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Shoulder anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921751/thoracic-outlet-syndrome-biomechanical-and-exercise-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Nicholas A Levine, Brandon R Rigby
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) describes a group of disorders that are due to a dynamic compression of blood vessels or nerves, between the clavicle and first rib or cervical vertebral nerve roots. Individuals with TOS typically experience upper limb pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness that is exacerbated by shoulder or neck movement. The causes of TOS vary, and can include abrupt movements, hypertrophy of the neck musculature, and anatomical variations in which the brachial plexus roots pass through this musculature, edema, pregnancy, repeated overhead motions, the blockage of an artery or vein, or abnormal posture...
June 19, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883617/3d-printed-specimens-as-a-valuable-tool-in-anatomy-education-a-pilot-study
#2
Monique Garas, Mauro Vaccarezza, George Newland, Kylie McVay-Doornbusch, Jamila Hasani
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a modern technique of creating 3D-printed models that allows reproduction of human structures from MRI and CT scans via fusion of multiple layers of resin materials. To assess feasibility of this innovative resource as anatomy educational tool, we conducted a preliminary study on Curtin University undergraduate students to investigate the use of 3D models for anatomy learning as a main goal, to assess the effectiveness of different specimen types during the sessions and personally preferred anatomy learning tools among students as secondary aim...
June 5, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881172/corrective-osteotomy-in-symptomatic-clavicular-malunion-using-computer-assisted-3-d-planning-and-patient-specific-surgical-guides
#3
Simran Grewal, Johannes G G Dobbe, Peter Kloen
Surgical correction of a symptomatic clavicular malunion requires simultaneous adjustment of the translation as well as the rotation in multiple planes. We describe a corrective osteotomy for a clavicle malunion using 3-D computer assisted preoperative-planning combined with patient-specific surgical guides, along with the benefits and disadvantages of this approach. This method enabled quantifying the malunion by comparing the malunited bone with the normal contralateral clavicle as a template. The postoperative results were encouraging with symmetrical shoulder anatomy and functional improvement...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876242/arthroscopic-load-shift-technique-for-intraoperative-assessment-of-shoulder-translation
#4
Steven F DeFroda, Brett D Owens
Shoulder instability represents a spectrum of disease, ranging from subluxation to dislocation. It may present acutely after trauma or chronically as a result of multiple events. Physical examination is a key component in evaluating the degree of instability and laxity present; however, in-office guarding or apprehension may limit the examination. In addition, patient anatomy or operator technique may limit the accuracy and reproducibility of examination maneuvers such as the load-shift test. We propose an arthroscopic modification to the load-shift technique involving direct visualization to assess the direction and degree of shoulder instability...
March 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868396/modified-semilateral-decubitus-position-for-shoulder-arthroscopy-and-its-application-for-open-surgery-of-the-shoulder-one-setting-for-all-shoulder-procedures
#5
Ekavit Keyurapan, Chaiwat Chuaychoosakoon
Two standard patient positions for shoulder arthroscopy are the beach-chair and lateral decubitus positions. Both positions have advantages and disadvantages in many aspects. Surgeons choose the position based on their preferences, mainly the orientation of the anatomy. If an operation needs to be converted to an open procedure, a patient who is placed in the lateral decubitus position might need to undergo repositioning and re-draping, which result in extending the operative time and increasing the risk of infection...
April 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801707/prevalence-and-anatomy-of-the-axillary-arch-and-its-implications-in-surgical-practice-a-meta-analysis
#6
Dominik Taterra, Brandon Michael Henry, Michał P Zarzecki, Beatrice Sanna, Przemysław A Pękala, Roberto Cirocchi, Jerzy A Walocha, R Shane Tubbs, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
PURPOSE: The following research aimed to investigate the prevalence and anatomical features of the axillary arch (AA) - a muscular, tendinous or musculotendinous slip arising from the latissimus dorsi and that terminates in various structures around the shoulder girdle. The AA may complicate axillary lymph node biopsy or breast reconstruction surgery and may cause thoracic outlet syndrome. METHODS: Major electronic databases were thoroughly searched for studies on the AA and its variations...
