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Theory of meaning

B Staber, J Guilleminot
In this work, we address the constitutive modeling, in a probabilistic framework, of the hyperelastic response of soft biological tissues. The aim is on the one hand to mimic the mean behavior and variability that are typically encountered in the experimental characterization of such materials, and on the other hand to derive mathematical models that are almost surely consistent with the theory of nonlinear elasticity. Towards this goal, we invoke information theory and discuss a stochastic model relying on a low-dimensional parametrization...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Simone M Müller
The year 2016 witnesses the 150th anniversary of laying the first successful transatlantic telegraph cables. This review essay offers a critical rereading of existing scholarship while simultaneously suggesting new perspectives for research. Telegraphy = globalization, the history of wiring the world commencing with the Atlantic cable of 1866 seems to suggest. At the same time, this essay argues, this equation should make scholars uneasy and cautious of a possible technological determinism retracing its steps back into the middle of scholarly debates on globalization...
2016: Technology and Culture
Cynthia Formosa, Ryan Muscat
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify the nature and extent of diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices in people living with type 2 diabetes who attend primary-care clinics and to determine whether a correlation between the two exists. METHODS: In a nonexperimental prospective study, the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire and the Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities were used to assess knowledge and self-management in 50 patients. RESULTS: The mean diabetes knowledge score was 14...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Olivier Senn, Lorenz Kilchenmann, Richard von Georgi, Claudia Bullerjahn
This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' experience of groove. Two professional rhythm section performances (bass/drums) in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several levels of magnitude. Music expert (n = 79) and non-expert (n = 81) listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
S Kennedy, E L Davies, L Ryan, M E Clegg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
T Thomsen, M Aadahl, N Beyer, M L Hetland, K Løppenthin, J Midtgaard, R Christensen, B A Esbensen
BACKGROUND: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) spend a high proportion of their waking time in sedentary behaviour (SB) and have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Reduction of SB and increase in light intensity physical activity has been suggested as a means of improvement of health in patients with mobility problems. Short-term intervention studies have demonstrated that SB can be reduced by behavioural interventions in sedentary populations. To evaluate descriptively the feasibility of recruitment, randomisation, outcome assessments, retention and the acceptability of an individually tailored, theory-based behavioural intervention targeting reduction in daily sitting time in patients with RA...
October 18, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
P Daniël van Denderen, Adriaan D Rijnsdorp, Tobias van Kooten
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are widely used to protect exploited fish species as well as to conserve marine habitats and their biodiversity. They have also become a popular management tool for bottom trawl fisheries, a common fishing technique on continental shelves worldwide. The effects of bottom trawling go far beyond the impact on target species, as trawls also affect other components of the benthic ecosystem and the seabed itself. This means that for bottom trawl fisheries, MPAs can potentially be used not only to conserve target species but also to reduce impact of these side effects of the fishery...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Kathleen Charlebois, Nicole Palmour, Bartha Maria Knoppers
This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption...
2016: PloS One
Cory M Smith, Terry J Housh, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Ethan C Hill, Kristen C Cochrane, Amelia A Miramonti, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson
The purposes of the present study were to apply a unique method for the identification of the time course of changes in neuromuscular responses and to infer the motor unit activation strategies used to maintain force during a fatiguing, intermittent isometric workbout. Eleven men performed 50, 6 s intermittent isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors, each separated by 2 s of rest at 60% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (root mean square; RMS) and frequency (mean power frequency; MPF) were obtained from the vastus lateralis (VL) every 5 of the 50 repetitions and normalized as a percent of the initial repetition...
October 18, 2016: Physiological Measurement
Brandi Janssen, Matthew W Nonnemann
Health and safety professionals often call for an improved safety culture in agriculture. Such a shift would result in agricultural practices that prioritize safe work habits and see safety as both an effective means to improve production and a goal worth pursuing in its own right. This paper takes an anthropological approach and demonstrates the potential for new institutional theory to conceptualize broader cultural change in agriculture. New institutional theory examines the roles of organizations and the ways that they inform and support broad social institutions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agromedicine
Gabriel L S Rodrigues, Willian Ricardo Rocha
In this article Density Functional Theory in conjunction with Monte Carlo statistical mechanical simulation were used to investigate the electronic structure, reduction potential, solvation and solvent effects on the electronic spectra of nitrosyl ammine complexes, using [Ru(NH3)5(NO)]2+/3+ as model compounds. In addition, ligand exchange reactions with solvent water molecules were also investigated. It is shown that the complexes are involved in strong hydrogen bonds in aqueous solution, with mean average energies of (-13...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Saijie Pan, Niels Boon, Monica Olvera de la Cruz
Epitaxial growth of DNA functionalized nanoparticles is used to grow extended superlattices with a preferred orientation for optimizing the physical properties of meta-materials for real applications. Like any solid in nature, superlattices can contain different kinds of structural defects, which significantly alter their physical properties. Further development of these materials requires a deeper understanding of, as well as precise control over, structural defect formation. Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to conduct a systematic study of the equilibrium structures of the adsorbed nanoparticle monolayers by changing the binding energies of different attachment sites...
