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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823001/effects-of-fermented-milk-products-on-bone
#1
REVIEW
René Rizzoli, Emmanuel Biver
Fermented milk products like yogurt or soft cheese provide calcium, phosphorus, and protein. All these nutrients influence bone growth and bone loss. In addition, fermented milk products may contain prebiotics like inulin which may be added to yogurt, and provide probiotics which are capable of modifying intestinal calcium absorption and/or bone metabolism. On the other hand, yogurt consumption may ensure a more regular ingestion of milk products and higher compliance, because of various flavors and sweetness...
August 19, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822867/de-novo-assembly-and-characterization-of-seabass-lateolabrax-japonicus-transcriptome-and-expression-of-hepatic-genes-following-different-dietary-phosphorus-calcium-levels
#2
Kang-Le Lu, Zhong-Li Ji, Samad Rahimnejad, Chun-Xiao Zhang, Ling Wang, Kai Song
Fish farming seriously influences the aquatic environment because most dietary phosphorus (P) is excreted in the effluent. To increase the P utilization in fish, molecular techniques should be explored given the remarkable development of these techniques. Thus, to identify the candidate genes related to P utilization and molecular alterations following administration of a P-deficient diet in seabass Lateolabrax japonicus, we assessed the de novo pituitary, gill, intestine, liver, kidney, scales and vertebra transcriptomes, and we compared the expression of hepatic genes with three diets varying in P and Ca levels: diet I (0...
August 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822802/stromal-expression-of-activated-leukocyte-cell-adhesion-molecule-alcam-promotes-lung-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#3
Ann-Helen Willrodt, Michal Beffinger, Martina Vranova, Darya Protsyuk, Katja Schuler, Maria Jadhav, Mathias Heikenwalder, Maries van den Broek, Lubor Borsig, Cornelia Halin Winter
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is expressed on various cell types, including leukocytes, endothelial cells and certain tumor cells. While ALCAM expression on tumor cells has been linked with tumor invasion and metastatic spread, the contribution of ALCAM expressed in cells forming the tumor stroma to cancer progression has not been investigated. In this study, we made use of ALCAM-deficient (ALCAM(-/-)) mice to evaluate the role of ALCAM in lung tumor growth and metastasis. ALCAM(-/-) mice displayed an altered blood vascular network in the lung and the diaphragm, indicative of an angiogenesis defect...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822790/galectin-3-as-a-novel-regulator-of-osteoblast-osteoclast-interaction-and-bone-homeostasis
#4
Dominic Simon, Anja Derer, Fabian Andes, Patrick Lezuo, Aline Bozec, Georg Schett, Martin Herrmann, Ulrike Harre
Bone tissue undergoes permanent and lifelong remodeling with a concerted action of bone-building osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. A precise cooperation between those two cell types is critical in the complex process of bone renewal. Galectin-3 is a member of the β-galactoside-binding lectin family playing multiple roles in cell growth, differentiation and aggregation. As it has been described to be expressed in bone, galectin-3 might influence bone homeostasis by regulating the function and/or interplay of osteoblasts and osteoclasts...
August 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822553/vitamin-d-status-in-growing-dairy-goats-and-sheep-influence-of-ultraviolet-b-radiation-on-bone-metabolism-and-calcium-homeostasis
#5
M V Nemeth, M R Wilkens, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to investigate how controlled UVB irradiation in combination with reduced nutritional vitamin D (vitD) supply affects vitD status and Ca metabolism of growing goats and sheep. The hypothesis was that, like dairy cows, goats and sheep are able to compensate for the missing nutritional supply of vitD through endogenous production in the skin, with the consequence of a high vitD status and a balanced Ca homeostasis. Sixteen lambs and 14 goat kids aged 3 and a half months were housed in an UVB free environment and fed hay and a vitD-free concentrate over a period of 13 wk...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822018/the-prevalence-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-survivors-of-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-results-from-a-large-single-centre-study
#6
Sumithra Giritharan, Joanna Cox, Calvin J Heal, David Hughes, Kanna Gnanalingham, Tara Kearney
OBJECTIVE: The variation in reported prevalence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) post subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is mainly due to methodological heterogeneity. We report on the prevalence of GHD in a large cohort of patients following SAH, when dynamic and confirmatory pituitary hormone testing methods are systematically employed. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, pituitary function was assessed in 100 patients following SAH. Baseline pituitary hormonal profile measurement and glucagon stimulation testing (GST) was carried out in all patients...
August 18, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821714/gadd45a-plays-a-protective-role-against-temozolomide-treatment-in-glioblastoma-cells
#7
Hsiao-Han Wang, Tsuey-Yu Chang, Wei-Chen Lin, Kuo-Chen Wei, Jyh-Wei Shin
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers. Despite recent advances in multimodal therapies, high-grade glioma remains fatal. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used worldwide for the clinical treatment of GBM; however, the innate and acquired resistance of GBM limits its application. Here, we found that TMZ inhibited the proliferation and induced the G2/M arrest of GBM cells. Therefore, we performed microarrays to identify the cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes affected by TMZ...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821477/tgf-%C3%AE-induced-intracellular-pai-1-is-responsible-for-retaining-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-niche
#8
Takashi Yahata, Abd Aziz Ibrahim, Yukari Muguruma, Mesut Eren, Alexander M Shaffer, Nobuo Watanabe, Satoko Kaneko, Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Takashi Dan, Noriaki Hirayama, Douglas E Vaughan, Toshio Miyata, Kiyoshi Ando
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the supportive stromal niche in bone marrow (BM); when needed, however, they are rapidly mobilized into the circulation, suggesting that HSPCs are intrinsically highly motile but are usually stayed in the niche. We questioned what determines the motility of HSPCs. Here we show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced intracellular plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 activation is responsible for keeping HSPCs in the BM niche. We found that the expression of PAI-1, a downstream target of TGF-β-signaling, was selectively augmented in niche-residing HSPCs...