May 22, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792520/changes-in-the-neurovascular-anatomy-of-the-shoulder-after-an-open-latarjet-procedure-defining-a-surgical-safe-zone
#7
Christopher M LaPrade, Andrew S Bernhardson, Zachary S Aman, Gilbert Moatshe, Jorge Chahla, Grant J Dornan, Robert F LaPrade, Matthew T Provencher
BACKGROUND: Although previous literature has described the relevant anatomy for an open anterior Bankart approach of the shoulder, there is little known regarding the anatomic relationship changes in the neurovascular structures after an open Latarjet procedure. PURPOSE: To define the neurovascular anatomy of the native shoulder in relation to the coracoid and to define the anatomy after the Latarjet procedure in relation to the glenoid to determine distances to these neurovascular structures with and without neurolysis of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) from the conjoint tendon...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776472/spherical-versus-elliptical-prosthetic-humeral-heads-a-comparison-of-anatomic-fit
#8
C Scott Humphrey, Andrea L Gale
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of prosthetic humeral head shape, as well as the number of available prosthetic head sizes, on replicating the normal humeral head anatomy during shoulder reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Computer modeling software was used to create virtual sets of both spherical and elliptical prosthetic heads, which were virtually implanted into 3-dimensional computed tomography scan-based models of 79 proximal humeri...
June 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769058/efficacy-of-standardized-training-on-a-virtual-reality-simulator-to-advance-knee-and-shoulder-arthroscopic-motor-skills
#9
Stefan Rahm, Karl Wieser, David E Bauer, Felix Wa Waibel, Dominik C Meyer, Christian Gerber, Sandro F Fucentese
BACKGROUND: Most studies demonstrated, that training on a virtual reality based arthroscopy simulator leads to an improvement of technical skills in orthopaedic surgery. However, how long and what kind of training is optimal for young residents is unknown. In this study we tested the efficacy of a standardized, competency based training protocol on a validated virtual reality based knee- and shoulder arthroscopy simulator. METHODS: Twenty residents and five experts in arthroscopy were included...
May 16, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768337/variation-in-origin-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-brachii-tendon-in-a-cadaver-a-case-report
#10
Shuji Katsuki, Hayato Terayama, Ryuta Tanaka, Ning Qu, Osamu Tanaka, Kanae Umemoto, Kaori Suyama, Kou Sakabe
INTRODUCTION: In general, the long head of the biceps brachii (LHB) tendon arises from the supraglenoid tubercle in the shoulder joint, and it has an important stabilizing mechanism for the humeral head in the shoulder joint. This case demonstrates that even if the LHB tendon can be palpated outside of the shoulder joint, it may disappear in the intertubercular sulcus (IS) and in the glenohumeral (GH) joint because of abnormal articulation. PATIENT CONCERNS: This case involved the cadaver of an 82-year-old Japanese man (number 1936, cause of death: hepatocellular tumor), who was selected from the bodies used for gross anatomy practice at the Tokai University School of Medicine in 2017...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762114/pectoralis-major-tendon-insertion-anatomy-and-description-of-a-novel-anatomic-reference
#11
Joseph H Dannenbaum, Michael D Eckhoff, Joseph W Galvin, Betsey K Bean, David J Wilson, Edward D Arrington
Pectoralis major rupture is an uncommon injury often treated surgically, requiring anatomic knowledge of the tendon insertion. This study defines the pectoralis major tendon insertion footprint and a novel anatomic relationship. Twelve cadaver shoulders were evaluated andmeasured using a standard surgical ruler to demonstrate the normal anatomic footprint. Measurements were taken from the anterior medial margin of the articular surface of the humeral head to the superior margin of the pectoralis major insertion and its relation to the latissimus dorsi tendon insertion...
2018: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729752/editorial-commentary-the-coracoid-process-as-the-origin-of-several-ligaments-what-may-be-cut-what-must-be-refixed
#12
EDITORIAL
Julian Mehl, Daichi Morikawa, Augustus D Mazzocca
The coracoid process is the origin of the trapezoid ligament, the deltoid ligament, and the coracoacromial ligament (CAL). Detailed knowledge about their anatomy is crucial for surgical procedures such as the reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments or coracoid transfer. Although the coracoclavicular ligaments are considered important stabilizers of the acromioclavicular joint and are therefore highly protected, the CAL seems less important, which is why it is generally cut during coracoid transfer procedures...
May 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690033/a-new-humicolous-parhydraena-d-orchymont-1937-from-south-africa-coleoptera-hydraenidae
#13
David T Bilton
Parhydraena d'Orchymont, 1937 currently includes 19 species, 17 of which are endemic to South Africa (Perkins 2009; Bilton 2014). Most species of the genus are fully aquatic, but a few, together with members of other genera of Parhydraenini, occupy moist habitats rich in organic debris (Perkins 2009). These so-called humicolous habitats (Perkins Balfour-Browne 1994) occur both beside water and elsewhere, and have been colonised a number of times by primarily aquatic hydraenid lineages, particularly in Africa and Australasia (e...
