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Atsushi Minatani, Kentaro Uchida, Gen Inoue, Shotaro Takano, Jun Aikawa, Masayuki Miyagi, Hisako Fujimaki, Dai Iwase, Kenji Onuma, Toshihide Matsumoto, Masashi Takaso
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino-acid vasodilatory neuropeptide that binds to receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) and the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that CGRP is associated with hip and knee joint pain; however, the regulation mechanisms of CGRP/CGRP receptor signaling in synovial tissue are not fully understood. METHODS: Synovial tissues were harvested from 43 participants with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA; unilateral Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grades 3-4) during total knee arthroplasty...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Morad Chughtai, Anil Bhave, Sabahat Z Khan, Anton Khlopas, Osman Ali, Steven F Harwin, Michael A Mont
The use of a pneumatic unloader brace has been shown in pilot studies to decrease pain and increase muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we analyzed patients who had knee OA, and either received a pneumatic unloader brace and conventional treatment or conventional treatment alone. Specifically, we assessed: (1) use of pain relieving injections; (2) opioid consumption; and (3) the eventual need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the above-mentioned cohort. We performed an analysis of a longitudinally maintained database of patients from a prospective, randomized, single center study...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Michael P Palmer, Rachael Melton-Kreft, Laura Nistico, N Louisa Hiller, Leon H J Kim, Gregory T Altman, Daniel T Altman, Nicholas G Sotereanos, Fen Z Hu, Patrick J De Meo, Garth D Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have identified known bacterial pathogens in the knees of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) before arthroplasty. AIMS: The current study was designed to determine the incidence and types of bacteria present in the synovial fluid of native knee joints from adult patients with diagnoses of septic arthritis and OA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were enrolled between October 2010 and January 2013. Synovial fluid samples from the affected knee were collected and evaluated with both traditional microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (molecular diagnostics [MDx]) to prospectively characterize the microbial content...
October 17, 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Hongbo Hu, Baohui Yang, Yumin Li, Subin Zhang, Zheng Li
P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R) is known to play a significant role in inflammation and pain-causing diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). However, the mechanisms of action of P2X7R and its role in OA remain unclear. The articular cartilage is the crucial region in which pathological changes occur in OA, involving the dysregulation of degradation and maintenance mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms of action of P2X7R in articular cartilage in OA-induced pain and inflammation by using AZD9056, an antagonist of P2X7R...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Panna Sanga, Nathaniel Katz, Elena Polverejan, Steven Wang, Kathleen M Kelly, Juergen Haeussler, John Thipphawong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of fulranumab in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic osteoarthritis (OA) knee or hip pain. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, phase-2 double-blind (DB) extension study, patients who were equally randomized to 1mgQ4wk, 3mgQ8wk, 3mgQ4wk, 6mgQ8wk, or10mgQ8wk fulranumab (s.c.) or placebo in the 12-week DB efficacy phase, and completed this DB efficacy phase, were eligible to continue the dose throughout a 92-week extension phase followed by a 24-week posttreatment follow-up (PFTU)...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
A Prien, B Prinz, J Dvořák, A Junge
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of health problems and associated risk factors in former elite female football players. A cross-sectional research design was employed, using an online questionnaire on personal characteristics and health complaints during/after the career. One hundred fifty-two (response rate: 62.0%) former first German league players answered the survey. Around 70% described their current health as good or very good. Over half (57.9%) reported knee problems during the last 4 weeks while exercising and a third (33...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Elizabeth Wellsandt, Ashutosh Khandha, Kurt Manal, Michael J Axe, Thomas S Buchanan, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury results in altered knee joint mechanics which frequently continue even after ACL reconstruction. The persistence of altered mechanical loading of the knee is of concern due to its likely role in the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Joint contact forces are associated with post-traumatic OA development, but evaluation of factors influencing the magnitude of contact forces after ACL injury is needed to advance current strategies aimed at preventing post-traumatic OA...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Terry K Morgan, Emilie Jensen, Jeong Lim, Russell Riggs
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is an intermediate option between analgesics and knee joint replacement in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Our objective was to test whether image-guided HA injections may improve knee OA outcomes after 6 months of treatment independent of potential covariates. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series with multivariate outcome-based analysis of 207 consecutive adult patients with mild to severe knee OA treated at a single out-patient clinic employing fluoroscopy-guided HA injections...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Chandra Prakash Pal, Pulkesh Singh, Sanjay Chaturvedi, Kaushal Kumar Pruthi, Ashok Vij
BACKGROUND: Among the chronic rheumatic diseases, hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and is a leading cause of pain and disability in most countries worldwide. Its prevalence increases with age and generally affects women more frequently than men. OA is strongly associated with aging and heavy physical occupational activity, a required livelihood for many people living in rural communities in developing countries. Determining region-specific OA prevalence and risk factor profiles will provide important information for planning future cost effective preventive strategies and health care services...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
T Janvier, R Jennane, A Valery, K Harrar, M Delplanque, C Lelong, D Loeuille, H Toumi, E Lespessailles
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether trabecular bone texture (TBT) parameters assessed on computed radiographs could predict knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. METHODS: This study was performed using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. 1647 knees in 1124 patients had bilateral fixed flexion radiographs acquired 48 months apart. Images were semi-automatically segmented to extract a patchwork of regions of interest (ROI). A fractal texture analysis was performed using different methods...
