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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913843/molecular-evolution-in-historical-perspective
#1
Edna Suárez-Díaz
In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912850/oscillating-in-and-out-of-place-experiences-of-older-adults-residing-in-homeless-shelters-in-montreal-quebec
#2
Victoria F Burns
Aging in place is desirable from the perspective of older adults and policy makers alike. However, the meaning of 'place' for adults experiencing homelessness has been largely overlooked. Addressing this gap, this constructivist grounded theory study discusses the meaning of place for 15 older adults residing in emergency homeless shelters in Montreal, Quebec. Findings revealed that four interrelated dimensions of place-that is, control, comfort, privacy, and security were instrumental in supporting participants' ability to feel in place across housed-homeless trajectories...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912177/raman-spectroscopy-and-quantum-mechanical-analysis-of-tautomeric-forms-in-cytosine-and-5-methylcytosine-on-gold-surfaces
#3
Dinh Bao Nguyen, Thanh Danh Nguyen, Sangsoo Kim, Sang-Woo Joo
Spectral differences between cytosine (Cyt) and 5-methylcytosine (5MC) were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy with a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) revealed discriminating peaks of 5MC from those of Cyt upon adsorption on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Among the notable features, the multiple bands between 850 and 700cm(-1) for the ring-breathing modes of 5MC and Cyt could be correlated well with the simulated spectra based on the DFT calculations of the adsorbates on the gold cluster atoms...
November 9, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911937/an-investigation-of-the-outcomes-of-pgy-students-cognition-of-and-persistent-behavior-in-learning-through-the-intervention-of-the-flipped-classroom-in-taiwan
#4
Sheng-Der Hsu, Cheng-Jueng Chen, Wei-Kuo Chang, Yih-Jin Hu
The Postgraduate Year (PGY) Program allows doctors-in-training to learn about the diagnosis, treatment and nursing of various common, general diseases. These items form the core curriculum and are mostly learned through caring for patients and clinical teaching. Doctors-in-training are evaluated for their knowledge through written tests or assignments, based on which the effectiveness of their training is also assessed; however, this generally produces a negative learning attitude among them. So we introduced the flipped classroom into PGY training program to change PGY students' learning behavior...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911562/macroscopic-model-for-head-on-binary-droplet-collisions-in-a-gaseous-medium
#5
Jie Li
In this Letter, coalescence-bouncing transitions of head-on binary droplet collisions are predicted by a novel macroscopic model based entirely on fundamental laws of physics. By making use of the lubrication theory of Zhang and Law [Phys. Fluids 23, 042102 (2011)], we have modified the Navier-Stokes equations to accurately account for the rarefied nature of the interdroplet gas film. Through the disjoint pressure model, we have incorporated the intermolecular van der Waals forces. Our model does not use any adjustable (empirical) parameters...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#6
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910399/space-and-time-resolved-resistive-measurements-of-liquid-metal-wall-thickness
#7
S M H Mirhoseini, F A Volpe
In a fusion reactor internally coated with liquid metal, it will be important to diagnose the thickness of the liquid at various locations in the vessel, as a function of time, and possibly respond to counteract undesired bulging or depletion. The electrical conductance between electrodes immersed in the liquid metal can be used as a simple proxy for the local thickness. Here a matrix of electrodes is shown to provide spatially and temporally resolved measurements of liquid metal thickness in the absence of plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910112/analytical-gradients-for-subsystem-density-functional-theory-within-the-slater-function-based-amsterdam-density-functional-program
#8
Danny Schlüns, Mirko Franchini, Andreas W Götz, Johannes Neugebauer, Christoph R Jacob, Lucas Visscher
We present a new implementation of analytical gradients for subsystem density-functional theory (sDFT) and frozen-density embedding (FDE) into the Amsterdam Density Functional program (ADF). The underlying theory and necessary expressions for the implementation are derived and discussed in detail for various FDE and sDFT setups. The parallel implementation is numerically verified and geometry optimizations with different functional combinations (LDA/TF and PW91/PW91K) are conducted and compared to reference data...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910108/a-day-in-the-life-of-a-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-patient-understanding-the-lived-experiences-and-mental-health-impacts-of-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#9
Sarah L Bell, Jessica Tyrrell, Cassandra Phoenix
Concepts of social practice are increasingly being used to understand experiences of everyday life, particularly in relation to consumption and healthy lifestyles. This article builds on this in the context of lives disrupted and reshaped by chronic illness. It uses social practice theory to examine the lived experiences of individuals with Ménière's disease; a long-term progressive vestibular disorder, defined by episodes of severe and debilitating vertigo, aural fullness, tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss...
