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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763252/charcot-foot-clinical-clues-diagnostic-strategies-and-treatment-principles
#1
Valerie S Marmolejo, Jonathan F Arnold, Mario Ponticello, Charles A Anderson
Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle is often difficult to diagnose because of limited findings in the patient history, physical examination, imaging, and laboratory studies. Delay in treatment results in the development of rigid foot and ankle deformities, increasing the risk of ulceration, infection, and major lower extremity amputation. Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy should be suspected in any patient 40 years or older with obesity and peripheral neuropathy who presents with an acutely swollen foot following minimal or no recalled trauma and who reports minimal to no pain, particularly if radiography and laboratory markers of infection are normal...
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762071/vla-4-mediated-adhesion-of-melanoma-cells-on-the-blood-brain-barrier-is-the-critical-cue-for-melanoma-cell-intercalation-and-barrier-disruption
#2
Ana B García-Martín, Pascale Zwicky, Thomas Gruber, Christoph Matti, Federica Moalli, Jens V Stein, David Francisco, Gaby Enzmann, Mitchell P Levesque, Ekkehard Hewer, Ruth Lyck
Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer in humans. One severe complication is the formation of brain metastasis, which requires extravasation of melanoma cells across the tight blood-brain barrier (BBB). Previously, VLA-4 has been assigned a role for the adhesive interaction of melanoma cells with non-BBB endothelial cells. However, the role of melanoma VLA-4 for breaching the BBB remained unknown. In this study, we used a mouse in vitro BBB model and imaged the shear resistant arrest of melanoma cells on the BBB...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761483/epithelial-barrier-dysfunctions-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-skin-gut-lung-model-linking-microbiome-alteration-and-immune-dysregulation
#3
REVIEW
T H Zhu, T R Zhu, K A Tran, R K Sivamani, V Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis is a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal barrier function across multiple organ sites. Initial disruption in the skin epidermal barrier permits allergen sensitization and colonization by pathogens. This induces TH 2 inflammatory response and a thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediated pathway that further promotes barrier breakdown at distant sites including the intestinal and respiratory tract. Clinically, atopic dermatitis can progress from skin disease to food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and later asthma, a phenomenon commonly known as the atopic march...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743767/pressure-ulcer-and-nutrition
#4
REVIEW
Seied Hadi Saghaleini, Kasra Dehghan, Kamran Shadvar, Sarvin Sanaie, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Zohreh Ostadi
Pressure ulcers can diminish global life quality, contribute to rapid mortality in some patients and pose a significant cost to health-care organizations. Accordingly, their prevention and management are highly important. Nutritional deprivation and insufficient dietary intake are the key risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers and impaired wound healing. Unplanned weight loss is a major risk factor for malnutrition and pressure ulcer development. Suboptimal nutrition interferes with the function of the immune system, collagen synthesis, and tensile strength...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730734/robotic-assisted-inguinal-lymphadenectomy-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Ioannis D Gkegkes, Evelyn Eleni Minis, Christos Iavazzo
BACKGROUND: Lymphadenectomy represents the standard treatment for various types of cancer. The introduction of robotics in lymph node dissection may have an important impact on post-lymphadenectomy complications. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed. RESULTS: In our review, robotic inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed on 51 patients. Penile squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type of the primary neoplasia...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687476/peptidylarginine-deiminase-is-involved-in-maintaining-the-cornified-oral-mucosa-of-rats
#6
S Arita, M Hatta, K Uchida, T Kita, K Okamura, T Ryu, H Murakami, R Sakagami, J Yamazaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epithelial cells derived from different regions exhibit marked differences in their differentiation capacity, allowing them to provide a suitable protective barrier. We aimed to clarify the role of peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) in modifying the key epidermal proteins filaggrin (FLG) and keratin 1 (K1) during stratification of the rat palate and buccal mucosa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, PAD activity assays and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and developed an organotypic culture model...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663944/repair-of-a-large-ventral-hernia-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-by-using-an-abdominal-component-separation-technique
#7
Steve J Kempton, Jacqueline S Israel, Saverio Capuano Iii, Samuel O Poore
Here we present a 32-y-old rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a large recurrent ventral incisional hernia. The initial surgery included midline celiotomy for treatment of endometriosis, in which the animal developed a hernia that was repaired with interposition of mesh. Hernia recurrence at 1 y resulted in a defect measuring 7 × 13 cm, with loss of abdominal domain. Skin breakdown was noted with areas of exposed mesh through the skin with associated acute on chronic infection. Clinically, the animal was lethargic, not eating, and failing to thrive...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650263/-should-surgeons-keep-performing-drainage-after-breast-reduction
#8
N Vidali, A Chevet-Noel, P Ringenbach, J B Andreoletti
OBJECTIVE: Despite the absence of "evidence-based medicine", the use of closed suction drainage in breast surgery is currently the standard practice. Its goal is to minimize the amount of fluid at the operation site, the dead space that can involve postoperative complications. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that with or without drainage the complication rate is unchanged. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective and comparative study of two groups of breast reduction with and without drainage...
