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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788187/distracted-driving-and-risk-of-crash-or-near-crash-involvement-among-older-drivers-using-naturalistic-driving-data-with-a-case-crossover-study-design
#1
Carrie Huisingh, Cynthia Owsley, Emily B Levitan, Marguerite R Irvin, Paul MacLennan, Gerald McGwin
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between secondary task involvement and risk of crash and near-crash involvement among older drivers using naturalistic driving data. Methods: Data from drivers aged ≥70 years in the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study database was utilized. The personal vehicle of study participants was equipped with four video cameras enabling recording of the driver and the road environment...
May 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782312/naturalistic-driving-study-investigating-self-regulation-behavior-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#2
Laurence Paire-Ficout, Sylviane Lafont, Fanny Conte, Amandine Coquillat, Colette Fabrigoule, Joël Ankri, Frédéric Blanc, Cécilia Gabel, Jean-Luc Novella, Isabella Morrone, Rachid Mahmoudi
BACKGROUND: Because cognitive processes decline in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the driving abilities are often affected. The naturalistic driving approach is relevant to study the driving habits and behaviors in normal or critical situations in a familiar environment of participants. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study analyzed in-car video recordings of naturalistic driving in patients with early-stage AD and in healthy controls, with a special focus on tactical self-regulation behavior...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776523/comparison-of-self-report-and-objective-measures-of-driving-behavior-and-road-safety-a-systematic-review
#3
Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ioni Lewis, James Freeman
INTRODUCTION: This research systematically reviewed the existing literature in regards to studies which have used both self-report and objective measures of driving behavior. The objective of the current review was to evaluate disparities or similarities between self-report and objective measures of driving behavior. METHODS: Searches were undertaken in the following electronic databases, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus, for peer-reviewed full-text articles that (1) focused on road safety, and (2) compared both subjective and objective measures of driving performance or driver safety...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776517/fatally-injured-pedestrians-and-bicyclists-in-the-united-states-with-high-blood-alcohol-concentrations
#4
Angela H Eichelberger, Anne T McCartt, Jessica B Cicchino
INTRODUCTION: Little research has focused on the problem of alcohol impairment among pedestrians and bicyclists in the United States. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence, trends, and characteristics of alcohol-impaired fatally injured pedestrians and bicyclists. METHOD: Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were analyzed for fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists 16 and older during 1982-2014...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#5
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764296/-medicine-doesn-t-cure-my-worries-understanding-the-drivers-of-mental-distress-in-older-nepalese-women-living-in-the-uk
#6
Lalita Kumari Sah, Rochelle Ann Burgess, Rajeeb Kumar Sah
The mental health of migrant communities is an important public health concern. A growing body of literature suggests that social and cultural determinants of health significantly contribute to the mental health and wellbeing of older migrants in their host countries. Despite the increasing population of older Nepalese migrants in the UK, there is little research exploring the mental health needs of this community. This article explores older Nepalese women's experiences of drivers of mental distress in London...
May 15, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759154/mrd-testing-in-multiple-myeloma-the-main-future-driver-for-modern-tailored-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Ola Landgren, Sydney X Lu, Malin Hultcrantz
The past decade, several highly efficacious drugs have been approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Many of these newer drugs are less toxic than older chemotherapy drugs. Using modern combination therapy in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients, high proportions of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients obtain minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity and MRD testing has rapidly become an integral part of clinical trials focusing on patients in this setting. Only recently, MRD negativity was reported in clinical trials focusing on older newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients (ie, nontransplant candidates), as well as studies focusing on patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma...
January 2018: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755810/evaluation-of-traffic-accident-risk-in-in-city-bus-drivers-the-use-of-berlin-questionnaire
#8
Mehmet Sezai Taşbakan, Pervin Korkmaz Ekren, Funda Elmas Uysal, Özen K Başoğlu
OBJECTIVES: Traffic accidents associated with high mortality rate may produce serious problems especially in highways. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a high risk for traffic accidents due to excessive daytime sleepiness even in in-city drivers. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the rate of OSA symptoms and to identify risk factors associated with traffic accidents in in-city bus drivers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire including demographic and anthropometric features, sleep and work schedules, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness score (ESS), and history of traffic accidents was used...