December 2, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909647/what-is-direct-allorecognition
#10
REVIEW
Dominic A Boardman, Jacinta Jacob, Lesley A Smyth, Giovanna Lombardi, Robert I Lechler
Direct allorecognition is the process by which donor-derived major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complexes, typically presented by donor-derived 'passenger' dendritic cells, are recognised directly by recipient T cells. In this review, we discuss the two principle theories which have been proposed to explain why individuals possess a high-precursor frequency of T cells with direct allospecificity and how self-restricted T cells recognise allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes. These theories, both of which are supported by functional and structural data, suggest that T cells recognising allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes focus either on the allopeptides bound to the allo-MHC molecules or the allo-MHC molecules themselves...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908040/modeling-and-design-of-two-dimensional-membrane-type-active-acoustic-metamaterials-with-tunable-anisotropic-density
#11
Ahmed Allam, Adel Elsabbagh, Wael Akl
A two-dimensional active acoustic metamaterial with controllable anisotropic density is introduced. The material consists of composite lead-lead zirconate titanate plates clamped to an aluminum structure with air as the background fluid. The effective anisotropic density of the material is controlled, independently for two orthogonal directions, by means of an external static electric voltage signal. The material is used in the construction of a reconfigurable waveguide capable of controlling the direction of the acoustic waves propagating through it...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907024/utility-evaluation-based-on-one-to-n-mapping-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-for-interdependent-networks
#12
Juan Wang, Wenwen Lu, Lina Liu, Li Li, Chengyi Xia
In the field of evolutionary game theory, network reciprocity has become an important means to promote the level of promotion within the population system. Recently, the interdependency provides a novel perspective to understand the widespread cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In previous works, interdependency is often built from the direct or indirect connections between two networks through the one-to-one mapping mode. However, under many realistic scenarios, players may need much more information from many neighboring agents so as to make a more rational decision...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906996/reach-the-person-behind-the-dementia-physical-therapists-reflections-and-strategies-when-composing-physical-training
#13
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, Ellinor Nordin, Dawn A Skelton, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson
Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906393/geometric-control-of-active-collective-motion
#14
Maxime Theillard, Roberto Alonso-Matilla, David Saintillan
Recent experimental studies have shown that confinement can profoundly affect self-organization in semi-dilute active suspensions, leading to striking features such as the formation of steady and spontaneous vortices in circular domains and the emergence of unidirectional pumping motions in periodic racetrack geometries. Motivated by these findings, we analyze the two-dimensional dynamics in confined suspensions of active self-propelled swimmers using a mean-field kinetic theory where conservation equations for the particle configurations are coupled to the forced Navier-Stokes equations for the self-generated fluid flow...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906264/optimal-phase-element-for-generating-a-perfect-optical-vortex
#15
Victor V Kotlyar, Alexey A Kovalev, Alexey P Porfirev
We derived exact analytical relationships to describe the complex amplitude of a perfect optical vortex generated by means of three different optical elements, namely, (i) an amplitude-phase element with a transmission function proportional to a Bessel function, (ii) an optimal phase element with a transmission equal to the sign function of a Bessel function, and (iii) a spiral axicon. The doughnut intensity was shown to be highest when using an optimal phase element. The spiral-axicon-aided diffraction ring was found to be twice as wide as when generated using two other elements...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906019/patterns-of-motor-activity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-compared-to-wistar-kyoto-rats
#16
Ole Bernt Fasmer, Espen Borgå Johansen
BACKGROUND: Increased motor activity is a defining characteristic of patients with ADHD, and spontaneously hypertensive rats have been suggested to be an animal model of this disorder. In the present study, we wanted to use linear and non-linear methods to explore differences in motor activity patterns in SHR/NCrl rats compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) rats. METHODS: A total number of 42 rats (23 SHR/NCrl and 19 WKY/NHsd, male and female) were tested. At PND 51, the animals' movements were video-recorded during an operant test procedure that lasted 90 min...
December 1, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905926/understanding-clinical-and-non-clinical-decisions-under-uncertainty-a-scenario-based-survey
#17
Vlad V Simianu, Margaret A Grounds, Susan L Joslyn, Jared E LeClerc, Anne P Ehlers, Nidhi Agrawal, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Abraham D Flaxman, David R Flum
BACKGROUND: Prospect theory suggests that when faced with an uncertain outcome, people display loss aversion by preferring to risk a greater loss rather than incurring certain, lesser cost. Providing probability information improves decision making towards the economically optimal choice in these situations. Clinicians frequently make decisions when the outcome is uncertain, and loss aversion may influence choices. This study explores the extent to which prospect theory, loss aversion, and probability information in a non-clinical domain explains clinical decision making under uncertainty...
December 1, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905871/phyinformr-phylogenetic-experimental-design-and-phylogenomic-data-exploration-in-r
#18
Alex Dornburg, J Nick Fisk, Jules Tamagnan, Jeffrey P Townsend
BACKGROUND: Analyses of phylogenetic informativeness represent an important step in screening potential or existing datasets for their proclivity toward convergent or parallel evolution of molecular sites. However, while new theory has been developed from which to predict the utility of sequence data, adoption of these advances have been stymied by a lack of software enabling application of advances in theory, especially for large next-generation sequence data sets. Moreover, there are no theoretical barriers to application of the phylogenetic informativeness or the calculation of quartet internode resolution probabilities in a Bayesian setting that more robustly accounts for uncertainty, yet there is no software with which a computationally intensive Bayesian approach to experimental design could be implemented...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905594/open-ended-formulation-of-self-consistent-field-response-theory-with-the-polarizable-continuum-model-for-solvation
#19
Roberto Di Remigio, Maarten T P Beerepoot, Yann Cornaton, Magnus Ringholm, Arnfinn Hykkerud Steindal, Kenneth Ruud, Luca Frediani
The study of high-order absorption properties of molecules is a field of growing importance. Quantum-chemical studies can help design chromophores with desirable characteristics. Given that most experiments are performed in solution, it is important to devise a cost-effective strategy to include solvation effects in quantum-chemical studies of these properties. We here present an open-ended formulation of self-consistent field (SCF) response theory for a molecular solute coupled to a polarizable continuum model (PCM) description of the solvent...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903008/brightness-in-human-rod-vision-depends-on-slow-neural-adaptation-to-quantum-statistics-of-light
#20
Michael E Rudd, Fred Rieke
In human rod-mediated vision, threshold for small, brief flashes rises in proportion to the square root of adapting luminance at all but the lowest and highest adapting intensities. A classical signal detection theory from Rose (1942, 1948) and de Vries (1943) attributed this rise to the perceptual masking of weak flashes by Poisson fluctuations in photon absorptions from the adapting field. However, previous work by Brown and Rudd (1998) demonstrated that the square-root law also holds for suprathreshold brightness judgments, a finding that supports an alternative explanation of the square-root sensitivity changes as a consequence of physiological adaptation (i...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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