaternized perylene dye, abbreviated as BQPER). In this assay, a BQPER probe with two positive charges is employed as both Raman reporter and electrostatic bridge to cause the aggregation of citrate-capped Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs), resulting in a strong SERS signal due to the formation of numerous hot spots in the gaps of the aggregates...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Keyan Hu, Dong Wang, Wei Zhao, Yuhao Gu, Kejun Bu, Jie Pan, Peng Qin, Xian Zhang, Fuqiang Huang
Intermediate band (IB) materials are of great significance due to their superior solar absorption properties. Here, two IBs peaking at 0.88 and 1.33 eV are reported to be present in the forbidden gap of semiconducting SnS2 ( Eg = 2.21 eV) by doping titanium up to 6 atom % into the Sn site via a solid-state reaction at 923 K. The solid solution of Sn1- x Tix S2 is able to be formed, which is attributed to the isostructural structure of SnS2 and TiS2 . These two IBs were detected in the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra with the appearance of two additional absorption responses at the respective regions, which in good agreement with the conclusion of first-principles calculations...
March 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
João Perdigão, Carla Silva, Jaciara Diniz, Catarina Pereira, Diana Machado, Jorge Ramos, Hugo Silva, Fernanda Abilleira, Clarice Brum, Ana J Reis, Maíra Macedo, João L Scaini, Ana B Silva, Leonardo Esteves, Rita Macedo, Fernando Maltez, Sofia Clemente, Elizabeth Coelho, Sofia Viegas, Paulo Rabna, Amabélia Rodrigues, Nuno Taveira, Luísa Jordao, Afrânio Kritski, José Lapa E Silva, Igor Mokrousov, David Couvin, Nalin Rastogi, Isabel Couto, Arnab Pain, Ruth McNerney, Taane G Clark, Andrea von Groll, Elis R Dalla-Costa, Maria Lúcia Rossetti, Pedro E A da Silva, Miguel Viveiros, Isabel Portugal
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem within the Community of Portuguese Language Speaking Countries (CPLP). Despite the marked variation in TB incidence across its member-states and continued human migratory flux between countries, a considerable gap in the knowledge on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and strain circulation between the countries still exists. To address this, we have assembled and analysed the largest CPLP M. tuberculosis molecular and drug susceptibility dataset, comprised by a total of 1447 clinical isolates, including 423 multidrug-resistant isolates, from five CPLP countries...
March 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rashi I Mehta, Rupal I Mehta
Hydrophilic polymers are ubiquitously applied as surface coatings on catheters and intravascular medical technologies. Recent clinical literature has heightened awareness on the complication of hydrophilic polymer embolism, the phenomenon wherein polymer coating layers separate from catheter and device surfaces, and may be affiliated with a range of unanticipated adverse reactions. Significant system barriers have limited and delayed reporting on this iatrogenic complication, the full effects of which remain underrecognized by healthcare providers and manufacturers of various branded devices...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Joo Myung Lee, Joon Hyung Doh, Chang Wook Nam, Eun Seok Shin, Bon Kwon Koo
The presence of myocardial ischemia is the most important prognostic factor in patients with coronary artery disease, and ischemia-directed revascularization has been a standard of care. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an invasive method used to detect the functionally significant epicardial coronary stenosis, and FFR-guided revascularization strategy has been proven to be superior to angiography-guided strategy. Recently, a hyperemia-free index, instantaneous wave free ratio (iFR), was developed and showed its non-inferiority for clinical outcomes compared with FFR-guided strategy...
March 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
Linda Ye, Mingu Kang, Junwei Liu, Felix von Cube, Christina R Wicker, Takehito Suzuki, Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, Eli Rotenberg, David C Bell, Liang Fu, Riccardo Comin, Joseph G Checkelsky
The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles that is known to host exotic quantum magnetic states. Theoretical work has predicted that kagome lattices may also host Dirac electronic states that could lead to topological and Chern insulating phases, but these states have so far not been detected in experiments. Here we study the d-electron kagome metal Fe3 Sn2 , which is designed to support bulk massive Dirac fermions in the presence of ferromagnetic order. We observe a temperature-independent intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity that persists above room temperature, which is suggestive of prominent Berry curvature from the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking electronic bands of the kagome plane...