April 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754781/social-engagement-and-the-elderly-in-rural-indonesia
#9
Ariane Utomo, Peter Mcdonald, Iwu Utomo, Nur Cahyadi, Robert Sparrow
Rural areas in Indonesia are older relative to urban areas. This paper questions how levels of social engagement vary across among the elderly in rural Indonesia. A sample of 2750 respondents aged 60 and over was drawn from 10 purposely-selected relatively "old" villages. Our three measures of social engagement are: participation in income-generating activities, in communal activities, and in care work. While there are notable village-level differences in patterns of social engagement, the majority of our respondents are actively engaged in productive activities in their old age until they can no longer be so...
May 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752319/misdiagnosis-of-li-fraumeni-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-clonal-hematopoiesis-and-a-somatic-tp53-mutation
#10
Rachel L Mitchell, Cory Kosche, Kelly Burgess, Shreya Wadhwa, Lela Buckingham, Ritu Ghai, Jacob Rotmensch, Oleksandra Klapko, Lydia Usha
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare genetic disorder that confers a high risk of developing certain malignancies at a young age. It is caused by germline mutations in the TP53 gene and is typically diagnosed by sequencing this gene in blood cells. The presence of a mutation in approximately half of the DNA reads (allelic fraction of 50%) is an indicator of a germline mutation, such as that in LFS. Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is an expansion of a hematopoietic clone containing a somatic driver mutation with a low allelic fraction, usually not more than 10% to 20%...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752024/socioeconomic-drivers-of-vaccine-uptake-an-analysis-of-the-data-of-a-geographically-defined-cluster-randomized-cholera-vaccine-trial-in-bangladesh
#11
Amit Saha, Andrew Hayen, Mohammad Ali, Alexander Rosewell, C Raina MacIntyre, John D Clemens, Firdausi Qadri
BACKGROUND: Evaluations of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have demonstrated their effectiveness in diverse settings. However, low vaccine uptake in some settings reduces the opportunity for prevention. This paper identifies the socioeconomic factors associated with vaccine uptake in a mass vaccination program. METHODS: This was a three-arm (vaccine, vaccine plus behavioral change, and non-intervention) cluster randomized trial conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Socio-demographic and vaccination data were collected from 268,896 participants...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741513/myelofibrosis-clinicopathologic-features-prognosis-and-management
#12
Jennifer M O'Sullivan, Claire N Harrison
Myelofibrosis is one of the BCR-ABL-negative clonal disorders that collectively are known as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). It is caused by the proliferation of clonal hematopoietic stem cells, which over time leads to characteristic clinical features. The disease presentation is heterogeneous, however, with 30% of patients initially asymptomatic. This variation in clinical phenotype warrants careful risk stratification to guide appropriate management, and prognostic risk scores are continually being refined...
February 2018: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734138/trends-in-the-crash-involvement-of-older-drivers-in-australia
#13
James P Thompson, Matthew R J Baldock, Jeffrey K Dutschke
Research from the USA and Great Britain indicates that the number of fatal crashes (as well as the rates of crashes of all levels of injury and property damage) involving older drivers declined between approximately 1997 and 2010 despite increases in the number of older drivers on the road and in their driving exposure. Differing results have been found in Australian research with the number of older driver fatalities having been steady and even slightly increasing between 2004 and 2013. The present study further examined trends in the crash involvement of older drivers in Australia to determine whether their involvement has been increasing or decreasing, and how this compares to trends for younger aged drivers...
May 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723735/driver-distraction-by-smartphone-use-whatsapp-in-different-age-groups
#14
C Ortiz, S Ortiz-Peregrina, J J Castro, M Casares-López, C Salas
This paper investigates the effect that texting with WhatsApp, one of the most common applications for instant messaging, exerts on driving performance. Because distracted driving also affects older drivers, who can have seriously compromised vision, we also analysed the associations between visual-function parameters and driving performance. A total of 75 drivers, experienced in sending WhatsApp messages (≥10WhatsApp messages/week), participated in this study and were divided into four age categories. Visual-function tests included contrast sensitivity with and without glare, retinal straylight and objective assessment of optical quality...
