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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544416/global-analysis-of-strategies-to-tackle-antimicrobial-resistance
#1
Funke Adeniji
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health issue driven by inappropriate use of antimicrobials resulting in decreased efficacy on the background of an extremely limited pipeline for new antibiotics. We sought to analyse the effectiveness of key policies and strategies in tackling AMR globally and identify gaps in these. METHOD: The scope, magnitude, history and drivers of AMR were reviewed using supporting evidence. Our methodology included a literature review and semi-structured survey, whilst the analyses process was guided by an adapted health policy analyses framework...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544218/genome-wide-mediation-analysis-of-psychiatric-and-cognitive-traits-through-imaging-phenotypes
#2
Xuan Bi, Liuqing Yang, Tengfei Li, Baisong Wang, Hongtu Zhu, Heping Zhang
Heritability is well documented for psychiatric disorders and cognitive abilities which are, however, complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Hence, it remains challenging to discover which and how genetic variations contribute to such complex traits. In this article, they propose to use mediation analysis to bridge this gap, where neuroimaging phenotypes were utilized as intermediate variables. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort was investigated using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and mediation analyses...
May 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543881/a-review-of-blood-sample-handling-and-pre-processing-for-metabolomics-studies
#3
REVIEW
Vinicius Veri Hernandes, Coral Barbas, Danuta Dudzik
Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of clinical studies, bringing a new era for improving clinical diagnostics, early disease detection, therapy prediction and treatment efficiency monitoring. A major challenge in metabolomics, particularly untargeted studies, is the extremely diverse and complex nature of biological specimens. Despite great advances in the field there still exist fundamental needs for considering pre-analytical variability that can introduce bias to the subsequent analytical process and decrease the reliability of the results and moreover confound final research outcomes...
May 19, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541552/evidence-appraisal-a-scoping-review-conceptual-framework-and-research-agenda
#4
Andrew Goldstein, Eric Venker, Chunhua Weng
Objective: Critical appraisal of clinical evidence promises to help prevent, detect, and address flaws related to study importance, ethics, validity, applicability, and reporting. These research issues are of growing concern. The purpose of this scoping review is to survey the current literature on evidence appraisal to develop a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. Methods: We conducted an iterative literature search of Medline for discussion or research on the critical appraisal of clinical evidence...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541030/pt-nanoparticle-collisions-detected-by-electrocatalytic-amplification-and-afm-imaging-np-collision-frequency-adsorption-and-random-distribution-at-an-ume-surface
#5
Cesar A Ortiz-Ledón, Cynthia G Zoski
We demonstrate good agreement between the theoretical and experimental collision frequency of individual Pt NPs undergoing collisions at a Au UME (5 µm radius) using electrocatalytic amplification provided by 15 mM hydrazine in 5 mM PB (pH7) over 100 to 300 s. DLS measurements demonstrated that Pt NP aggregation in this solution had the least impact on NP diffusion coefficient and concentration values, which are directly proportional to collision frequency. We show that the smaller, uniform current steps are indicative of NPs of metallic radii in agreement with those determined by TEM, with corresponding larger NP diffusion coefficient and concentration, in agreement with DLS results...
May 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539641/revealing-the-insoluble-metasecretome-of-lignocellulose-degrading-microbial-communities
#6
Anna M Alessi, Susannah M Bird, Joseph P Bennett, Nicola C Oates, Yi Li, Adam A Dowle, Igor Polikarpov, J Peter W Young, Simon J McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce
Microbial communities metabolize plant biomass using secreted enzymes; however, identifying extracellular proteins tightly bound to insoluble lignocellulose in these microbiomes presents a challenge, as the rigorous extraction required to elute these proteins also lyses the microbes associated with the plant biomass releasing intracellular proteins that contaminate the metasecretome. Here we describe a technique for targeting the extracellular proteome, which was used to compare the metasecretome and meta-surface-proteome of two lignocellulose-degrading communities grown on wheat straw and rice straw...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536355/novel-computerized-method-for-measurement-of-retinal-vessel-diameters
#7
Hichem Guedri, Mariem Ben Abdallah, Fraj Echouchene, Hafedh Belmabrouk
Several clinical studies reveal the relationship between alterations in the topologies of the human retinal blood vessel, the outcrop and the disease evolution, such as diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, and macular degeneration. Indeed, the detection of these vascular changes always has gaps. In addition, the manual steps are slow, which may be subjected to a bias of the perceiver. However, we can overcome these troubles using computer algorithms that are quicker and more accurate. This paper presents and investigates a novel method for measuring the blood vessel diameter in the retinal image...