March 19, 2018: Nature
Rossella Rella, Paolo Belli, Michela Giuliani, Enida Bufi, Giorgio Carlino, Pierluigi Rinaldi, Riccardo Manfredi
Automated breast ultrasonography (ABUS) is a new imaging technology for automatic breast scanning through ultrasound. It was first developed to overcome the limitation of operator dependency and lack of standardization and reproducibility of handheld ultrasound. ABUS provides a three-dimensional representation of breast tissue and allows images reformatting in three planes, and the generated coronal plane has been suggested to improve diagnostic accuracy. This technique has been first used in the screening setting to improve breast cancer detection, especially in mammographically dense breasts...
March 16, 2018: Academic Radiology
Ellen Young, Manus Carey, Andrew A Meharg, Caroline Meharg
BACKGROUND: Plants can adapt to edaphic stress, such as nutrient deficiency, toxicity and biotic challenges, by controlled transcriptomic responses, including microbiome interactions. Traditionally studied in model plant species with controlled microbiota inoculation treatments, molecular plant-microbiome interactions can be functionally investigated via RNA-Seq. Complex, natural plant-microbiome studies are limited, typically focusing on microbial rRNA and omitting functional microbiome investigations, presenting a fundamental knowledge gap...
March 20, 2018: Microbiome
P Reis, J Lourenço, F P Carvalho, J Oliveira, M Malta, S Mendo, R Pereira
The induction of RIBE (Radiation Induced Bystander Effect) is a non-target effect of low radiation doses that has already been verified at an inter-organismic level in fish and small mammals. Although the theoretical impact in the field of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is possible, there is a gap of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in invertebrate groups and following environmentally relevant exposures. To understand if RIBE should be considered for ERA of radionuclide-rich wastewaters, we exposed Daphnia magna (<24 h and 5d old) to a 2% diluted uranium mine effluent for 48 h, and to a matching dose of waterborne uranium (55...
March 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Yunqiao Zhou, Tieyu Wang, Qifeng Li, Pei Wang, Lei Li, Shuqin Chen, Yueqing Zhang, Kifayatullah Khan, Jing Meng
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are being increasingly reported as emerging contaminants in riverine and marine settings. This study investigated the contamination level and spatial distribution of 17 PFAAs within the depth profile of the Bohai and Yellow Seas using newly detected sampling data from 49 sites (June 29 to July 14, 2016). Moreover, the riverine flux of 11 selected PFAAs in 33 rivers draining into the Bohai and Yellow Seas was estimated from previous studies (2002-2014) in order to establish the relationship between riverine sources and marine sinks...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Maria V Felice, Zheng Fan
Ultrasonic testing is a non-destructive method that can be used to detect, locate and size flaws. The purpose of this paper is to review techniques that utilise ultrasonic bulk waves to size flaws. Flaws that are embedded within a component (i.e. remote from any surface) as well as flaws growing from inaccessible surfaces are considered. The different available techniques are grouped into the following categories: amplitude, temporal, imaging and inversion. The principles, applications and limitations of the different techniques are covered, as well as approaches to assessing the performance of the techniques...
March 3, 2018: Ultrasonics
Michael L Wilson, Kenneth A Fleming, Modupe A Kuti, Lai Meng Looi, Nestor Lago, Kun Ru
As global efforts accelerate to implement the Sustainable Development Goals and, in particular, universal health coverage, access to high-quality and timely pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) services will be needed to support health-care systems that are tasked with achieving these goals. This access will be most challenging to achieve in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have a disproportionately large share of the global burden of disease but a disproportionately low share of global health-care resources, particularly PALM services...