April 9, 2018: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628708/management-of-displaced-midshaft-clavicle-fractures-in-adolescent-patients-using-intramedullary-flexible-nails-a-case-series
#9
Emmanuel D Eisenstein, Jennifer J Misenhimer, Ahmed Kotb, Ahmed M Thabet, Amr A Abdelgawad
Introduction: Clavicle fractures are common injuries in adolescent patients. In this study we present our technique and results for treating non-comminuted displaced midshaft clavicle fractures using flexible intra medullary nails. Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data using the electronic medical record was performed. Adolescent patients presenting to a level one pediatric trauma center with acute displaced non comminuted clavicular shaft fractures who were treated with intra medullary flexible nails were included in this study...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620552/periumbilical-perforator-sparing-abdominoplasty-in-patients-with-abdominal-scars
#10
Jonathan Samuel Lam, David Nguyen, Jules A Walters, Kamran Khoobehi
Abdominoplasty is one of the most common cosmetic surgical procedures. Patients who undergo abdominoplasties with abdominal scars are at an increased risk for skin necrosis and wound breakdown. To prevent further disruption of vascularity, the dissection and mobilization is often limited resulting in a suboptimal esthetic result. The periumbilical perforator-sparing technique allows for vascular preservation and adequate mobilization to produce excellent esthetic results in patients with abdominal scars.
April 3, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606788/chemical-composition-of-axillary-odorants-reflects-social-and-individual-attributes-in-rhesus-macaques
#11
Brigitte M Weiß, Marlen Kücklich, Ruth Thomsen, Stefanie Henkel, Susann Jänig, Lars Kulik, Claudia Birkemeyer, Anja Widdig
Abstract: Scents play an important role in the life of most terrestrial mammals and may transmit valuable information about conspecifics. Olfaction was long considered of low importance in Old World monkeys due to their relative reduction of olfactory structures and low incidence of scent-marking behavior but has been increasingly recognized for mediating social relationships in recent years. Yet, studies investigating the composition of their chemical cues remain scarce. In the present study, we analyzed the potential information content of chemicals present on the skin of rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta )...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582117/double-calcaneal-osteotomy-with-minimally-invasive-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-severe-flexible-flatfeet
#12
Hany Mourkus, Hari Prem
BACKGROUND: Severe flexible flatfoot deformity in children and adolescents is a complex problem. Calcaneal lengthening remains the gold standard for surgical correction at this institution. However, in a minority of patients, inadequate correction of valgus is noted at surgery and a further calcaneal shift osteotomy is done. METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective review of ten patients who received 15 combined minimally invasive calcaneal shift and calcaneal lengthening osteotomies, which were all performed by the senior author...
