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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328928/driving-cessation-over-a-24-year-period-dementia-severity-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers
#1
Sarah H Stout, Ganesh M Babulal, Chunyu Ma, David B Carr, Denise M Head, Elizabeth A Grant, Monique M Williams, David M Holtzman, Anne M Fagan, John C Morris, Catherine M Roe
INTRODUCTION: With 36 million older adult U.S. drivers, safety is a critical concern, particularly among those with dementia. It is unclear at what stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) older adults stop driving and whether preclinical AD affects driving cessation. METHODS: Time to driving cessation was examined based on Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. 1795 older adults followed up to 24 years received CDR ratings. A subset (591) had cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measurements and was followed up to 17 years...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328899/preventing-cardiovascular-disease-in-older-adults-one-size-does-not-fit-all
#2
REVIEW
Ariela R Orkaby, Oyere Onuma, Saadia Qazi, J Michael Gaziano, Jane A Driver
Frailty and cardiovascular disease are highly interconnected and increase in prevalence with age. Identifying frailty allows for a personalized cardiovascular risk prescription and individualized management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and lifestyle in the aging population.
January 2018: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306171/comparing-daily-drivers-of-problem-drinking-among-older-and-younger-adults-an-electronic-daily-diary-study-using-smartphones
#3
Alexis Kuerbis, Hayley Treloar Padovano, Sijing Shao, Jessica Houser, Frederick J Muench, Jon Morgenstern
BACKGROUND: By 2030, numbers and proportions of older adults with substance-use problems are expected to increase. While risk factors for problem drinking in late life have been identified, it remains unknown whether these factors drive daily drinking among older problem drinkers. This study examined the daily drivers of drinking among problem drinkers, moderated by age, utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHOD: Participants (N = 139), ages 20-73, received daily EMA online surveys completed via a smartphone prior to initiation of treatment...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282818/effect-of-severe-obesity-in-childhood-and-adolescence-on-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-youth-and-early-adulthood-in-an-american-indian-population
#4
Stephanie K Tanamas, Sanil P Reddy, Melissa A Chambers, Elena J Clark, Diana L Dunnigan, Robert L Hanson, Robert G Nelson, William C Knowler, Madhumita Sinha
OBJECTIVES: The risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes associated with the severity of obesity in youth is not well understood. This study aims to determine metabolic alterations and type 2 diabetes risk among American Indian children who are obese or severely obese. METHODS: Incidence rates of diabetes before 20 years (youth-onset) and 45 years were computed in 2728 children who were from 5 to <10 years and 4317 adolescents who were from 10 to <18 years without diabetes examined between 1965 and 2007...
December 28, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277156/supporting-aging-in-place-well-findings-from-a-cluster-analysis-of-the-reasons-for-aging-in-place-and-perceptions-of-well-being
#5
Mira Ahn, Hyun Joo Kwon, Jiyun Kang
Prior research on gerontology and housing has frequently adopted a perspective that aging-in-place is the "goal." Despite these meaningful results and policy implications, opportunities to explore consequences of aging-in-place, such as the association of this with overall well-being, have been overlooked. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating perceptions of well-being that could act as a driver or result of aging-in-place. With a nationwide random sample of non-Hispanic White, older individuals (60+), living in their homes ( N = 328), three segments of senior residents based on their reasons for aging-in-place were identified...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276592/sexual-health-knowledge-and-practices-and-sti-hiv-prevalence-among-long-distance-truck-drivers-in-peru
#6
Patricía J García, Boris Fazio, Angela M Bayer, Aldo G Lizarraga, Marina Chiappe, Sayda La Rosa, Marcela Lazo, Lorena López, María Valderrama, César P Cárcamo
Objectives: HIV and other sexually transmitted infections remain a challenge globally and many key groups have yet to be studied. Evidence shows that truck drivers may have high-risk behaviors and higher sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevalence because they are a highly mobile population. However, there is little to no information on this group in Peru. Therefore, we explored the sexual health knowledge and practices and carried out sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing among male truck drivers and their assistants in Peru...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274898/reliability-and-validity-of-the-english-and-malay-versions-of-the-driving-and-riding-questionnaire-a-pilot-study-amongst-older-car-drivers-and-motorcycle-riders
#7
B H Ang, W S Chen, C K Ngin, J A Oxley, S W H Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the English and Malay versions of the Driving and Riding Questionnaire. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study with a mix-method approach by utilising both questionnaire and short debriefing interviews. METHODS: Forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire were performed. The translated questionnaire was assessed for clarity by a multidisciplinary research team, translators, and several Malay native speakers...
