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Ophthalmic ultrasound

Camila V Ventura, Maria Paula Fernandez, Ivan A Gonzalez, Delia M Rivera-Hernandez, Roberto Lopez-Alberola, Maria Peinado, Angelica A Floren, Patricia A Rodriguez, Basil K Williams, Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Ana J Rodriguez, Catherin Negron, Brenda Fallas, Audina M Berrocal
A 6-day-old female baby with known diagnosis of congenital Zika infection was referred for ophthalmologic examination. The mother (37 years old) was referred for a pruritic rash, conjunctival hyperemia, and malaise at 12 weeks of gestation while still living in Venezuela. Upon arrival to Miami, Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure was confirmed during prenatal screening. At birth, due to the known exposure, a complete congenital ZIKV workup was performed, including brain ultrasound and MRI, which disclosed calcifications in the frontal lobe...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Ronald H Silverman
The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Chandrima Paul, Subhrangshu Sengupta, Sumit Choudhury, Souvik Banerjee, Betsy L Sleath
CONTEXT: Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. No recent study with adequate sample size has been carried out to estimate glaucoma prevalence in Eastern India. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the prevalence and types of glaucoma in a rural and urban East Indian population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The Hooghly River Glaucoma Study (HRGS) is a population-based cross-sectional study from West Bengal...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Stuart L Fine, Morton F Goldberg, William Tasman
We were challenged and delighted when Dr. Sharon Solomon, guest editor of this Retina Supplement, invited us to reminisce about caring for patients with common retinal disorders before there was access to the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are readily available today. We agreed to confine our remarks to 3 common, but serious, conditions: age-related macular degeneration (Dr. Fine), diabetic retinopathy (Dr. Goldberg), and retinal detachment (Dr. Tasman). Each of us completed our ophthalmology training about half a century ago...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Maree Flaherty, Katie Geering, Stephanie Crofts, John Grigg
BACKGROUND: Sly syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII) is an autosomal recessive metabolic storage disorder due to mutations in the GUSB gene encoding the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Deficiency of this lysosomal enzyme impairs the body's ability to break down the glycosaminoglycans - dermatan, heparan and chondroitin sulphate. Coarse facial features and macrocephaly are typically seen along with bony and skeletal abnormalities, including joint contractures and short stature. Widespread involvement occurs in many other tissues including cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems...
September 20, 2016: Ophthalmic Genetics
Ercan Ozsoy, Abuzer Gunduz, Ersin Ersan Demirel, Tongabay Cumurcu
Purpose. To evaluate anterior segment's structures by Pentacam in patients with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods. Group 1 included forty-six eyes of forty-six patients who have the TDS. Group 2 including forty-six eyes of forty-six cases was the control group which was equal to the study group in age, gender, and refraction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in both groups. All cases were evaluated by Pentacam. The axial length (AL) of eyes was measured by ultrasound. Quantitative data obtained from these measurements were compared between two groups...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
M Z Mahmoud, M Alkhorayef, A Sulieman
Objective: This study was designed with an aim to visualize the status of the posterior portion of the eye globe of adult Saudi cataract patients with brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound, to find out any posterior segment lesions in such preoperative cases. Methods: A prospective study was performed between May 2014 and May 2015. A 375 pre-operative cataract (184, 49.1%) males and (191, 50.9%) females between the ages from 18 to 90 years; mean age of 54 ± 0.5 years were scanned at two Radiology Departments...
February 15, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
Pehmen Yasin Ozcan, Ferit Dogan, Kenan Sonmez, Rahim Con, Dilek Sen Dokumaci, Eyüp Sabri Seyhanli
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the presence of any stage retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) alters central retinal artery (CRA) and ophthalmic artery (OA) blood flow parameters in premature infants. The patients were divided into two groups according to the development of ROP; those who have ROP were defined as group I, those without ROP were defined as group II. Ninety eyes of 45 patients in group I and 40 eyes of 20 patients in group II were investigated. The blood flows in the CRA and OA were measured using ultrasound color doppler imaging (CDI) that allows to evaluate the peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistivity index (RI)...
September 3, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Hiroshi Takahashi
Phacoemulsification has become the most commonly used procedure in cataract surgery owing to the development of new devices and surgical techniques; however, corneal endothelial damage still represents a serious complication. Although several factors are known to cause corneal endothelial damage, effects of irrigating pressure and temperature rise in the anterior chamber should also be considered. Furthermore, free radical formation is another important harmful factor. Ultrasound in aqueous solution induces cavitation, which results in the formation of hydroxyl free radicals that damage the corneal endothelium...
November 2016: Cornea
Hun Lee, David Sung Yong Kang, Byoung Jin Ha, Jin Young Choi, Eung Kweon Kim, Kyoung Yul Seo, Ha Yan Kim, Tae-Im Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the biomechanical properties of the cornea using the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer in young healthy adults. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional population study included 944 eyes of 472 participants aged 20 to 40 years. Participants underwent ophthalmic investigations, including evaluation of biomechanical properties of the cornea using the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer, manifest refraction, and measurements of keratometric values by autokeratometry, intraocular pressure (IOP) by noncontact tonometer, central corneal thickness (CCT) by ultrasound, and white-to-white distance by Scheimpflug tomography...
August 24, 2016: Cornea
Brijesh Takkar, Koushik Tripathy, Shorya Vardhan Azad, Pradeep Venkatesh, Rohan Chawla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retinal shortening with ultrasound (USG) in patients with retinal detachment (RD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a pilot, prospective, investigative study. Ten consecutive patients undergoing surgery for total RD with anterior or posterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) graded more than grade C1 were included. Longitudinal USG B-scan was done for all patients to calculate retinal-to-choroidal length ratio (RCR). Quadrant-based RCRs and mean RCRs were calculated...
