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Maltreatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778039/identifying-the-trauma-recovery-needs-of-maltreated-children-an-examination-of-child-welfare-workers-effectiveness-in-screening-for-traumatic-stress
#1
Adrienne Whitt-Woosley, Ginny Sprang, David G Royse
Children in the child welfare system comprise a group characterized by exposure to trauma via experiences of maltreatment, under circumstances presenting multiple risk factors for traumatic stress. High rates of posttraumatic stress have been observed in this population. However, there is currently no standard for the universal screening of children in child welfare for trauma exposure and traumatic stress. This study examined the trauma experiences of a sample of maltreated children and whether their child welfare workers were effective screeners of traumatic stress symptoms...
May 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775871/associations-between-abuse-neglect-and-adhd-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood-a-prospective-nationally-representative-twin-study
#2
Adi Stern, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Sara R Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Louise Arseneault
Child maltreatment has consistently been found to be associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the robustness of this association and the direction of the link between maltreatment and ADHD remain unclear. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a cohort of 2232 British twins, to investigate the associations between exposure to abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and in young adulthood, and to test their robustness and specificity. We also aimed to test longitudinal associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood, controlling for confounders...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772468/understanding-child-protection-decisions-involving-parents-with-mental-illness-and-substance-abuse
#3
Joseph N Roscoe, Bridgette Lery, Jaclyn E Chambers
Among children investigated for maltreatment, those with parents experiencing mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be placed out-of-home; however, little is known about why these children are at greater risk. Using a sample of 2488 Structured Decision Making® assessments administered in San Francisco county from 2011 to 2015, we identified a profile of safety threats that accounts for why workers are more likely to determine children of parents with mental illness and/or substance abuse unsafe in the home...
May 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771763/recognizing-diagnosing-and-preventing-child-maltreatment-an-update-for-pediatric-clinicians
#4
Fiona Danaher, Andrea Vandeven, Aine Blanchard, Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an increasing understanding of the impact of emotional trauma and physical abuse on children, clinicians and hospitals still sometimes miss the diagnosis of abuse. The literature in 2017 focused on creating standardized approaches to recognition and diagnosis of physical abuse and occult injury, including using the electronic medical record to provide triggers for consultation of the hospital Child Protection Program. The American College of Radiology updated their standardized approach to the evaluation of physical abuse in the child, and other authors gave us screening tools for commercial exploitation, as well as guidance about how to recognize risks for emotional abuse in families...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768675/developing-self-regulation-in-a-dysregulating-world-attachment-and-biobehavioral-catch-up-for-a-toddler-in-foster-care
#5
Steven D Imrisek, Katerina Castaño, Kristin Bernard
Toddlers in foster care have typically experienced histories of maltreatment and disruptions in relationships with primary caregivers. As a result, they are at increased risk for developing disorganized attachment and showing emotional, behavioral, and physiological dysregulation. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up for Toddlers in Foster Care (ABC-T) was developed to address the needs of these vulnerable children by supporting foster parents in responding with nurturance to children's distress, following children's lead, and helping children calm when they are becoming overwhelmed or dysregulated...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767624/the-maternal-brain-in-women-with-a-history-of-early-life-maltreatment-an-imagination-based-fmri-study-of-conflictual-versus-pleasant-interactions-with-children
#6
Corinne Neukel, Katja Bertsch, Anna Fuchs PhD, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Corinna Reck, Eva Moehler, Romuald Brunner, Felix Bermpohl, Sabine C Herpertz
BACKGROUND: Early-life maltreatment has severe consequences for the affected individual, and it has an impact on the next generation. To improve understanding of the intergenerational effects of abuse, we investigated the consequences of early-life maltreatment on maternal sensitivity and associated brain mechanisms during mother-child interactions. METHODS: In total, 47 mothers (22 with a history of physical and/or sexual childhood abuse and 25 without, all without current mental disorders) took part in a standardized real-life interaction with their 7- to 11-year-old child (not abused) and a subsequent functional imaging script-driven imagery task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766440/health-related-quality-of-life-of-maltreated-children-and-adolescents-who-attended-a-service-center-in-brazil
#7
Ivam Freire da Silva-Júnior, Andréia Drawanz Hartwig, Giulia Tarquinio Demarco, Vanessa Müller Stüermer, Gisele Scobernatti, Marília Leão Goettems, Marina Sousa Azevedo
PURPOSE: This study's aim was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and associated factors of maltreated children and adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted of individuals between 8 and 17 years of age who were victims of maltreatment. The KIDSCREEN-52 was used to measure their HRQoL. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected, as well as information about the type of abuse, type of perpetrator, and psychological support adherence...