December 21, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274185/estimating-the-drink-driving-attributable-fraction-of-road-traffic-deaths-in-mexico
#8
Dzoara Santoyo-Castillo, Ricardo Pérez-Núñez, Guilherme Borges, Martha Híjar
AIM: To estimate the Drink Driving Attributable Fraction (DDAF) of road traffic injury mortality in car occupants in Mexico during 2010-2013. DESIGN: A case-control study was conducted to examine the presence of alcohol in analysed body fluids of car occupants killed in fatal crashes (cases) compared with car drivers tested in alcohol-testing checkpoints who were not involved in a fatal collision (controls). Two datasets were used for the period 2010-2013: The Forensic module of the Epidemiological Surveillance System on Addictions that included car occupants killed in a collision (cases) and a dataset from alcohol-testing at police checkpoints available for matching municipalities (controls)...
December 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238553/understanding-predation-risk-and-individual-variation-in-risk-avoidance-for-threatened-boreal-caribou
#9
Matthew A Mumma, Michael P Gillingham, Chris J Johnson, Katherine L Parker
Predation risk is a driver of species' distributions. Animals can increase risk avoidance in response to fluctuations in predation risk, but questions remain regarding individual variability and the capacity to respond to changes in spatial risk across human-altered landscapes. In northeast British Columbia, Canada, boreal caribou populations declined as roads and seismic lines have increased, which are theorized to increase gray wolf predation. Our goal was to model risk and to evaluate individual variability and the development of risk perception by examining individual risk avoidance in response to reproductive status and age...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231960/prospective-validation-of-a-screening-tool-to-identify-older-adults-in-need-of-a-driving-evaluation
#10
Marian E Betz, Jason S Haukoos, Robert Schwartz, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Deepika Kandasamy, Brenda Beaty, Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga, David B Carr
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively validate and refine the 5-item "CRASH" screening tool for identifying older drivers needing a behind-the-wheel (BTW) test. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Geriatric and internal medicine primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital and a local BTW program. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively intact drivers aged 65 and older (N = 315). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed baseline questionnaire (including CRASH tool) and assessments and BTW test (evaluator blinded to questionnaire results) and participated in 1-month telephone follow-up...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225943/how-income-and-food-prices-influence-global-dietary-intakes-by-age-and-sex-evidence-from-164-countries
#11
Andrew Muhammad, Anna D'Souza, Birgit Meade, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian
Background: While income and prices are key drivers of dietary choices, how their influence varies by food category, nation, and demographics is not well established. Based on intake data for 164 countries and 11 food categories, we examined how income and food prices relate to food intake globally, including by world region, age, and sex. Methods: We used 2010 intake data from the Global Dietary Database, the first database of consumption estimates for major food categories by country, age, and sex...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225896/incidence-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-factors-associated-with-its-development-in-hiv-positive-patients-over-the-age-of-50
#12
Faizal Samad, Marianne Harris, Cathy M Puskas, Monica Ye, Jason Chia, Sarah Chacko, Gregory P Bondy, Viviane D Lima, Julio Sg Montaner, Silvia A Guillemi
Objective: We sought to determine the incidence and factors associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in older HIV-infected individuals. Research design and methods: We analyzed data from people living with HIV (PLWH) ≥50 years of age enrolled in a large urban HIV outpatient clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia. Patients were categorized as having DM if they had random blood sugar ≥11.1 mmol/L, fasting blood sugar ≥7 mmol/L, HbA1C ≥6.5%, antidiabetic medication use during the follow-up period, or medical chart review confirming diagnosis of DM...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225028/causes-and-consequences-of-tool-shape-variation-in-new-caledonian-crows
#13
Shoko Sugasawa, Barbara C Klump, James J H St Clair, Christian Rutz
Hominins have been making tools for over three million years [1], yet the earliest known hooked tools appeared as recently as 90,000 years ago [2]. Hook innovation is likely to have boosted our ancestors' hunting and fishing efficiency [3], marking a major transition in human technological evolution. The New Caledonian crow is the only non-human animal known to craft hooks in the wild [4, 5]. Crows manufacture hooked stick tools in a multi-stage process, involving the detachment of a branch from suitable vegetation; "sculpting" of a terminal hook from the nodal joint; and often additional adjustments, such as length trimming, shaft bending, and bark stripping [4, 6, 7]...