March 26, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577628/self-reported-skin-concerns-an-epidemiological-study-of-community-dwelling-older-people
#13
Fiona Cowdell, Judith Dyson, Judith Long, Una Macleod
AIM: To identify the frequency and impact of self-reported skin concerns in community-dwelling older people. BACKGROUND: Globally, the population is getting older and it is essential to develop effective interventions to promote healthy ageing. Skin change with age is inevitable and renders this often neglected organ more vulnerable to damage and breakdown; this can be costly to individuals and society. Maintenance of skin health in older people presents a health challenge that has yet to be fully understood or addressed...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570549/skin-laceration-in-collagenase-clostridium-histolyticum-treatment-for-dupuytren-s-contracture
#14
Rafael Sanjuan-Cervero, Francisco J Carrera-Hueso, Salvador Oliver-Mengual, Maria A Ramon-Barrios, Clayton A Peimer, Narjis Fikri-Benbrahim
BACKGROUND: Dupuytren's contracture produces a progressive flexion contracture of the affected fingers. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum produces breakdown of the cord in the hand and/or finger(s) that tightens as a result of the disease creating a contracture, allowing manual traction and cord rupture. One of the side effects is spontaneous skin laceration when the finger is extended. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the development of skin lacerations in Dupuytren's contracture treated with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum, to determine predisposing factors, and evaluate the effectiveness of 2 different treatments (antiseptic and non-antiseptic dressings)...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535726/mechanisms-of-tolerance-induction-by-dendritic-cells-in-vivo
#15
REVIEW
Hitoshi Hasegawa, Takuya Matsumoto
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population playing a pivotal role in immune responses and tolerance. DCs promote immune tolerance by participating in the negative selection of autoreactive T cells in the thymus. Furthermore, to eliminate autoreactive T cells that have escaped thymic deletion, DCs also induce immune tolerance in the periphery through various mechanisms. Breakdown of these functions leads to autoimmune diseases. Moreover, DCs play a critical role in maintenance of homeostasis in body organs, especially the skin and intestine...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531643/concurrent-umbilical-hernia-repair-at-the-time-of-liver-transplantation-a-six-year-experience-from-a-single-institution
#16
A J Perez, I N Haskins, A S Prabhu, D M Krpata, C Tu, S Rosenblatt, K Hashimoto, T Diago, B Eghtesad, M L J Rosen
Background: Umbilical hernias are common in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. Management of those persisting at the time of liver transplantation is important to define. Objective: To evaluate the long-term results of patients undergoing simultaneous primary umbilical hernia repair (UHR) at the time of liver transplantation at a single institution. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed on patients undergoing simultaneous UHR and liver transplantation from 2010 through 2016...
2018: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501665/elastin-driven-genetic-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Maria Laura Duque Lasio, Beth A Kozel
Elastic fibers provide recoil to tissues that undergo repeated deformation, such as blood vessels, lungs and skin. Composed of elastin and its accessory proteins, the fibers are produced within a restricted developmental window and are stable for decades. Their eventual breakdown is associated with a loss of tissue resiliency and aging. Rare alteration of the elastin (ELN) gene produces disease by impacting protein dosage (supravalvar aortic stenosis, Williams Beuren syndrome and Williams Beuren region duplication syndrome) and protein function (autosomal dominant cutis laxa)...
February 28, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492732/surgical-management-of-adult-acquired-buried-penis
#18
REVIEW
Thomas W Fuller, Katherine M Theisen, Anup Shah, Paul J Rusilko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adult acquired buried penis is a morbid condition characterized by complete entrapment of the phallus as a result of morbid obesity, post-surgical cicatrix formation, or primary genital lymphedema. Hygienic voiding is not possible and urinary dribbling is frequent with accompanying inflammation, skin breakdown, and infection from the chronic moisture. The end result is penile skin fibrosis resulting in permanent functional loss. Herein, we describe the etiology of adult acquired buried penis, advances in its surgical management, and quality of life outcomes with treatment...
February 28, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466319/skin-on-a-chip-transepithelial-electrical-resistance-and-extracellular-acidification-measurements-through-an-automated-air-liquid-interface
#19
Frank A Alexander, Sebastian Eggert, Joachim Wiest
Skin is a critical organ that plays a crucial role in defending the internal organs of the body. For this reason, extensive work has gone into creating artificial models of the epidermis for in vitro skin toxicity tests. These tissue models, called reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), are used by researchers in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and environmental arenas to evaluate skin toxicity upon exposure to xenobiotics. Here, we present a label-free solution that leverages the use of the intelligent mobile lab for in vitro diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD), a noninvasive, sensor-based platform, to monitor the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of RhE models and adherent cells cultured on porous membrane inserts...
February 21, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447281/peptidic-inhibitors-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-with-potential-for-dermatological-applications-discovered-via-phage-display
#20
Caitlin N Suire, Sarah Nainar, Michael Fazio, Adam G Kreutzer, Tara Paymozd-Yazdi, Caitlyn L Topper, Caroline R Thompson, Malcolm A Leissring
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is an atypical zinc-metalloendopeptidase that hydrolyzes insulin and other intermediate-sized peptide hormones, many of which are implicated in skin health and wound healing. Pharmacological inhibitors of IDE administered internally have been shown to slow the breakdown of insulin and thereby potentiate insulin action. Given the importance of insulin and other IDE substrates for a variety of dermatological processes, pharmacological inhibitors of IDE suitable for topical applications would be expected to hold significant therapeutic and cosmetic potential...
2018: PloS One
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