April 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718908/indirect-questioning-method-reveals-hidden-support-for-female-genital-cutting-in-south-central-ethiopia
#15
Mhairi A Gibson, Eshetu Gurmu, Beatriz Cobo, María M Rueda, Isabel M Scott
Female genital cutting (FGC) has major implications for women's physical, sexual and psychological health, and eliminating the practice is a key target for public health policy-makers. To date one of the main barriers to achieving this has been an inability to infer privately-held views on FGC within communities where it is prevalent. As a sensitive (and often illegal) topic, people are anticipated to hide their true support for the practice when questioned directly. Here we use an indirect questioning method (unmatched count technique) to identify hidden support for FGC in a rural South Central Ethiopian community where the practice is common, but thought to be in decline...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710086/physician-prescribing-of-opioids-to-patients-at-increased-risk-of-overdose-from-benzodiazepine-use-in-the-united-states
#16
Joseph A Ladapo, Marc R Larochelle, Alexander Chen, Melissa M Villalon, Stefanie Vassar, David Y C Huang, John N Mafi
Importance: Recent increases in US opioid-related deaths underscore the need to understand drivers of fatal overdose. The initial prescription of opioids represents a critical juncture because it increases the risk of future opioid use disorder and is preventable. Objective: To examine new opioid prescribing patterns in US patients at increased risk of overdose from benzodiazepine use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used publicly available data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015, to identify adults 20 years or older receiving new opioid prescriptions and concurrently using a benzodiazepine...
April 12, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707560/planning-for-a-nondriving-future-behaviors-and-beliefs-among-middle-aged-and-older-drivers
#17
Annie C Harmon, Ganesh Babulal, Jonathon M Vivoda, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, David B Carr
Despite the reality of older adults living many years after driving cessation, few prepare for the eventuality; empirically, planning for a nondriving future has not been directly quantified or explored. The following study quantifies 1) the extent of current drivers' planning, 2) specific planning behaviors, 3) beliefs about benefits of planning, 4) drivers' intention to plan more for future transportation needs, and 5) group differences associated with planning. In a predominantly female, black, urban sample of current drivers ages 53-92, fewer than half (42...
2018: Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704152/racialized-economic-segregation-and-stage-at-diagnosis-of-colorectal-cancer-in-the-united-states
#18
Benjamin J Scally, Nancy Krieger, Jarvis T Chen
PURPOSE: In order to improve colorectal cancer outcomes in the United States, there is an urgent need for research on the drivers of geographic disparities in stage at diagnosis. Our objective was to determine the effects of racialized economic segregation on the odds of late diagnosis. METHODS: Among 187,843 adults (≥ 18 years old) with new diagnoses of colorectal cancer reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results program between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2013, exposure to racialized economic segregation was measured at the county-level using Index of Concentration at the Extremes metrics...
April 27, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698575/severe-fire-weather-and-intensive-forest-management-increase-fire-severity-in-a-multi-ownership-landscape
#19
Harold S J Zald, Christopher J Dunn
Many studies have examined how fuels, topography, climate, and fire weather influence fire severity. Less is known about how different forest management practices influence fire severity in multi-owner landscapes, despite costly and controversial suppression of wildfires that do not acknowledge ownership boundaries. In 2013, the Douglas Complex burned over 19,000 ha of Oregon & California Railroad (O&C) lands in Southwestern Oregon, USA. O&C lands are composed of a checkerboard of private industrial and federal forestland (Bureau of Land Management, BLM) with contrasting management objectives, providing a unique experimental landscape to understand how different management practices influence wildfire severity...
April 26, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696390/treatment-costs-and-cost-drivers-among-osteoporotic-fracture-patients-in-japan-a-retrospective-database-analysis
#20
Yurie Taguchi, Yuta Inoue, Taichi Kido, Nobuhiro Arai
This study estimated the direct medical costs of osteoporotic fractures from a large claim database in Japan. We further identified several comorbidities which drove the treatment costs. The results would contribute to health economic analysis as well as understanding of individual financial burden in Japan. INTRODUCTION: The purposes of this study were to estimate treatment costs of osteoporotic fractures and to investigate the cost drivers. METHODS: Male and female patients aged 50 years and older with a hip, vertebral, or non-hip/non-vert (NHNV) fracture between April 2008 and December 2016 were analyzed from claim database...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
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