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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931640/qualitative-study-of-burnout-career-satisfaction-and-well-being-among-us-neurologists-in-2016
#1
Janis M Miyasaki, Carol Rheaume, Lisa Gulya, Aviva Ellenstein, Heidi B Schwarz, Thomas R Vidic, Tait D Shanafelt, Terrence L Cascino, Chris M Keran, Neil A Busis
OBJECTIVE: To understand the experience and identify drivers and mitigating factors of burnout and well-being among US neurologists. METHODS: Inductive data analysis was applied to free text comments (n = 676) from the 2016 American Academy of Neurology survey of burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being. RESULTS: Respondents providing comments were significantly more likely to be older, owners/partners of their practice, solo practitioners, and compensated by production than those not commenting...
September 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929943/formal-alternative-transportation-options-for-older-adults-an-assessment-of-need
#2
Joshua J Turner, Carolyn E Adams-Price, Lesley Strawderman
Although older adults are typically able to drive well into older adulthood, health and cognitive deficits can eventually make older motorists a danger to themselves and others. There is a need for increased senior-focused transportation options, yet implementation of such programs is problematic due to an uncertainty about which groups are in most need of services. This study measured the perceived need for formal alternative modes of transportation among older adults. Using data from a nationwide survey, this study applies the traditional factors of the Behavioral Model to measure the perceived need for formal transportation services among survey participants, while also examining the relationship between service awareness and perceived need for formal transportation services...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929182/public-awareness-of-poverty-as-a-determinant-of-health-survey-results-from-23-countries
#3
Olaf von dem Knesebeck, Nico Vonneilich, Tae Jun Kim
OBJECTIVES: We aim to examine (1) variations in the public awareness of poverty as a determinant of health and (2) associations of individual and macro level factors with awareness. METHODS: Analyses are based on the International Social Survey Programme. Data stem from 23 countries (N = 37,228) that were assigned to six welfare states. Sociodemographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors were considered as individual level characteristics. Gross domestic product, relative poverty rate, Gini coefficient, and magnitude of health inequalities were additionally introduced as macro level factors...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919118/global-regional-and-national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-333-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE)...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904143/hierarchical-structure-of-ecological-and-non-ecological-processes-of-differentiation-shaped-ongoing-gastropod-radiation-in-the-malawi-basin
#5
Bert Van Bocxlaer
Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from the Malawi Basin...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903727/uptake-of-health-services-among-truck-drivers-in-south-africa-analysis-of-routine-data-from-nine-roadside-wellness-centres
#6
Samanta Tresha Lalla-Edward, Sydney Ncube, Paul Matthew, Catherine A Hankins, W D Francois Venter, Gabriela B Gomez
BACKGROUND: Long-distance truck drivers are occupationally susceptible to poor health outcomes. Their patterns of healthcare utilisation and the suitability of healthcare services available to them are not well documented. We report on truck driver healthcare utilisation across South Africa and characterise the client population of the clinics serving them for future service development. METHODS: We analysed anonymised data routinely collected over a two-year period at nine Roadside Wellness Centres...
September 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898116/adaptive-response-criteria-in-road-hazard-detection-among-older-drivers
#7
Jing Feng, HeeSun Choi, Fergus I M Craik, Brian Levine, Sylvain Moreno, Gary Naglie, Motao Zhu
OBJECTIVES: The majority of existing investigations on attention, aging, and driving have focused on the negative impacts of age-related declines in attention on hazard detection and driver performance. However, driving skills and behavioral compensation may accommodate the negative effects that age-related attentional decline places on driving performance. In this study, we examined an important question that had been largely neglected in the literature linking attention, aging, and driving: can top-down factors such as behavioral compensation, specifically adaptive response criteria, accommodate the negative impacts from age-related attention declines on hazard detection during driving? METHODS: In the experiment, we used the Drive Aware Task, a task combining the driving context with well-controlled laboratory procedures measuring attention...