March 27, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535772/rural-urban-difference-in-the-use-of-annual-physical-examination-among-seniors-in-shandong-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Dandan Ge, Jie Chu, Chengchao Zhou, Yangyang Qian, Li Zhang, Long Sun
BACKGROUND: Regular physical examination contributes to early detection and timely treatment, which is helpful in promoting healthy behaviors and preventing diseases. The objective of this study is to compare the annual physical examination (APE) use between rural and urban elderly in China. METHODS: A total of 3,922 participants (60+) were randomly selected from three urban districts and three rural counties in Shandong Province, China, and were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire...
May 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535499/the-role-of-5-htr6-in-mossy-fiber-sprouting-activating-fyn-and-p-erk1-2-in-pilocarpine-induced-chronic-epileptic-rats
#9
Wanhui Lin, Wenli Huang, Shenggen Chen, Mingxing Lin, Qingyu Huang, Huapin Huang
OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective is to verify whether 5-HTR6 is involved in the development of mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and to determine how the progression of MFS is affected by 5-HTR6. METHODS: A total of 90 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into either the control group (n=36) or the epileptic group (n=54). Status epilepticus (SE) of rats was induced by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LiCl-pilocarpine. We conducted our experiments in two stages...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535001/standardization-of-a375-human-melanoma-models-on-chicken-embryo-chorioallantoic-membrane-and-balb-c-nude-mice
#10
Stefana Avram, Dorina-Elena Coricovac, Ioana Zinuca Pavel, Iulia Pinzaru, Roxana Ghiulai, Flavia Baderca, Codruta Soica, Danina Muntean, Daciana E Branisteanu, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Cristina Adriana Dehelean
Cutaneous melanoma is a metastatic disease characterized by high resistance to treatment, the incidence of which has alarmingly increased worldwide over the past years. A thorough characterization of tumor onset, progression and metastasis is compulsory to overcome the gaps existent in melanoma biology. The present study suggests a well‑established protocol and a detailed histological description of human melanoma models in ovo and in vivo obtained by the inoculation of A375 cells to chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and Balb/c nude mice...
May 22, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534868/a-new-long-term-daily-satellite-based-rainfall-dataset-for-operational-monitoring-in-africa
#11
Ross I Maidment, David Grimes, Emily Black, Elena Tarnavsky, Matthew Young, Helen Greatrex, Richard P Allan, Thorwald Stein, Edson Nkonde, Samuel Senkunda, Edgar Misael Uribe Alcántara
Rainfall information is essential for many applications in developing countries, and yet, continually updated information at fine temporal and spatial scales is lacking. In Africa, rainfall monitoring is particularly important given the close relationship between climate and livelihoods. To address this information gap, this paper describes two versions (v2.0 and v3.0) of the TAMSAT daily rainfall dataset based on high-resolution thermal-infrared observations, available from 1983 to the present. The datasets are based on the disaggregation of 10-day (v2...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534735/the-use-of-the-gaps-in-noise-test-as-an-index-of-the-enhanced-left-temporal-cortical-thinning-associated-with-the-transition-between-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Vasiliki Vivian Iliadou, Doris-Eva Bamiou, Christos Sidiras, Nikolaos P Moschopoulos, Magda Tsolaki, Ioannis Nimatoudis, Gail D Chermak
BACKGROUND: The known link between auditory perception and cognition is often overlooked when testing for cognition. PURPOSE: To evaluate auditory perception in a group of older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of auditory perception. STUDY SAMPLE: Adults with MCI and adults with no documented cognitive issues and matched hearing sensitivity and age. DATA COLLECTION: Auditory perception was evaluated in both groups, assessing for hearing sensitivity, speech in babble (SinB), and temporal resolution...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534230/trueperella-pyogenes-isolated-from-a-brain-abscess-of-an-adult-roebuck-capreolus-capreolus
#13
Jörn-Peter Wickhorst, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Omar Hashim Sheet, Tobias Eisenberg, Osama Sammra, Mazen Alssahen, Christoph Lämmler, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Michael Zschöck, Markus Timke, Amir Abdulmawjood
The present study was designed to characterize phenotypically and genotypically a Trueperella pyogenes strain isolated from a brain abscess of an adult roebuck (Capreolus capreolus). The species identity could be confirmed by phenotypical investigations, by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR); by sequencing the target genes rpoB, gap, and tuf; and by detection of T. pyogenes chaperonin-encoding gene cpn60 with a previously developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay...