December 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223185/aiding-medical-professionals-in-fitness-to-drive-screenings-for-elderly-drivers-development-of-an-office-based-screening-tool
#14
Judith H J Urlings, Ariane Cuenen, Tom Brijs, Mark Lutin, Ellen M M Jongen
BACKGROUND: Elderly drivers are an increasing group in society. Previous research has found that functional and cognitive abilities are more important for driving abilities than biological age. In an attempt to conserve independent mobility for elderly drivers, many researchers have focused on elderly drivers diagnosed with cognitive decline (mild cognitive impairment or mild Dementia). This study is the first to focus on elderly drivers with cognitive complaints or suspected of diminished fitness to drive by an (in)formal caregiver as an at-risk group...
December 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214468/effects-of-acute-alcohol-and-driving-complexity-in-older-and-younger-adults
#15
Julianne L Price, Ben Lewis, Jeff Boissoneault, Ian R Frazier, Sara Jo Nixon
RATIONALE: Our previous work demonstrated differential neurobehavioral effects of low-dose alcohol consumption on older and younger adults in a driving simulator. However, the ability to enhance or suppress a response in such context has yet to be examined. OBJECTIVES: The current study contrasted older and younger drivers' responses to specific stimuli (i.e., relevant, irrelevant) in scenarios of differing complexity following low-dose acute alcohol administration...
December 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203026/perceptions-of-alcohol-impaired-driving-and-the-blood-alcohol-concentration-standard-in-the-united-states
#16
David W Eby, Lisa J Molnar, Lidia P Kostyniuk, Renée M St Louis, Nicole Zanier, James M Lepkowski, Gwen Bergen
INTRODUCTION: Although the number of alcohol-impaired driving (AID) fatalities has declined over the past several years, AID continues to be a serious public health problem. The purpose of this effort was to gain a better understanding of the U.S. driving population's perceptions and thoughts about the impacts of lowering the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) driving standard below.08% on AID, health, and other outcomes. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to a nationally representative sample of licensed drivers in the U...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203023/identifying-compensatory-driving-behavior-among-older-adults-using-the-situational-avoidance-questionnaire
#17
Jessica J Davis, Elizabeth G Conlon
INTRODUCTION: Driving self-regulation is considered a means through which older drivers can compensate for perceived declines in driving skill or more general feelings of discomfort on the road. One form of driving self-regulation is situational avoidance, the purposeful avoidance of situations perceived as challenging or potentially hazardous. This study aimed to validate the Situational Avoidance Questionnaire (SAQ, Davis, Conlon, Ownsworth, & Morrissey, 2016) and identify the point on the scale at which drivers practicing compensatory avoidance behavior could be distinguished from those whose driving is unrestricted, or who are avoiding situations for other, non-compensatory reasons (e...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203021/graduated-driver-licensing-gdl-in-the-united-states-in-2016-a-literature-review-and-commentary
#18
Allan F Williams
This is the sixth in a series of reviews of research on graduated driver licensing (GDL) published in the Journal of Safety Research, the present review covering the period mid-2012 through 2016. In the two decades since GDL programs began to be introduced on a widespread basis in the United States, a vast amount of research has been published. The current review discusses recent research and the present state of knowledge on the following topics: characteristics of the novice driver population; effects of GDL on crashes for ages 16-19; the learner and intermediate periods; night and passenger restrictions; cellphone laws; GDL for older novices; enforcement of GDL rules; and programs attempting to influence GDL compliance and safe driving practices in general...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203008/a-validation-of-the-low-mileage-bias-using-naturalistic-driving-study-data
#19
Jonathana F Antin, Feng Guo, Youjia Fang, Thomas A Dingus, Miguel A Perez, Jonathan M Hankey
INTRODUCTION: This paper evaluated the low mileage bias (LMB) phenomenon for senior drivers using data mined from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Naturalistic Driving Study. Supporters of the LMB construct postulate that it is only those seniors who drive the lowest annual mileage who are primarily responsible for the increased crash rates traditionally attributed to this population in general. METHOD: The current analysis included 802 participants, all aged 65 or older who were involved in 163 property damage and injury crashes, and deemed to be at-fault in 123 (75%) of those instances...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202324/sex-differences-evident-in-self-reported-but-not-objective-measures-of-driving
#20
Lisa Keay, Kristy Coxon, Anna Chevalier, Julie Brown, Kris Rogers, Elizabeth Clarke, Rebecca Q Ivers
It has been consistently reported that women self-regulate their driving more than men. Volunteer drivers aged 75 years and older from the suburban outskirts of Sydney, Australia joined a longitudinal study in 2012-2014. GPS in-vehicle monitoring was used to objectively measure driving and surveys of driving patterns. The study included 343 drivers (203/343, 59% men) with an average age of 80 years. Our results revealed that men were 3.85 times more likely to report driving beyond their local shire during the past year (95% CI 2...
December 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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