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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543414/closed-financial-loops-when-they-happen-in-government-they-re-called-corruption-in-medicine-they-re-just-a-footnote
#1
Kevin De Jesus-Morales, Vinay Prasad
Many physicians are involved in relationships that create tension between a physician's duty to work in her patients' best interest at all times and her financial arrangement with a third party, most often a pharmaceutical manufacturer, whose primary goal is maximizing sales or profit. Despite the prevalence of this threat, in the United States and globally, the most common reaction to conflicts of interest in medicine is timid acceptance. There are few calls for conflicts of interest to be banned, and, to our knowledge, no one calls for conflicted practitioners to be reprimanded...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541241/stigma-and-self-esteem-a-case-of-hiv-positive-sex-workers
#2
G Kalemi, S Gkioka, P Tsapatsari, G Tzeferakos, T Kandri, M L Psarra, F Konstantopoulou, A Douzenis
Stigma associated with sex work and HIV can be easily recognized in public reactions towards the members of discriminated groups. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies examining the impact of discrimination to the self-esteem of individuals who suffer the coexistence of multiple stigmatizing conditions. In our case, the unprecedented stigmatization of sex workers through the media as a menace of public health as well as criminals due to their seropositivity should be examined with respect and scientificity...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538756/psychiatric-evaluation-of-civil-capacity-with-the-new-brazilian-statute-of-the-person-with-disabilities
#3
Elias Abdalla-Filho
The objective of this paper is to provide an update to psychiatrists regarding the new Brazilian Law for the Inclusion of People with Disabilities (BLI, Law 13,146 of 2015), and, specifically, to discuss potential implications of situations in which examination by a forensic psychiatrist points toward civil incompetence, while the above-mentioned law mandates full civil capacity for disabled persons. A study of Law 13,146/2015 was conducted, including a comparative analysis of legal and psychiatric approaches on the subject...
May 22, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537757/schizophrenia-in-the-news-the-role-of-news-frames-in-shaping-online-reader-dialogue-about-mental-illness
#4
Anna Rae Gwarjanski, Scott Parrott
A quantitative content analysis examined the portrayal of schizophrenia in eight of the most read online news publications in the United States. The analysis documented the prevalence of stigma frames, which communicate stereotypes concerning schizophrenia, and stigma-challenge frames, which contradict stereotypes, in 558 articles related to schizophrenia. The study also examined the relationship between media framing and reader commentary, including the likelihood of readers posting stigmatizing comments, stigma-challenging comments, and comments in which they disclosed personal experience with mental illness...
May 24, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537201/capturing-sexual-assault-data
#5
S Aqif Mukhtar, Debbie A Smith, Maureen A Phillips, Maire C Kelly, Renate R Zilkens, James B Semmens
BACKGROUND: The Sexual Assault Resource Center (SARC) in Perth, Western Australia provides free 24-hour medical, forensic, and counseling services to persons aged over 13 years following sexual assault. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to design a data management system that maintains accurate quality information on all sexual assault cases referred to SARC, facilitating audit and peer-reviewed research. METHODS: The work to develop SARC Medical Services Clinical Information System (SARC-MSCIS) took place during 2007-2009 as a collaboration between SARC and Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia...
January 1, 2017: HIM Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536882/penetrating-chest-trauma-caused-by-a-blank-cartridge-actuated-rubber-ball-projectile-case-presentation-and-ballistic-investigation-of-an-uncommon-weapon-type
#6
Matthias Frank, Dieter Peters, Wolfram Klemm, Rico Grossjohann, Axel Ekkernkamp, Britta Bockholdt, Julia Seifert
Recently, an increasing number of an uncommon weapon type based on a caliber 6-mm Flobert blank cartridge actuated revolver which discharges 10-mm-diameter rubber ball projectiles has been confiscated by police authorities following criminal offenses. A recent trauma case presenting with a penetrating chest injury occasioned an investigation into the basic ballistic parameters of this type of weapon. Kinetic energy E of the test projectiles was calculated between 5.8 and 12.5 J. Energy density ED of the test projectiles was close to or higher than the threshold energy density of human skin...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536655/supporting-looked-after-children-and-care-leavers-in-decreasing-drugs-and-alcohol-solid-protocol-for-a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-of-interventions-to-decrease-risky-substance-use-drugs-and-alcohol-and-improve-mental-health-of-looked-after
#7
Hayley Alderson, Ruth McGovern, Rebecca Brown, Denise Howel, Frauke Becker, Louise Carr, Alex Copello, Tony Fouweather, Eileen Kaner, Paul McArdle, Elaine McColl, Janet Shucksmith, Alison Steele, Luke Vale, Raghu Lingam