October 11, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Daigo Komatsu, Yukiharu Hasegawa, Toshihisa Kojima, Taisuke Seki, Yoshitoshi Higuchi, Naoki Ishiguro
OBJECTIVES: Joint space narrowing and osteophyte formation, radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis (OA), are not necessarily synchronous processes. We evaluated the relationship between medial minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte formation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 1050 individuals (424 males; 626 females; mean age 64.9 years) who underwent knee radiography as part of a health screening program, between 2011 and 2013. mJSW and tibial osteophyte area (OF) were quantified using automated software...
October 14, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
Stefania Pagani, Veronica Borsari, Francesca Veronesi, Andrea Ferrari, Simona Cepollaro, Paola Torricelli, Giuseppe Filardo, Milena Fini
OBJECTIVES: Primarily, to compare the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (hBMSCs) and adipose tissue (hADSCs) in an osteoarthritic (OA) microenvironment; secondly, to investigate the reaction of these cell types in two alternative in vitro culture systems, obtained by using TNFα and/or IL1β as inflammation mediators, or by using synovial fluid harvested by OA patients (OSF) to simulate the complex inflamed knee microenvironment. METHODS: 3D micromass cultures of hBMSCs or hADSCs were grown in chondrogenic medium (CTR), in the presence of TNFα and/or IL1β, or synovial fluid from OA patients...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Saba Farnaghi, Indira Prasadam, Guangping Cai, Thor Friis, Zhibin Du, Ross Crawford, Xinzhan Mao, Yin Xiao
The contribution of metabolic factors on the severity of osteoarthritis (OA) is not fully appreciated. This study aimed to define the effects of hypercholesterolemia on the progression of OA. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (DIHC) rats were used to explore the effects of hypercholesterolemia on the progression of OA. Both models exhibited OA-like changes, characterized primarily by a loss of proteoglycans, collagen and aggrecan degradation, osteophyte formation, changes to subchondral bone architecture, and cartilage degradation...
October 13, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Mariangela Rondanelli, Antonella Riva, Paolo Morazzoni, Pietro Allegrini, Milena Anna Faliva, Maurizio Naso, Alessandra Miccono, Gabriella Peroni, Irene Degli Agosti, Simone Perna
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring...
October 13, 2016: Natural Product Research
Ross Alexander Chesham, Sivaramkumar Shanmugam
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability in older adults (≥60) in the UK. If nonsurgical management fails and if OA severity becomes too great, knee arthroplasty is a preferred treatment choice. Preoperative physiotherapy is often offered as part of rehabilitation to improve postoperative patient-based outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Systematically review whether preoperative physiotherapy improves postoperative, patient-based outcomes in older adults who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare study interventions to best-practice guidelines...
October 13, 2016: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
L Arendt-Nielsen, G-L Jiang, R DeGryse, C C Turkel
OBJECTIVES: OnabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) attenuates peripheral nociceptive transduction and consequently neuronal firing. The aim of this mechanistic study was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular (IA) onabotA in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial using a single ultrasound-guided IA injection of onabotA (200 U). Patients (N = 121) were randomized to receive onabotA (n = 61) or placebo (n = 60)...
October 13, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Anne-Marie Malfait, Richard J Miller
Worldwide, osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of chronic pain, for which adequate relief is not available. Ongoing peripheral input from the affected joint is a major factor in OA-associated pain. Therefore, this review focuses predominantly on peripheral targets emerging in the preclinical and clinical arena. Nerve growth factor is the most advanced of these targets, and its blockade has shown tremendous promise in clinical trials in knee OA. A number of different types of ion channels, including voltage-gated sodium channels and calcium channels, transient receptor potential channels, and acid-sensing ion channels, are important for neuronal excitability and play a role in pain genesis...
October 12, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Kade L Paterson, Kim L Bennell, Tim V Wrigley, Ben R Metcalf, Jessica Kasza, Rana S Hinman
OBJECTIVE: To validate simple criteria that distinguish flat flexible from stable supportive walking shoes by comparing their effects on the knee adduction moment (KAM) in people with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional biomechanical study. We proposed five criteria to differentiate flat flexible from stable supportive shoes, and selected three pairs of shoes representing each class for biomechanical testing. 28 participants aged ≥50 years with symptomatic medial knee OA underwent gait analysis barefoot and wearing each of the six selected shoes, in random order...
October 8, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Alison H Chang, Joan S Chmiel, Orit Almagor, Ali Guermazi, Pottumarthi V Prasad, Kirsten C Moisio, Laura Belisle, Yunhui Zhang, Karen Hayes, Leena Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Knee sagittal dynamic joint stiffness (DJS) describes the biomechanical interaction between change in external knee flexion moment and flexion angular excursion during gait. In theory, greater DJS may particularly stress the patellofemoral (PF) compartment and thereby contribute to PF osteoarthritis (OA) worsening. We hypothesized that greater baseline knee sagittal DJS is associated with PF cartilage damage worsening 2 years later. METHODS: Participants all had OA in at least one knee...
October 8, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Jatupon Kongtharvonskul, Patarawan Woratanarat, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Siwadol Wongsak, Viroj Kawinwonggowit, Ammarin Thakkinstian
BACKGROUND: Patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate (pCGS) and diacerein monotherapy have been recommended for treatment of mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA), but evidence of efficacy for combined treatments is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes (i.e., pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC] score) at 6 months as well as the safety profile of treatment with combined pCGS and diacerein versus pCGS alone...
October 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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