May 15, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760952/downregulation-of-the-psychiatric-susceptibility-gene-cacna1c-promotes-mitochondrial-resilience-to-oxidative-stress-in-neuronal-cells
#8
Susanne Michels, Goutham K Ganjam, Helena Martins, Gerhard M Schratt, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Carsten Culmsee
Affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness and their etiologies involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Over the past ten years, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified CACNA1C as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of affective disorders. However, its role in disease pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Vulnerability to affective disorders also involves diverse environmental risk factors such as perinatal insults, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse pathophysiological or psychosocial life events...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758994/structural-and-functional-connectivity-underlying-grey-matter-covariance-impact-of-developmental-insult
#9
Casey Paquola, Maxwell Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos
Structural covariance networks (SCNs) may offer unique insights into the developmental impact of childhood maltreatment because they are thought to reflect coordinated maturation of distinct grey matter regions. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 121 young people with emerging mental illness. Diffusion weighted and resting state functional imaging was also acquired from a random subset of the participants (n=62). Ten study-specific SCNs were identified using a whole brain grey matter independent component analysis...
May 15, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757103/end-of-life-trends-and-patterns-among-children-in-the-us-foster-care-system-2005-2015
#10
Lisa C Lindley, Elspeth M Slayter
Drawing on national, longitudinal Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System data (2005-2015), demographic, health, foster care, and geographic characteristics of decedents (N = 3,653) aged 1-17 years were examined. On average, decedents were 6 years old, the highest proportion died as infants, and experienced significant trauma in their short lives either through maltreatment or exposure to parental substance use. A noted increase in Medicaid coverage among decedents over time suggests critical access to concurrent treatment and hospice care, but this is unavailable to children with private insurance...
May 14, 2018: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753200/substance-exposed-newborn-infants-and-public-health-law-differences-in-addressing-the-legal-mandate-to-report
#11
Jordan J Hoerr, Anthony M Heard, Meredith M Baker, Joshua Fogel, Anne Elizabeth Glassgow, William C Kling, Maureen D Clark, James P Ronayne
Prenatal exposure to illicit substances is a finding that typically requires reporting to a child protective services agency. We examine whether there is differential reporting to two public agencies, and whether it varies by race/ethnicity and region. We also study predictors of indicating a maltreatment report as credible. Data on positive neonatal toxicology reports were obtained from the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS). Variation in reporting rates by race/ethnicity and region were compared with Pearson chi-square analysis...
May 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752663/understanding-the-pathways-between-mothers-childhood-maltreatment-experiences-and-patterns-of-insecure-attachment-with-young-children-via-symptoms-of-depression
#12
Maria Khan, Kimberly Renk
Although research has suggested that mothers who experienced childhood maltreatment tend to exhibit heightened risk for attachment difficulties with their young children, less is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. Thus, this study examined mothers' symptoms of depression as a mediator in the relationship between mothers' childhood maltreatment experiences and patterns of insecure (i.e., anxious, avoidant, and disorganized) mother-young child attachment. Mothers (N = 146) with children aged 1½-to 5-years provided ratings of their childhood maltreatment experiences, attachment with their young children, and symptoms of depression...
May 11, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747065/factors-associated-with-child-protection-recurrence-in-australia
#13
Brian Q Jenkins, Clare Tilbury, Hennessey Hayes, Paul Mazerolle
The aim of the current research was to advance understanding of child protection in Australia by examining the factors associated with recurrence of child protection notifications to the formal child protection system. Extant research has been primarily undertaken in the USA and it is important to understand whether similar factors associated with recurrence actually hold in the Australian context. Administrative data were obtained for a sample of 9608 children first subject to a screened-in report in 2011-12...
May 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747064/a-changing-child-welfare-workforce-what-worker-characteristics-are-valued-in-child-welfare
#14
Kristen Lwin, Barbara Fallon, Nico Trocmé, John Fluke, Faye Mishna
A child welfare system is responsible for making difficult decisions. Child welfare workers are charged with assessing and determining when a child is in need of protection, including when it is necessary to intervene on behalf of children when their caregivers' abilities and/or situation is deemed to put them at risk of abuse or neglect. Although the child welfare workforce in Ontario attended to an estimated 125,281 child maltreatment investigations in 2013, little is known about the skills, education, and experiences of these investigating workers...