BACKGROUND: Looked after children (LAC) and care leavers are young people who have been placed under the legal care of local authorities, in many instances due to a history of abuse and/or neglect. These young people have a significantly increased risk of substance use and mental disorder compared to their peers. The aim of the SOLID study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a definitive three-arm multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) that compares the effectiveness of two interventions that aim to reduce risky drug and alcohol use and improve mental health among LAC aged 12 to 20 years with usual care...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535945/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-psychometric-properties-among-referred-and-non-referred-portuguese-female-juveniles
#8
Pedro Pechorro, James V Ray, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Saul Neves Jesus
The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits delineates a subgroup of male youth with severe conduct disorder and antisocial behavior, but little research has been done among female youth. Drawing on 377 female adolescents (103 selected from forensic settings and 274 selected from school settings) from Portugal, the current study is the first to simultaneously examine the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) in incarcerated female youth and community youth. The results support the use of the ICU in terms of its factor structure, and internal consistency despite the fact an item had to be removed from the Callousness dimension...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535883/paper-based-microfluidic-devices-on-the-crime-scene-a-simple-tool-for-rapid-estimation-of-post-mortem-interval-using-vitreous-humour
#9
Paulo T Garcia, Ellen F M Gabriel, Gustavo S Pessôa, Júlio C Santos Júnior, Pedro C Mollo Filho, Ruggero B F Guidugli, Nelci F Höehr, Marco A Z Arruda, Wendell K T Coltro
This paper describes for the first time the use of paper-based analytical devices at crime scenes to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI), based on the colorimetric determination of Fe(2+) in vitreous humour (VH) samples. Experimental parameters such as the paper substrate, the microzone diameter, the sample volume and the 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) concentration were optimised in order to ensure the best analytical performance. Grade 1 CHR paper, microzone with diameter of 5 mm, a sample volume of 4 μL and an o-phen concentration of 0...
June 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535456/effectiveness-of-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder-a-national-five-year-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#10
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This the first 5-year effectiveness study of publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in England. METHODS: All adults initiating treatment in 2008/09 in all 149 local treatment systems reporting to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (n=54,347). Admission polydrug use sub-populations were identified by Latent Class Analysis. The treatment outcome measure was 'successful completion and no re-presentation within six months' (SCNR) analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression and funnel plots to contrast outcome by treatment system...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534199/leveraging-the-u-s-criminal-justice-system-to-access-women-for-hiv-interventions
#11
REVIEW
Jaimie P Meyer, Dharushana Muthulingam, Nabila El-Bassel, Frederick L Altice
The criminal justice (CJ) system can be leveraged to access women for HIV prevention and treatment programs. Research is lacking on effective implementation strategies tailored to the specific needs of CJ-involved women. We conducted a scoping review of published studies in English from the United States that described HIV interventions, involved women or girls, and used the CJ system as an access point for sampling or intervention delivery. We identified 350 studies and synthesized data from 42 unique interventions, based in closed (n = 26), community (n = 7), or multiple/other CJ settings (n = 9)...
May 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533584/reversal-learning-deficits-in-criminal-offenders-effects-of-psychopathy-substance-use-and-childhood-maltreatment-history
#12
Monika Dargis, Richard C Wolf, Michael Koenigs
Deficits in reinforcement learning are presumed to underlie the impulsive and incorrigible behavior exhibited by psychopathic criminals. However, previous studies documenting reversal learning impairments in psychopathic individuals have not investigated this relationship across a continuous range of psychopathy severity, nor have they examined how reversal learning impairments relate to different psychopathic traits, such as the interpersonal-affective and lifestyle-antisocial dimensions. Furthermore, previous studies have not considered the role that childhood maltreatment and substance use may have in this specific cognitive deficit...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532327/heroic-struggles-criminals-and-scientific-breakthroughs-adhd-and-the-medicalization-of-child-behaviour-in-australian-newsprint-media-1999-2009
#13
Valerie Harwood, Sandra Jones, Andrew Bonney, Samantha McMahon
There is a dearth of scholarly analysis and critique of the Australian newsprint media's role in the medicalization of child behaviour. To begin to redress this lack this paper analyses newsprint media's use of metaphors that re/describe and construct realities of ADHD with a medicalizing effect. The interdisciplinary team used the Factiva(TM) database to locate and review 453 articles published in Australian national and metropolitan newspapers during the decade 1999-2009. Data analysis involved generating statistical descriptions of the dataset according to attributes such as: date, state, newspaper titles and author names...