February 7, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685389/arthroplasty-for-glenohumeral-arthritis-in-shoulders-with-a-previous-bristow-or-latarjet-procedure
#14
Laurent B Willemot, Bassem T Elhassan, John W Sperling, Robert H Cofield, Joaquin Sánchez-Sotelo
BACKGROUND: Coracoid transfer has become increasingly popular for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Despite the success, glenohumeral arthropathy develops in some patients. Arthroplasty in this population is complicated by altered anatomy, scarring, and retained hardware. This study evaluated shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a previous Latarjet or Bristow procedure. METHODS: Between 1980 and 2014, 33 patients underwent shoulder arthroplasty after coracoid transfer...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613881/in-vivo-evaluation-of-subacromial-and-internal-impingement-risk-in-asymptomatic-individuals
#15
Margaret S Coats-Thomas, Daniel F Massimini, Jon J P Warner, Amee L Seitz
OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to evaluate subacromial and internal impingement risk between shoulders (dominant/non-dominant) during dynamic motion using subject-specific anatomy and precise in vivo kinematics. DESIGN: In a prospective cross-sectional study, 9 subjects underwent bilateral MR (N=18 shoulders) and fluoroscopic imaging during external rotation at 90° abduction (ER) and elevation. Subject-specific bone models were created and distances from footprint to (a) acromion and (b) glenoid were measured to evaluate risk...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575005/axillary-sonography-of-the-shoulder-an-adjunctive-approach
#16
Paul Michelin, Julie Legrand, Kenneth S Lee, Grégoire Leleup, Mathilde Etancelin, Christopher Banse, Jean-Nicolas Dacher, Fabrice Duparc
Sonography of the shoulder is widely used to assess various disorders, including tendinous diseases of the rotator cuff and the long head of the biceps brachii muscle. The shoulder is commonly explored through anterior, superior, and posterior approaches, but the inferior axillary approach is rarely considered in the literature. However, this technique allows the direct visualization of relevant anatomic structures. The aim of this pictorial essay is, first, to technically describe this approach and the normal musculoskeletal sonographic anatomy of the region and, second, to present the sonographic findings of shoulder disorders that may be helpfully explored this technique...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547446/long-term-retention-of-musculoskeletal-ultrasound-training-during-residency
#17
Robert W Irwin, Jeffrey Smith, S Barry Issenberg
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (ABPMR) developed milestones for evaluation of resident physicians that include proper musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) examination of major joints. To date, there have been no published data demonstrating acquisition and retention of these skills and correlation with the milestone evaluation. The investigators developed and implemented a curriculum in musculoskeletal ultrasound examination for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) residents at a large academic medical center...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502699/editorial-commentary-shoulder-anatomy-finding-the-axillary-nerve-measure-twice-cut-once
#18
EDITORIAL
Wesley M Nottage
Most descriptions of shoulder anatomy note that the axillary nerve lies approximately 5 cm below the anterolateral corner of the acromion, and the nerve has been reported to range from 2 to 7 cm from the acromial edge, depending on the patient and measuring technique. The safe trans-deltoid operable area has been described as up to 4 cm below the acromion. A useful clinical guide I use is that the inferior extent of the subacromial bursa ends above the axillary nerve.
March 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502697/editorial-commentary-lateral-acromioplasty-is-clinically-safe-and-has-the-potential-to-reduce-the-risk-for-rotator-cuff-re-tears
#19
EDITORIAL
J Christoph Katthagen, Peter J Millett
The critical shoulder angle and lateral acromioplasty are areas of controversy that are being studied in association with rotator cuff tears both as potential pathogenic variables and as surgically modifiable variables that could improve clinical outcomes. Current clinical evidence regarding the effectiveness and potential benefit of lateral acromioplasty support the hypothesis that modification of the bony anatomy may influence the integrity of the rotator cuff.
March 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494713/total-shoulder-arthroplasty-using-a-bone-sparing-precision-multiplanar-humeral-prosthesis
#20
Steven S Goldberg, Eric S Baranek
Proper reconstruction of proximal humeral anatomy is of primary importance to maximize patient outcomes after total shoulder arthroplasty. This article describes a new arthroplasty technique, where a fixed multiplanar bone resection is made and a novel implant, which is designed to precisely match the bone resection, is inserted.
February 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
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