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Shoulder anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023639/an-anatomical-and-mechanical-analysis-of-the-douc-monkey-genus-pygathrix-and-its-role-in-understanding-the-evolution-of-brachiation
#1
C D Byron, M C Granatosky, H H Covert
OBJECTIVES: Pygathrix is an understudied Asian colobine unusual among the Old World monkeys for its use of arm-swinging. Little data exists on the anatomy and mechanics of brachiation in this genus. Here, we consider this colobine to gain insight into the parallel evolution of suspensory behavior in primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study compares axial and appendicular morphological variables of Pygathrix with other Asian colobines. Additionally, to assess the functional consequences of Pygathrix limb anatomy, kinematic and kinetic data during arm-swinging are included to compare the douc monkey to other suspensory primates (Ateles and Hylobates)...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021876/coracoid-process-morphology-using-3d-ct-imaging-in-a-malaysian-population
#2
I I Imma, N M Nizlan, A R Ezamin, S Yusoff, M H Shukur
Introduction: The aims of this study are to define the coracoid process anatomy in a Malaysian population, carried out on patients in Hospital Serdang with specific emphasis on the dimension of the base of coracoid process which is important in coraco-acromial (CC) ligament reconstruction, to define the average amount of bone available for use in coracoid transfer, and to compare the size of coracoid process based on gender and race, and with findings in previous studies. Materials and Methods: Fifteen pairs of computed tomography (CT) based 3-dimensional models of shoulders of patients aged between 20 to 60 years old were examined...
July 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991677/hurst-revisited-are-symptoms-and-signs-of-functional-motor-and-sensory-disorders-dependent-on-idea
#3
Jon Stone, Jennifer Mutch, Denis Giannokous, Ingrid Hoeritzauer, Alan Carson
INTRODUCTION: Symptoms and signs of functional (psychogenic) motor and sensory disorder are often said to be dependent on the patients' idea of what symptoms should be, rather than anatomy and physiology. This hypothesis has however rarely been tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inspired by a brief experiment carried out in 1919 by neurologist Arthur Hurst we aimed to assess the views of healthy non-medical adults towards paralysis and numbness and their response to tests for functional disorders when asked to pretend to have motor and sensory symptoms...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983224/arthroscopic-treatment-of-osseous-instability-of-the-shoulder
#4
REVIEW
David A Porter, Michael Birns, Sarah J Hobart, Marc Kowalsky, Gregory J Galano
BACKGROUND: Bony deficiency of the anteroinferior glenoid rim as a result of a dislocation can lead to recurrent glenohumeral instability. These lesions, traditionally treated by open techniques, are increasingly being treated arthroscopically as our understanding of the pathophysiology and anatomy of the glenohumeral joint becomes clearer. Different techniques for arthroscopic management have been described and continue to evolve. While the success of the repair is surgeon dependent, the recent advances in arthroscopic shoulder surgery have contributed to the growing acceptance of arthroscopic reconstruction of glenoid bone defects to restore stability...
October 2017: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979603/controversies-in-the-surgical-management-of-shoulder-instability-associated-soft-tissue-procedures
#5
Santos Moros Marco, José Luis Ávila Lafuente, Miguel Angel Ruiz Ibán, Jorge Diaz Heredia
BACKGROUND: The glenohumeral joint is a ball-and-socket joint that is inherently unstable and thus, susceptible to dislocation. The traditional and most common anatomic finding is the Bankart lesion (anterior-inferior capsule labral complex avulsion), but there is a wide variety of anatomic alterations that can cause shoulder instability or may be present as a concomitant injury or in combination, including bone loss (glenoid or humeral head), complex capsule-labral tears, rotator cuff tears, Kim´s lesions (injuries to the posterior-inferior labrum) and rotator interval pathology...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979600/anatomy-and-biomechanics-of-the-unstable-shoulder
#6
Ricardo Cuéllar, Miguel Angel Ruiz-Ibán, Adrián Cuéllar
PURPOSE: To review the anatomy of the shoulder joint and of the physiology of glenohumeral stability is essential to manage correctly shoulder instability. METHODS: It was reviewed a large number of recently published research studies related to the shoulder instability that received a higher Level of Evidence grade. RESULTS: It is reviewed the bony anatomy, the anatomy and function of the ligaments that act on this joint, the physiology and physiopathology of glenohumeral instability and the therapeutic implications of the injured structures...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960815/effect-of-asymmetric-tension-on-biomechanics-and-metabolism-of-vertebral-epiphyseal-plate-in-a-rodent-model-of-scoliosis
#7
Qian-Yi Li, Gui-Bin Zhong, Zu-de Liu, Li-Feng Lao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of asymmetric tension on idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and to understand its pathogenic mechanism. METHODS: The rodent model of scoliosis was established using Sprague-Dawley rats with left rib-tethering from T6 to T12 , tail and shoulder amputation, and high-cage feeding. Vertebrae epiphyseal cartilage plates were harvested from the convex and concave sides. To analyze differences on the convex and concave sides, finite element analysis was carried out to determine the mechanical stress...