September 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895239/trends-and-age-period-and-cohort-effects-for-marijuana-use-prevalence-in-the-1984-to-2015-us-national-alcohol-surveys
#8
William C Kerr, Camillia Lui, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological trends show marijuana use in the U.S. to have increased in recent years. Previous research has identified cohort effects as contributing to the rising prevalence, in particular birth cohorts born after 1945. However, given recent policy efforts to regulate marijuana use at the state level, period effects could also play a contributing role. This study aims to examine whether cohort or period effects play a larger role in explaining trends in marijuana use...
September 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892121/statins-for-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-in-older-men
#9
Ariela R Orkaby, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djousse, Jane A Driver
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether statin use for primary prevention is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events or mortality in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Physicians' Health Study participants. PARTICIPANTS: 7,213 male physicians ≥70 years without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable propensity score for statin use with greedy matching (1:1) to minimize confounding by indication...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881820/brain-metastases-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-the-role-of-mutated-egfrs-with-an-exon-19-deletion-or-l858r-point-mutation-in-cancer-cell-dissemination
#10
Shih-Hsin Hsiao, Yu-Ting Chou, Sey-En Lin, Ru-Chun Hsu, Chi-Li Chung, Yu-Rung Kao, H Eugene Liu, Cheng-Wen Wu
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients tend to develop brain metastases (BM), but the link between BM occurrence and driver mutations in NSCLC is not very clear. We explored whether activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in exon 19 deletion or L858R predict BM in NSCLC. A retrospective multivariable logistic regression analysis of 384 patients demonstrated that the presence of mutated-EGFRs was associated with overall BM (OR=2.24, P=0.001) compared to that of wild-type EGFR (WT-EGFR)...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873218/associations-between-falls-and-driving-outcomes-in-older-adults-systematic-review-and-metaanalysis
#11
Kenneth A Scott, Eli Rogers, Marian E Betz, Lilian Hoffecker, Guohua Li, Carolyn DiGuiseppi
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between falls and subsequent motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), crash-related injuries, driving performance, and driving behavior. DESIGN: Systematic review and metaanalysis. PARTICIPANTS: Observational studies including drivers aged 55 and older or with a mean age of 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Two authors independently extracted study and participant characteristics, exposures, and outcomes and assessed risk of bias...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864127/graduated-driver-licensing-for-older-novice-drivers-critical-analysis-of-the-issues
#12
Allison E Curry, Robert D Foss, Allan F Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859630/disability-and-ageing-in-china-and-india-decomposing-the-effects-of-gender-and-residence-results-from-the-who-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage
#13
Jennifer Stewart Williams, Fredrik Norström, Nawi Ng
BACKGROUND: China and India are the world's two most populous countries. Although their populations are growing in number and life expectancies are extending they have different trajectories of economic growth, epidemiological transition and social change. Cross-country comparisons can allow national and global insights and provide evidence for policy and decision-making. The aim of this study is to measure and compare disability in men and women, and in urban and rural dwellers in China and India, and assess the extent to which social and other factors contribute to the inequalities...
August 31, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858774/comparison-of-older-and-younger-novice-driver-crash-rates-informing-the-need-for-extended-graduated-driver-licensing-restrictions
#14
Allison E Curry, Kristina B Metzger, Allan F Williams, Brian C Tefft
BACKGROUND: Few previous studies have directly compared crash rates of older and younger novice drivers. To inform discussion about whether Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) policies that are applied in the US for younger novice drivers should be applied to older novice drivers, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine overall, nighttime, and multiple passenger crash rates over the initial four years of licensure differ for novice drivers licensed at different ages. METHODS: Using data from the New Jersey Traffic Safety Outcomes (NJ-TSO) data warehouse, we selected all NJ drivers who obtained their initial intermediate driver's license from 2006 through 2014 and had at least one month of follow-up from the date of licensure to study end or death (n=1,034,835)...