August 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
A Cirla, M Rondena, G Bertolini
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for canine orbital mass diagnosis. A second excisional biopsy obtained during surgery or necropsy was used as the reference standard. A prospective feasibility study was conducted in 23 canine orbital masses at a single centre. A complete ophthalmic examination was always followed by orbital ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination of the head. All masses were sampled with the patient still on the CT table using ultrasound (US) guided automatic tru-cut device...
2016: Open veterinary journal
Jaume Català-Mora, Daniel Cuadras, Jesús Díaz-Cascajosa, Marta Castany-Aregall, Joan Prat-Bartomeu, José García-Arumí
PURPOSE: To report the feasibility and long-term safety of lensectomy and iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation to treat children with severe ectopia lentis in a paediatric tertiary hospital. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 21 eyes from 12 patients with severe ectopia lentis and visual acuity <20/63. All eyes underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, lensectomy, iridectomy and Artisan IOL implantation in the anterior chamber with iris-claw enclavation via pars plana...
August 18, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
T V Sudovskaya, I A Filatova, T N Kiseleva, Yu A Bobrovskaya, N Sh Kokoeva
AIM: To develop a comprehensive classification system of distinctive clinical and anatomical features of congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia in children and to specify indications, contraindications, and optimal timing of the primary and subsequent prosthetic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 70 patients with congenital micro- or anophthalmia aged from 1 month to 12 years were examined. Besides the routine ophthalmic examination, all patients underwent eye and orbit ultrasound (axial length measurement and B-scan), computed tomography of the orbits and skull, and immunological tests for infectious diseases (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays)...
May 2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Sarwar Zahid, Kunal K Dansingani, Yale Fisher
Suprachoroidal hemorrhage is typically observed in patients with hypotony in the context of intraocular surgery and trauma. We report a rare presentation of suprachoroidal hemorrhage associated with emesis (Valsalva maneuver) in a myopic patient with few other identifiable risk factors. This diagnosis was confirmed with wide-field fundus photography and B-scan ultrasound and was localized to the suprachoroidal space using both enhanced depth and swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging. This case is unique in its presentation and demonstrates the utility of newer imaging techniques to localize hemorrhages using a multimodal approach...
July 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Raksha Urs, Jeffrey A Ketterling, Ronald H Silverman
PURPOSE: Ophthalmic ultrasound imaging is currently performed with mechanically scanned single-element probes. These probes have limited capabilities overall and lack the ability to image blood flow. Linear-array systems are able to detect blood flow, but these systems exceed ophthalmic acoustic intensity safety guidelines. Our aim was to implement and evaluate a new linear-array-based technology, compound coherent plane-wave ultrasound, which offers ultrafast imaging and depiction of blood flow at safe acoustic intensity levels...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Gülizar Demirok, Yasemin Topalak, Mustafa M Başaran, Gökçe K Ataç, Sertaç Öztürk, Ahmet Sengün
INTRODUCTION: The choroid receives about 65-85% of ocular blood flow, which comes from the ophthalmic artery (OA), the first branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In the foveal avascular zone, there is no retinal vascular supply; therefore, choroidal blood supply plays a significant role in this subfoveal region. The ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) provides useful information about intraocular blood flow and is an indirect indicator of choroidal perfusion. In this study, we aimed to assess the correlation between the OPA, subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT), and ICA Doppler ultrasound findings in healthy eyes...
July 1, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Andrew W Kam, Tony S Chen, Sarah B Wang, Neeranjali S Jain, Aaron Yj Goh, Christopher P Douglas, Penny A McKelvie, Ashish Agar, Robert H Osher, Ian C Francis
BACKGROUND: To identify and classify materials in the vitreous (MIV) observed during phacoemulsification cataract surgery (phaco). DESIGN: Prospective, consecutive, observational case series at one ophthalmic day surgery in Sydney, Australia PARTICIPANTS: 767 consecutive phaco cases. Cases were excluded if there was posterior capsule rupture or vitreous loss intraoperatively. METHODS: For each patient, age, gender, baseline corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), presence of pseudoexfoliation, nuclear sclerosis grade and phacoemulsification ultrasound time were recorded...
June 17, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Rajesh Sinha, Mayank Bansal, Namrata Sharma, Tanuj Dada, Radhika Tandon, Jeewan S Titiyal
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes between sutured transscleral-fixated and intrascleral haptic-fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL). SETTING: Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. DESIGN: A comparative case series. METHODS: Forty eyes of 40 patients were included; 20 in each group. Patients in group 1 underwent sutured transscleral-fixated IOL and those in group 2 underwent intrascleral haptic-fixated IOL augmented by fibrin glue...
May 26, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Hisaharu Suzuki, Tsutomu Igarashi, Toshihiko Shiwa, Hiroshi Takahashi
PURPOSE: To investigate temperature alterations in the aqueous humor and the corneal endothelium during phacoemulsification, and to evaluate the effect of ophthalmic viscosurgical devices in preventing a temperature rise at the corneal endothelium during phacoemulsification. METHODS: Temperatures of the aqueous humor and corneal endothelium were measured using two temperature probes set in the anterior chamber during ultrasound oscillation in porcine eyes, with or without ophthalmic viscosurgical devices...
May 23, 2016: Current Eye Research
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