March 14, 2018: Lancet
V Nagarajan, R Chandiramouli
We report the adsorption properties of methanol (ML) and ethanol (EL) vapor molecules on to the monolayer MoSe2 surface. Before, studying the adsorption behavior, the structural stability of MoSe2 monolayer is ensured with formation energy. The stable monolayer MoSe2 nanosheet is used as a base material for the adsorption of ML and EL vapor molecules. The interaction of ML and EL vapors on MoSe2 surface layer is explored using the adsorption energy, energy gap variation and Bader charge analysis. We noticed the band gap variation between 1...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Gurleen Kaur Walia, Deep Kamal Kaur Randhawa
The adsorption behavior of sulfur-based toxic gases (H2 S and SO2 ) on armchair silicene nanoribbons (ASiNRs) was investigated using first-principles density functional theory (DFT). Being a zero band gap material, application of bulk silicene is limited in nanoelectronics, despite its high carrier mobility. By restricting its dimensions into one dimension, construction of nanoribbons, and by introduction of a defect, its band gap can be tuned. Pristine armchair silicene nanoribbons (P-ASiNRs) have a very low sensitivity to gas molecules...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Cassandra Rauert, Mahiba Shoieb, Jasmin K Schuster, Anita Eng, Tom Harner
Poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) were monitored at 21 sites in the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network. Atmospheric concentrations previously reported from 2009 were compared to concentrations measured at these sites in 2013 and 2015, to assess trends over 7 years of monitoring. Concentrations of the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and fluorinated sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs and FOSEs) were stable at these sites from 2009 to 2015 with no significant difference (p > 0...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Teresa Morales-Ruiz, Álvaro C Romero-Valenzuela, Vanessa M Vázquez-Grande, Teresa Roldán-Arjona, Rafael R Ariza, Dolores Córdoba-Cañero
Base excision repair (BER) is a major defense pathway against spontaneous DNA damage. This multistep process is initiated by DNA glycosylases that recognise and excise the damaged base, and proceeds by the concerted action of additional proteins that perform incision of the abasic site, gap filling and ligation. BER has been extensively studied in bacteria, yeasts and animals. Although knowledge of this pathway in land plants is increasing, there are no reports detecting BER in algae. We describe here an experimental in vitro system allowing the specific analysis of BER in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
March 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Tao Wei, Lei Liu, Xiaoying Zhou
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is a prominent effecter in maintaining bronchial muscle contraction and responsible for airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR); the phenotype change and over-proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferation effects of Cortex Dictamni aqueous extract (CDAE) and ethanol extract (CDE) on ASMCs and the possible underline mechanisms. Cell proliferation rates were determined by MTT assay; matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) activity was examined by gelatin zymography; cell proliferation and migration were appraised by in-vitro cell-gap closure assessment; protein expressions of p38, Bcl-2 and FAK of ASMCs were evaluated by western blotting and Ca2+ influx of cells was measured by confocal laser microscope...
March 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Roberto A Salas Fragomeni, Tali Amir, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Susan C Harvey, Mehrbod S Javadi, Lilja Solnes, Ana Kiess, Mohamad E Allaf, Martin Pomper, Michael A Gorin, Steven P Rowe
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly overexpressed on prostate cancer epithelial cells and for which there is a growing body of literature examining the role of small molecule and antibody radiotracers targeted against this protein for prostate cancer detection and therapy. Despite its name, PSMA is also expressed, to varying degrees, in the neovasculature of a wide variety of non-prostate cancers; indeed, the pathology literature is replete with promising immunohistochemistry findings...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Charlotte E Teunissen, Markus Otto, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Sylvain Lehmann, Piotr Lewczuk, Alberto Lleó, Armand Perret-Liaudet, Hayrettin Tumani, Martin R Turner, Marcel M Verbeek, Jens Wiltfang, Henrik Zetterberg, Lucilla Parnetti, Kaj Blennow
Body fluid biomarkers have great potential for different clinical purposes, including diagnosis, prognosis, patient stratification and treatment effect monitoring. This is exemplified by current use of several excellent biomarkers, such as the Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, anti-neuromyelitis optica antibodies and blood neurofilament light. We still, however, have a strong need for additional biomarkers and several gaps in their development and implementation should be filled. Examples of such gaps are i) limited knowledge of the causes of neurological diseases, and thus hypotheses about the best biomarkers to detect subclinical stages of these diseases; ii) the limited success translating discoveries obtained by e...
March 15, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Serguei V Feskov, Anatoly I Ivanov
An approach to the construction of diabatic free energy surfaces (FESs) for ultrafast electron transfer (ET) in a supramolecule with an arbitrary number of electron localization centers (redox sites) is developed, supposing that the reorganization energies for the charge transfers and shifts between all these centers are known. Dimensionality of the coordinate space required for the description of multistage ET in this supramolecular system is shown to be equal to N - 1, where N is the number of the molecular centers involved in the reaction...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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