May 23, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532727/experiences-and-own-management-regarding-residual-symptoms-among-people-with-coeliac-disease
#14
Lisa Ring Jacobsson, Anna Milberg, Katarina Hjelm, Maria Friedrichsen
CONTEXT: Between 7% and 30% of people with treated coeliac disease suffer from residual symptoms, and there is a knowledge gap about their own management of these symptoms. AIM: To explore experiences and management concerning residual symptoms despite a gluten-free diet in people with coeliac disease. METHODS: A qualitative explorative design with semi-structured interviews with 22 adults with coeliac disease in Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532182/tackling-a-novel-lethal-virus-a-focus-on-h7n9-vaccine-development
#15
Irina Isakova-Sivak, Larisa Rudenko
Avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses first detected in humans in China in 2013 continue to cause severe human infections with a mortality rate close to 40%. These viruses are acknowledged as the subtype most likely to cause the next influenza pandemic. Areas covered: Here we review published data on the development of H7N9 influenza vaccine candidates and their evaluation in preclinical and clinical trials identified on PubMed database with the term 'H7N9 influenza vaccine'. In addition, a search with the same term was done on ClinicalTrials...
May 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532026/high-performance-hydrogen-sensor-based-on-mn-implanted-zno-nanowires-array-fabricated-on-ito-substrate
#16
A Renitta, K Vijayalakshmi
In the present research, we propose a novel approach for the detection of hydrogen gas using Mn implanted ZnO nanowires fabricated onto ITO coated glass substrate by chemical spray pyrolysis deposition. The effect of Mn concentration on the structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the Mn implanted ZnO films were grown as a polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite phase without any impurities. The (101) peak position of ZnO-Mn films was shifted towards a lower angle with increasing Mn concentration...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#17
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530031/celecoxib-for-osteoarthritis
#18
REVIEW
Livia Puljak, Ana Marin, Davorka Vrdoljak, Filipa Markotic, Ana Utrobicic, Peter Tugwell
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by degeneration of the joint cartilage and growth of new bone, cartilage and connective tissue. It is often associated with major disability and impaired quality of life. There is currently no consensus on the best treatment to improve OA symptoms. Celecoxib is a selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical benefits (pain, function, quality of life) and safety (withdrawals due to adverse effects, serious adverse effects, overall discontinuation rates) of celecoxib in osteoarthritis (OA)...
May 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529360/twelve-month-prevalence-and-treatment-gap-for-common-mental-disorders-findings-from-a-large-scale-epidemiological-survey-in-india
#19
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak, R Chandrasekaran, Pranit K Chaudhury, Balbir S Deswal, R K Lenin Singh, Savita Malhotra, S Haque Nizamie, Bharat N Panchal, T P Sudhakar, J K Trivedi, Mathew Varghese, Jagdish Prasad, Somnath Chatterji
BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders, such as mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, are significant contributors to disability globally, including India. Available research is, however, limited by methodological issues and heterogeneities. AIM: The present paper focuses on the 12-month prevalence and 12-month treatment for anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative, in India, the study was conducted at eleven sites...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527880/intensive-monitoring-of-urine-output-is-associated-with-increased-detection-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-improved-outcomes
#20
Kui Jin, Raghavan Murugan, Florentina E Sileanu, Emily Foldes, Priyanka Priyanka, Gilles Clermont, John A Kellum
BACKGROUND: Urine output (UO) is a vital sign for critical ill patients but standards for monitoring and reporting vary widely between ICUs. Careful monitoring of UO could lead to earlier recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) and better fluid management. We sought to determine if intensity of UO monitoring is associated with outcomes in patients with and without AKI. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including 15,724 adults admitted to ICUs from 2000-2008. Intensive UO monitoring was defined as hourly recordings and no gaps >3 hours for the first 48 hours after ICU admission...
May 17, 2017: Chest
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