August 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856536/interleukin-8-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-are-increased-and-positively-correlated-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#15
Anacélia Gomes de Matos, Howard Lopes Ribeiro Junior, Daniela de Paula Borges, Bruno Memória Okubo, Juliana Cordeiro de Sousa, Maritza Cavalcante Barbosa, Marilena Facundo de Castro, Romélia Pinheiro Gonçalves, Ronald Feitosa Pinheiro, Silvia Maria Meira Magalhães
The pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is complex and depends on the interaction between aberrant hematopoietic cells and their microenvironment, probably including aberrations in cytokines and their signaling pathways. To evaluate interleukin-8 (IL-8) plasma levels and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) in patients with MDS and to test possible correlation between IL-8 and NF-Kb, a total of 45 individuals were analyzed: 25 consecutive adult de novo MDS patients and 20 sex and age-matched healthy elderly volunteers...
August 30, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837862/childhood-deprivation-and-later-life-cognitive-function-in-a-population-based-study-of-older-rural-south-africans
#16
Lindsay C Kobayashi, M Maria Glymour, Kathleen Kahn, Collin F Payne, Ryan G Wagner, Livia Montana, Farrah J Mateen, Stephen M Tollman, Lisa F Berkman
RATIONALE: Little research has evaluated the life course drivers of cognitive aging in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationships of self-rated childhood health and father's occupation during childhood with later-life cognitive function score and whether educational attainment mediated these relationships among older South Africans living in a former region of Apartheid-era racial segregation. METHODS: Data were from baseline assessments of "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community" (HAALSI), a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged ≥40 years in 2015 in rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa...
August 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821393/nutritional-status-brain-network-organization-and-general-intelligence
#17
Marta K Zamroziewicz, M Tanveer Talukdar, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood...
August 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818682/the-epidemiology-of-driving-in-later-life-sociodemographic-health-and-functional-characteristics-predictors-of-incident-cessation-and-driving-expectations
#18
Kaarin J Anstey, Xiaolan Li, Diane E Hosking, Ranmalee Eramudugolla
AIM: To describe population-level characteristics of drivers and non-drivers in a cohort of older Australians and identify predictors of driving cessation and expectations. METHODS: The sample comprised the oldest cohort of the PATH Through Life project who were assessed 4 times between 2001 and 2013. At waves 3 and 4 questions on driving were included in the study interview. Data were also collected on health, physical and cognitive function and psychosocial wellbeing...
August 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812604/stand-age-and-species-richness-dampen-interannual-variation-of-ecosystem-level-photosynthetic-capacity
#19
Talie Musavi, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Jens Kattge, Christian Wirth, T Andrew Black, Ivan Janssens, Alexander Knohl, Denis Loustau, Olivier Roupsard, Andrej Varlagin, Serge Rambal, Alessandro Cescatti, Damiano Gianelle, Hiroaki Kondo, Rijan Tamrakar, Miguel D Mahecha
The total uptake of carbon dioxide by ecosystems via photosynthesis (gross primary productivity, GPP) is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. A key ecosystem functional property determining GPP is the photosynthetic capacity at light saturation (GPPsat), and its interannual variability (IAV) is propagated to the net land-atmosphere exchange of CO2. Given the importance of understanding the IAV in CO2 fluxes for improving the predictability of the global carbon cycle, we have tested a range of alternative hypotheses to identify potential drivers of the magnitude of IAV in GPPsat in forest ecosystems...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810970/completion-of-a-veteran-focused-civic-service-program-improves-health-and-psychosocial-outcomes-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-with-a-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Karen A Lawrence, Monica M Matthieu, Emma Robertson-Blackmore
INTRODUCTION: Volunteering as a health promotion intervention is positively related to improved health and well-being in civilians and older adults. Yet, the impacts of participating in a community-based volunteering program on returning military veterans have not been studied, nor have the outcomes for veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational, pre-post survey examines health, psychological, and social outcomes from a cohort of post-9/11/01 veterans with (N = 67) and without a reported TBI history (N = 273) who completed a 6-month, 20-hour per week veteran-focused civic service program...
July 2017: Military Medicine
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