October 18, 2016: ACS Nano
Diana Bairaktarova, Anna Woodcock
Professional communities are experiencing scandals involving unethical and illegal practices daily. Yet it should not take a national major structure failure to highlight the importance of ethical awareness and behavior, or the need for the development and practice of ethical behavior in engineering students. Development of ethical behavior skills in future engineers is a key competency for engineering schools as ethical behavior is a part of the professional identity and practice of engineers. While engineering educators have somewhat established instructional methods to teach engineering ethics, they still rely heavily on teaching ethical awareness, and pay little attention to how well ethical awareness predicts ethical behavior...
October 17, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Tyrel J Starks, Michael A Castro, Juan P Castiblanco, Brett M Millar
The existing literature has identified that beliefs about the interpersonal meaning of condom use are a significant predictor of condomless anal sex (CAS). Some have suggested that condom use in this context may function as a form of nonverbal communication. This study utilized attachment theory as a framework and tested a hypothesized model linking adult attachment to CAS through communication skills and condom expectancies. An online survey was completed by 122 single, HIV-negative gay and bisexual (GB) men living in the U...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
M Utsch
Nowadays, issues of religiosity and spirituality are viewed differently than 50 years ago. Social upheaval, migration and secularization have changed the interpretation of religious meaning but have not made religion obsolete. This article describes the differences between a religious and a secular global view and defines spirituality as attachment to a larger entirety. The resources of spirituality are described and the dangers of fanaticism and fundamentalism should not be neglected. Criteria for healthy belief are compared to religious delusion...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Lin Li, Mary Cazzell, Olajide Babawale, Hanli Liu
Atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography (atlas-DOT) is a computational means to image changes in cortical hemodynamic signals during human brain activities. Graph theory analysis (GTA) is a network analysis tool commonly used in functional neuroimaging to study brain networks. Atlas-DOT has not been analyzed with GTA to derive large-scale brain connectivity/networks based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. We introduced an automated voxel classification (AVC) method that facilitated the use of GTA with atlas-DOT images by grouping unequal-sized finite element voxels into anatomically meaningful regions of interest within the human brain...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Nancy J Carballo, Cathy A Alessi, Jennifer L Martin, Michael N Mitchell, Ron D Hays, Nananda Col, Emily S Patterson, Stella Jouldjian, Karen Josephson, Constance H Fung
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent sleep disorder among older adults. Oral appliances are increasingly prescribed as therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. Adherence to oral appliance therapy is highly variable. Based on value-expectancy theory and other social-psychological theories, adherence to oral appliance therapy may be influenced by patients' perceived effectiveness of the therapy, self-efficacy, and availability of social support. We examined these perceptions among older adults with obstructive sleep apnea who were prescribed oral appliance therapy...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Cori R Atlin, Christoph Haller, Osami Honjo, Anusha Jegatheeswaran, Glen S Van Arsdell
BACKGROUND: Size mismatch between body and a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt can result in excessive pulmonary blood flow, compromising systemic oxygen delivery. Previously reported techniques to mechanically restrict shunt flow lack precision and reproducibility. We developed a formula for shunt banding and assessed its efficacy and reproducibility by in vitro and clinical measurements. METHODS: Formulas to determine diameter reduction, length of banding, and effect on the ratio of pulmonary blood flow (Qp) to systemic blood flow (Qs) were established...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Alexander L Weldon, Kedar Joshi, Alexander F Routh, James F Gilchrist
Rapid convective deposition is used to assemble nanoparticle coatings from suspension, with controllable thickness. Varying film thickness generates stress-induced linear cracks with highly monodisperse spacing. Film thickness is controlled through mechanical means, suspension volume fraction, and the use of applied thermal gradients. These cracks extend in the deposition direction, and a uniform crack spacing from 2 to 160μm is observed. The nanoparticle film thickness is the relevant length scale for hydrodynamic flow, and films will crack with this spacing, in a characteristic manner to minimize the system energy and capillary stresses...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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