August 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939334/surgical-anatomy-of-the-radial-nerve-in-the-deltopectoral-approach-for-revision-shoulder-arthroplasty-and-periprosthetic-fracture-fixation-a-cadaveric-study
#8
Michael C Fu, Michael D Hendel, Xiang Chen, Russell F Warren, David M Dines, Lawrence V Gulotta
BACKGROUND: Radial nerve injury is a rare but clinically significant complication of revision shoulder arthroplasty and fixation of native and periprosthetic proximal humeral fractures. Understanding of the anatomic relationship between the radial nerve as it enters the humeral spiral groove and anterior shoulder landmarks in a deltopectoral approach is necessary to avoid iatrogenic radial nerve injury. METHODS: Eight forequarter cadaveric specimens were dissected through a deltopectoral approach...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916911/evaluation-of-thirty-eight-cemented-pegged-glenoid-components-with-variable-backside-curvature-two-year-minimum-follow-up
#9
Florence Dauzère, Marine Arboucalot, Julie Lebon, Fanny Elia, Nicolas Bonnevialle, Pierre Mansat
BACKGROUND: The PERFORM™ pegged glenoid system has been used for shoulder arthroplasty since 2012. This system offers multiple backside curvatures per size to better match variable patient anatomy. As a result, less reaming is required and subchondral bone is preserved-a critical factor in preventing glenoid migration and loosening, thus enhancing implant longevity. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze all radiographic modifications around this new glenoid implant...
September 15, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914990/simulating-the-multi-disciplinary-care-team-approach-enhancing-student-understanding-of-anatomy-through-an-ultrasound-anchored-interprofessional-session
#10
Marianne T Luetmer, Beth A Cloud, James W Youdas, Wojciech Pawlina, Nirusha Lachman
Quality of healthcare delivery is dependent on collaboration between professional disciplines. Integrating opportunities for interprofessional learning in health science education programs prepares future clinicians to function as effective members of a multi-disciplinary care team. This study aimed to create a modified team-based learning (TBL) environment utilizing ultrasound technology during an interprofessional learning activity to enhance musculoskeletal anatomy knowledge of first year medical (MD) and physical therapy (PT) students...
September 15, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884100/relationship-between-the-critical-shoulder-angle-and-the-development-of-rotator-cuff-lesions-a-retrospective-epidemiological-study
#11
Leandro Cardoso Gomide, Thiago Correa do Carmo, Guilherme Henrique Moreira Bergo, Glauber Araújo Oliveira, Igor Severino Macedo
OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective epidemiological study of radiographs in order to evaluate the relationship between the anatomy of the scapula and the development of rotator cuff injuries (RCIs). METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated the relation of the critical shoulder angle (CSA) and RCIs from January 2011 to November 2013; patients were examined in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of a university hospital. The CSA was measured by radiographic standardization of two groups: a control group of 34 asymptomatic shoulders and a study group of 44 shoulders with complete RCIs...
June 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872528/quantitative-measurement-of-osseous-pathology-in-advanced-glenohumeral-osteoarthritis
#12
Joseph P Iannotti, Bong-Jae Jun, Thomas E Patterson, Eric T Ricchetti
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint has typical patterns of deformity as described by Walch et al. However, more severe glenoid pathology may be difficult to classify. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) imaging analysis to define common pathologic subtypes that can be differentiated from the current Walch classification. METHODS: We performed quantitative measurements of premorbid and pathologic anatomy using preoperative 3-D CT scans from 155 cases of advanced glenohumeral osteoarthritis that underwent anatomic or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845477/the-rotator-interval-a-link-between-anatomy-and-ultrasound
#13
Giorgio Tamborrini, Ingrid Möller, David Bong, Maribel Miguel, Christian Marx, Andreas Marc Müller, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl
Shoulder pathologies of the rotator cuff of the shoulder are common in clinical practice. The focus of this pictorial essay is to discuss the anatomical details of the rotator interval of the shoulder, correlate the anatomy with normal ultrasound images and present selected pathologies. We focus on the imaging of the rotator interval that is actually the anterosuperior aspect of the glenohumeral joint capsule that is reinforced externally by the coracohumeral ligament, internally by the superior glenohumeral ligament and capsular fibers which blend together and insert medially and laterally to the bicipital groove...
