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Leyla Ismayilova, Eleni Gaveras, Austin Blum, Alexice Tô-Camier, Rachel Nanema
OBJECTIVES: Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity...
2016: PloS One
Nehal Eldeeb, Samia Halileh, Khalid A Alyafei, Rula Ghandour, Soha Dargham, Rita Giacaman, Madeeha Kamal, Sawsan Imseeh, Mona Korayem, Shiraz Nasr, Ziyad Mahfoud, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Hassan Tawfik, Margaret A Lynch, Marcellina Mian
To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range...
October 16, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Sandra Malone
Maltreatment is associated with chronic depression, high negative self-attributions, and lifetime psychopathology. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the formation of self-concept. Identifying neurobiomarkers of self-processing in depressed adolescents with and without maltreatment may parse the effects of trauma and depression on self-development and chronic psychopathology. Depressed adolescents (n = 86) maltreated due to omission (DO, n = 13) or commission (DCM, n = 28) or without maltreatment (DC, n = 45), and HCs (HC, n = 37) appraised positive and negative self-descriptors in the scanner...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Sophie Reijman, Lenneke R A Alink, Laura H C G Compier-De Block, Claudia D Werner, Athanasios Maras, Corine Rijnberk, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
This study assessed attachment representation and attachment-related autonomic regulation in a sample of 38 maltreating and 35 nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers' state of mind regarding attachment was measured using the Adult Attachment Interview. They further watched an attachment-based comfort paradigm, during which we measured skin conductance and vagal tone. More maltreating mothers (42%) than nonmaltreating mothers (17%) had an unresolved/disoriented attachment classification. Attachment representation was related to physiology during the comfort paradigm: an unresolved state of mind and a nonautonomous classification were associated with a decrease in skin conductance during the comfort paradigm, specifically during the responsive caregiver scenario...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Fatima Tuba Yaylaci, Dante Cicchetti, Fred A Rogosch, Okan Bulut, Susan R Hetzel
The FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) has been associated with susceptibility to pathogenic effects of childhood trauma including dissociative symptoms. This study examines the impact of maltreatment on dissociative tendencies in adolescence as moderated by the FKBP5 gene. Dissociative symptoms and variation within FKBP5 were assessed in a high-risk, low socioeconomic status community sample of 279 maltreated and 171 nonmaltreated adolescents. Following the assignment of haplotypes across four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780, and rs9470080), individuals with one or more copies of the CATT haplotype (N = 230) were grouped together and compared to individuals with zero copies of this haplotype (N = 185)...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Hanna Gustafsson, Colleen Doyle, Michelle Gilchrist, Elizabeth Werner, Catherine Monk
The consequences of childhood maltreatment are profound and long lasting. Not only does the victim of abuse suffer as a child, but there is mounting evidence that a history of maltreatment places the next generation at risk for significant psychopathology. Research identifies postnatal factors as affecting this intergenerational transmission of trauma. However, emerging evidence suggests that part of this risk may be transmitted before birth, passed on via abuse-related alterations in the in utero environment that are as yet largely unidentified...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Stacia N Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D Lyon
This study examined the effects of the hypothetical putative confession (telling children "What if I said that [the suspect] told me everything that happened and he said he wants you to tell the truth?") and negatively valenced yes/no questions varying in their explicitness ("Did the [toy] break?" vs. "Did something bad happen to the [toy]?") on two hundred and six 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children's reports, half of whom had experienced toy breakage and had been admonished to keep the breakage a secret...
October 17, 2016: Child Maltreatment
Hugh Klein, Claire E Sterk, Kirk W Elifson
Purpose. This study examines the prevalence of alcohol-related problems, the factors underlying these problems, and whether or not there is evidence of syndemic effects in a community population of southern, urban African American women. Methods. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 817 women, all African American, from 80 targeted census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Most of the alcohol users (67.8%) experienced at least one problem as a result of their alcohol (ab)use, with most women experiencing two or more such problems...