June 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531654/seattle-s-law-enforcement-assisted-diversion-lead-program-effects-on-recidivism-outcomes
#14
Susan E Collins, Heather S Lonczak, Seema L Clifasefi
Drug users and dealers frequently cycle through the criminal justice system in what is sometimes referred to as a "revolving door." Arrest, incarceration and prosecution have not deterred this recidivism. Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) program was established to divert these individuals to case management and supportive services instead of jail and prosecution. A nonrandomized controlled evaluation was conducted to examine LEAD effects on criminal recidivism (i.e., arrests, criminal charges)...
May 10, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529222/the-effect-of-childhood-household-dysfunction-on-future-hiv-risk-among-probationers
#15
Brittany Marshall, Stephanie A Spohr, Faye S Taxman, Scott T Walters
INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood events (ACE) can lead to numerous health risks in adulthood. ACEs coupled with increased risk-taking behaviors can lead to increased risk for HIV infection, particularly in vulnerable populations. The purpose of this study was to determine if mental health symptom severity mediates the relationship between childhood household dysfunction and adult HIV risk among a group of probationers. METHODS: T-tests were used to evaluate associations between demographic characteristics and cumulative engagement in sexual risk behaviors in 282 drug-involved probationers...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528986/how-family-members-of-mentally-ill-offenders-experience-the-internment-measure-and-forensic-psychiatric-treatment-in-belgium-a-qualitative-study
#16
Sara Rowaert, Stijn Vandevelde, Gilbert Lemmens, Kurt Audenaert
Mentally ill offenders in Belgium can be subjected to mandated care under an "internment measure" if they are viewed as a danger to society. This study investigated how family members of mentally ill offenders experience this internment measure and view the (forensic) psychiatric treatment of their relative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 relatives and analysed using Nvivo 11. Six different themes emerged: (1) the criminal offence and the internment measure as an additional stigma, (2) ambivalent feelings towards the judicial system, (3) prison is not the right place to be, (4) mental health support as an answer to problems, (5) fight a losing battle, and (6) while there is life there is hope...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527100/parents-expectations-of-high-schools-in-firearm-violence-prevention
#17
Erica Payton, Jagdish Khubchandani, Amy Thompson, James H Price
Firearm violence remains a significant problem in the US (with 2787 adolescents killed in 2015). However, the research on school firearm violence prevention practices and policies is scant. Parents are major stakeholders in relation to firearm violence by youths and school safety in general. The purpose of this study was to examine what parents thought schools should be doing to reduce the risk of firearm violence in schools. A valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 600 parents who had at least one child enrolled in a public secondary school (response rate = 47%)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525773/acetone-facilitated-dna-sampling-from-electrical-tapes-improves-dna-recovery-and-enables-latent-fingerprints-development
#18
Ilan Feine, Moshe Shpitzen, Boris Geller, Eran Salmon, Tsach Peleg, Jonathan Roth, Ron Gafny
Electrical tapes (ETs) are a common component of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) used by terrorists or criminal organizations and represent a valuable forensic resource for DNA and latent fingerprints recovery. However, DNA recovery rates are typically low and usually below the minimal amount required for amplification. In addition, most DNA extraction methods are destructive and do not allow further latent fingerprints development. In the present study a cell culture based touch DNA model was used to demonstrate a two-step acetone-water DNA recovery protocol from ETs...
May 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525430/qualitative-analysis-of-prosecutors-perspectives-on-sexual-assault-nurse-examiners-and-the-criminal-justice-response-to-sexual-assault
#19
Thaddeus Schmitt, Theodore P Cross, Megan Alderden
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand prosecutors' perspectives on the contribution of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs) to evidence collection and trials in sexual assault cases. BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that a sexual assault case is more likely to progress in the criminal justice system when a SANE conducts the forensic medical examination. However, little is known about how prosecutors perceive SANEs and what they value about SANEs versus other medical professionals...
April 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523392/brief-report-autism-in-the-courtroom-experiences-of-legal-professionals-and-the-autism-community
#20
Katie L Maras, Laura Crane, Sue Mulcahy, Tamsyn Hawken, Penny Cooper, David Wurtzel, Amina Memon
Online surveys were used to sample the views of judges, barristers and solicitors (n = 33) about their engagement with autistic individuals in criminal courts in England and Wales. Despite an understanding of some of the difficulties experienced by individuals with autism, and the adjustments suitable for supporting them, legal professionals reported constraints arising from a lack of understanding by others within the criminal justice system. These results are considered alongside the views and perspectives of autistic adults (n = 9) and parents of children on the autism spectrum (n = 19), who had encountered the criminal courts as witnesses or defendants and were largely dissatisfied with their experiences...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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