June 2017: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827054/reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty-in-young-patient-with-achondroplasia-ten-year-follow-up-case-report
#14
M van den Broek, O Verborgt, G Declercq
Skeletal dysplasia in achondroplasia can affect all body joints - including the glenohumeral joint - and is prone to develop to degenerative osteoarthritis (OA). This may cause pain and mobility problems at young age. Surgical treatment is challenging due to the dysplastic anatomy of the shoulder joint - with a dysplastic deformed short humerus, a small, hypoplastic medialized glenoid and lateralized acromion - and the long life expectancy of these patients. The indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) evolved during years with rotator cuff tears and rotator cuff arthropathy in combination with or without glenohumeral OA as the main indicator, with good short to mid-term results...
August 5, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808982/radial-head-prosthesis-results-overview
#15
E Carità, A Donadelli, L Cugola, P Perazzini
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Radial head replacement is frequently used in treatment of radial head fractures or sequela. Impossibility to restore a correct anatomy, acute elbow traumatic instability and failure of osteosynthesis hardware are the most common indications. The authors describe their case studies and results on the implantation of various radial head prostheses. MATERIALS: Between June 2005 and June 2016, 28 radial head prostheses were implanted in the same number of patients with an average follow-up of 49 months (6-104)...
August 14, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795411/does-ultrasound-enhanced-instruction-of-musculoskeletal-anatomy-improve-physical-examination-skills-of-first-year-medical-students
#16
Bryant J Walrod, Allison Schroeder, Mark J Conroy, Laura C Boucher, Marcia Bockbrader, David P Way, Kendra L McCamey, Clinton A Hartz, Michael A Jonesco, David P Bahner
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound imaging is commonly used to teach basic anatomy to medical students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether learning musculoskeletal anatomy with ultrasound improved performance on medical students' musculoskeletal physical examination skills. METHODS: Twenty-seven first-year medical students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 instructional groups: either shoulder or knee. Both groups received a lecture followed by hands-on ultrasound scanning on live human models of the assigned joint...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782076/shoulder-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-osteo-chondrodysplasias
#17
Bradley Schoch, Jean-David Werthel, Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, John W Sperling, Robert H Cofield, Mark Morrey
PURPOSE: Osteo-chondrodysplasias are a rare cause of limb malalignment, deformity and degenerative joint disease. Earlier in life, deformities may be managed with bony realignment and soft tissue releases; however, as degenerative changes progress, arthroplasty may be considered. There are limited reports examining shoulder arthroplasty in this population. This study aims to assess pain relief, function, and re-operation rate of shoulder arthroplasty in patients with osteo-chondrodysplasias...
August 7, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777213/glenohumeral-instability-related-to-special-conditions-slap-tears-pan-labral-tears-and-multidirectional-instability
#18
Gregory S Van Blarcum, Steven J Svoboda
Glenohumeral instability is one of the more common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians, especially in young, active athletes. The associated anatomy of the glenohumeral joint (the shallow nature of the glenoid and the increased motion it allows) make the shoulder more prone to instability events as compared with other joints. Although traumatic dislocations or instability events associated with acute labral tears (ie, Bankart lesions) are well described in the literature, there exists other special shoulder conditions that are also associated with shoulder instability: superior labrum anterior/posterior (SLAP) tears, pan-labral tears, and multidirectional instability...
September 2017: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663399/prediction-of-the-pre-morbid-3d-anatomy-of-the-proximal-humerus-based-on-statistical-shape-modelling
#19
S Poltaretskyi, J Chaoui, M Mayya, C Hamitouche, M J Bercik, P Boileau, G Walch
AIMS: Restoring the pre-morbid anatomy of the proximal humerus is a goal of anatomical shoulder arthroplasty, but reliance is placed on the surgeon's experience and on anatomical estimations. The purpose of this study was to present a novel method, 'Statistical Shape Modelling', which accurately predicts the pre-morbid proximal humeral anatomy and calculates the 3D geometric parameters needed to restore normal anatomy in patients with severe degenerative osteoarthritis or a fracture of the proximal humerus...
July 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658878/role-of-mri-in-a-series-of-cases-with-biceps-injuries-of-the-shoulder
#20
Abhishek Dwivedi, P K Dhagat, S N Singh, Shalini Singh, Narender Yadav
Dislocation and injury of the biceps is associated with acute and chronic trauma, degenerative changes, repetitive microtrauma, or injuries associated with recurrent and neglected cases of shoulder dislocation. The cases of displaced biceps injuries are relatively rare (only 1/6(th) of all rotator cuff injuries). The dislocation of biceps is manifested with pain and restriction of movements. The X-ray shoulder is not of much help in this condition barring for ruling out the fractures of humerus and scapula...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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