May 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745383/topological-distances-between-brain-networks
#15
Moo K Chung, Hyekyoung Lee, Victor Solo, Richard J Davidson, Seth D Pollak
Many existing brain network distances are based on matrix norms. The element-wise differences may fail to capture underlying topological differences. Further, matrix norms are sensitive to outliers. A few extreme edge weights may severely affect the distance. Thus it is necessary to develop network distances that recognize topology. In this paper, we introduce Gromov-Hausdorff (GH) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) distances. GH-distance is often used in persistent homology based brain network models. The superior performance of KS-distance is contrasted against matrix norms and GH-distance in random network simulations with the ground truths...
September 2017: Connectomics in neuroimaging: first International Workshop, CNI 2017, held in conjunction with MICCAI 2017, Quebec City, QC, Canada, September 14, 2017, Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743037/a-cross-sectional-exploratory-study-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-emergency-health-care-providers-in-the-assessment-of-child-maltreatment-in-maputo-mozambique
#16
Liliana Pinto, Adriana Lein, Raquel Mahoque, David W Wright, Scott M Sasser, Catherine A Staton
BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, and other low-income countries (LICs), there is little information on the burden of child maltreatment (CM). Emergency care services (ECS) play an important role in recognizing, treating, and intervening in situations of CM. We aim to identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CM among health care providers in ECS at Mavalane General Hospital in Maputo, Mozambique. METHODS: This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluates the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health care providers to diagnose and treat cases of CM...
May 9, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741748/violence-management-in-a-nigerian-psychiatric-facility-psychiatric-mental-health-nurses-current-practices-and-their-effectiveness
#17
Oyeyemi Olajumoke Oyelade, Emmanuel Olufemi Ayandiran
Patient violence in mental health care settings is daunting and stressful, as well as increasingly burdensome for professionals in low/middle income countries, specifically Africa. Patient violence has contributed to increased work hazards for health care professionals and may lead to patients being sedated or restrained, potentially resulting in injury to either the patient or provider. The current study assessed Nigerian psychiatric-mental health nurses' current practices of violence management in a hospital in Southwest Nigeria...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740273/childhood-emotional-abuse-moderates-associations-among-corticomotor-white-matter-structure-and-stress-neuromodulators-in-women-with-and-without-depression
#18
Carlton P Frost, M Elizabeth Meyerand, Rasmus M Birn, Roxanne M Hoks, Erin C Walsh, Heather C Abercrombie
Adverse caregiving during development can produce long-lasting changes to neural, endocrine, and behavioral responses to stress, and is strongly related to elevated risk of adult psychopathology. While prior experience of adversity is associated with altered sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the underlying neural pathways are not completely understood. In a double-blind crossover study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine whether variation in white matter structure predicts differences in HPA-SNS interactions as a function of early adversity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739000/the-impact-of-a-statewide-trauma-informed-child-welfare-initiative-on-children-s-permanency-and-maltreatment-outcomes
#19
Beth Barto, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Adam Von Ende, Ruth Bodian, Carmen Rosa Noroña, Jessica Griffin, Jenifer Goldman Fraser, Kristine Kinniburgh, Joseph Spinazzola, Crystaltina Montagna, Marybeth Todd
This article presents findings of a state-wide trauma informed child-welfare initiative with the goal of improving well-being, permanency and maltreatment outcomes for traumatized children. The Massachuetts Child Trauma Project (MCTP), funded by the Administration of Children and Families, Children's Bureau was a multi-year project implementing trauma-informed care into child welfare service delivery. The project's implementation design included training and consultation for mental health providers in three evidence-based treatments and training of the child-welfare workforce in trauma-informed case work practice...
May 5, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734111/a-pernicious-cycle-finding-the-pathways-from-child-maltreatment-to-adolescent-peer-victimization
#20
Dalhee Yoon, Susan Yoon, Jiho Park, Miyoung Yoon
The purpose of this study was to identify the pathways from childhood physical and sexual abuse to adolescent physical and sexual victimization by assessing behavior symptoms (both internalizing and externalizing) and peer popularity as potential mediating variables. The data derive from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), which tracks the consequences of child abuse and neglect using five study sites across the US. Child physical and sexual abuse was measured at age 12 using self-reports of life-time maltreatment experiences...
May 4, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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