2016: Journal of Addiction
Stephen Mullen, Zoe Roberts, Sabine Maguire, Glyn Torne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Zeynep Sofuoğlu, Görkem Sarıyer, M Gökalp Ataman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Child maltreatment, i.e. abuse and neglect, is a significant problem worldwide and can cause impaired physical and mental health throughout life. The true extent still remains unknown in all countries, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to apply the two versions of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool of ICAST-C and ICAST-P, which are used to assess child and parent feedback and to compare reports given by children and those given by parents...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Catherine Pelletier, Jennifer L Dykxhoorn, Siobhan C O'Donnell, Lil Tonmyr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: BMC Public Health
Ryan Mills, Steve Kisely, Rosa Alati, Lane Strathearn, Jake M Najman
AIMS: To investigate whether: (1) child maltreatment is associated with lifetime cannabis use, early onset cannabis use, daily cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis abuse in young adulthood; and (2) behaviour problems, tobacco use and alcohol use at 14 are associated with cannabis use. DESIGN: Birth cohort using linked government agency child protection data to define exposure to child maltreatment. SETTING: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy in Brisbane, Australia...
October 14, 2016: Addiction
Suzanne Brown, Laurel M Hicks, Elizabeth M Tracy
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 73% of women entering treatment for substance use disorders are mothers of children under the age of 18 (SAMHSA, 2009), and the high rate of mental health disorders among mothers with substance use disorders increases their vulnerability to poor parenting practices. Parenting efficacy and social support for parenting have emerged as significant predictors of positive parenting practices among families at risk for child maltreatment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of parenting support and parenting efficacy on the likelihood of out-of-home placement and custody status among the children of mothers with dual substance use and mental health disorders...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Robert-Paul Juster, Jennifer J Russell, Daniel Almeida, Martin Picard
Stress-related pathophysiology drives comorbid trajectories that elude precise prediction. Allostatic load algorithms that quantify biological "wear and tear" represent a comprehensive approach to detect multisystemic disease processes of the mind and body. However, the multiple morbidities directly or indirectly related to stress physiology remain enigmatic. Our aim in this article is to propose that biological comorbidities represent discrete pathophysiological processes captured by measuring allostatic load...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Maria Muzik, Diana Morelen, Jessica Hruschak, Katherine Lisa Rosenblum, Erika Bocknek, Marjorie Beeghly
BACKGROUND: The postpartum period represents a major transition in the lives of many women, a time when women are at increased risk for the emergence of psychopathology including depression and PTSD. The current study aimed to better understand the unique contributions of clinically significant postpartum depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD/depression on mother-infant bonding and observed maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., behavioral sensitivity, negative affect, positive affect) at 6 months postpartum...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Erin C Dunn, Kristen Nishimi, Abigail Powers, Bekh Bradley
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, the impact of the developmental timing of exposure remains unclear. This study examined the effect of age at first trauma exposure on levels of adult depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: Lifetime trauma exposure (including age at first exposure and frequency), current psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic information were collected during interviews with adults participating in a study at a public urban hospital in Atlanta, GA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Donna Gillies, Licia Maiocchi, Abhishta P Bhandari, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Daniel S Schechter, Dominik A Moser, Virginie C Pointet, Tatjana Aue, Ludwig Stenz, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Wafae Adouan, Aurélia Manini, Francesca Suardi, Marylene Vital, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Maria I Cordero, Molly Rothenberg, François Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Alexandre G Dayer
BACKGROUND: Methylation of the serotonin 3A receptor gene (HTR3A) has been linked to child maltreatment and adult psychopathology. The present study examined whether HTR3A methylation might be associated with mothers' lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), IPV-related psychopathology, child disturbance of attachment, and maternal neural activity. METHODS: Number of maternal lifetime IPV exposures and measures of maternal psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and aggressive behavior (AgB), and a measure of child attachment disturbance known as "secure base distortion" (SBD) were assessed in a sample of 35 mothers and children aged 12-42 months...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Emily C MacNeill, Whitney Cabey, Robert Kluge, James Norton, Alice M Mitchell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early childhood high frequency use (HFU) of the emergency department (ED) has been endorsed as a marker for increased risk of child maltreatment. In a prior analysis of pediatric ED (PED) visits by 16,664 children, 0-36 months old, we defined early childhood HFU (the 90th percentile) as ≥5 visits. The purpose of this study was to follow HFU patients to determine if they had a higher likelihood of reported maltreatment. METHODS: This is a single-center, cross-sectional, observational study of the association between PED use in early life and subsequent intervention by child protective services (CPS)...
September 22, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Jeremy G Stewart, Erika C Esposito, Catherine R Glenn, Stephen E Gilman, Bryan Pridgen, Joseph Gold, Randy P Auerbach
Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13-18 years (M = 15...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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