August 18, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821389/debris-buster-is-a-drosophila-scavenger-receptor-essential-for-airway-physiology
#9
Almut Wingen, Pilar Carrera, Olympia Ekaterini Psathaki, André Voelzmann, Achim Paululat, Michael Hoch
Scavenger receptors class B (SR-B) are multifunctional transmembrane proteins, which in vertebrates participate in lipid transport, pathogen clearance, lysosomal delivery and intracellular sorting. Drosophila has 14 SR-B members whose functions are still largely unknown. Here, we reveal a novel role for the SR-B family member Debris buster (Dsb) in Drosophila airway physiology. Larvae lacking dsb show yeast avoidance behaviour, hypoxia, and severe growth defects associated with impaired elongation and integrity along the airways...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821225/differences-in-survival-virulence-and-biofilm-formation-between-sialidase-deficient-and-w83-wild-type-porphyromonas-gingivalis-strains-under-stressful-environmental-conditions
#10
Xiaoyu Xu, Tong Tong, Xue Yang, Yaping Pan, Li Lin, Chen Li
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major causative pathogen of chronic periodontitis. Within the inflammatory microenvironment, there exists extreme pH values, elevated temperatures and oxidative stress. Pathogens adapt to these stressful environmental conditions by regulating the transcription of virulence genes, modifying themselves with macromolecules and by aggregating and entering into a biofilm growth phase. Our previous study showed that the P. gingivalis sialidase can help cells obtain sialic acid from the environment, which is used to modify macromolecules on the surface of P...
August 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820290/local-histone-acetylation-by-acss2-promotes-gene-transcription-for-lysosomal-biogenesis-and-autophagy
#11
Xinjian Li, Xu Qian, Zhimin Lu
Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step in tumorigenesis. Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) converted from glucose or acetate is a substrate used for histone acetylation to regulate gene expression. However, how acetyl-CoA is produced under nutritional stress conditions is unclear. Herein we report that nutritional stress induces nuclear translocation of ACSS2 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2). This translocation is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent ACSS2 Ser659 phosphorylation and subsequent exposure of the nuclear localization signal of ACSS2 to KPNA1/importin α5 for binding...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820083/threonine-deficiency-decreased-intestinal-immunity-and-aggravated-inflammation-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-target-of-rapamycin-signalling-pathways-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-after-infection-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#12
Yu-Wen Dong, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99-21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819906/correlation-between-adrenal-function-growth-hormone-secretion-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-children-with-idiopathic-growth-hormone-deficiency
#13
A Ciresi, S Radellini, E Vigneri, V Guarnotta, J Bianco, M G Mineo, C Giordano
PURPOSE: Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) demonstrate an increased cortisol/cortisone ratio which could potentially explain the metabolic features of GHD, while GH treatment (GHT) could increase the cortisol metabolism. METHODS: In 35 children (27 M, mean age 10.1 years) with idiopathic GHD at baseline and after 12 months of GHT and in 25 controls, in addition to metabolic parameters, we assessed adrenal function by morning serum cortisol, its peak, and its area under the curve (AUCCOR) during insulin tolerance test (ITT)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819108/spag6-mutant-mice-have-defects-in-development-and-function-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons-apoptosis-and-higher-sensitivity-to-paclitaxel
#14
Xiaofei Li, Lei Xu, Gaoying Sun, Xianmin Wu, Xiaohui Bai, Jianfeng Li, Jerome F Strauss, Zhibing Zhang, Haibo Wang
Mammalian Sperm Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) is the orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, a protein localized in the axoneme central apparatus. Recent studies showed that Spag6 has a role in brain neuronal proliferation and differentiation. The mammalian spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are specialzed bipolar neurons in the inner ear. However, the role of SPAG6 in SGN has not been elucidated. Therefore, We hypothesized that a Spag6 knockout would affect the development and function of SGNs. We utilized Spag6-deficient mice and SGN explants to define the role of SPAG6...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818378/nsr1-myr2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-asn1-expression-and-its-possible-involvement-in-regulation-of-nitrogen-reutilization-in-arabidopsis
#15
Yoshimi Nakano, Yuki Naito, Toshitsugu Nakano, Namie Ohtsuki, Kaoru Suzuki
Nitrogen (N) is a major macronutrient that is essential for plant growth. It is important for us to understand the key genes that are involved in the regulation of N utilization. In this study, we focused on a GARP-type transcription factor known as NSR1/MYR2, which has been reported to be induced under N-deficient conditions. Our results demonstrated that NSR1/MYR2 has a transcriptional repression activity and is specifically expressed in vascular tissues, especially in phloem throughout the plant under daily light-dark cycle regulation...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816210/dietary-deficiency-of-vitamin-a-among-rural-children-a-community-based-survey-using-a-food-frequency-questionnaire
#16
Shivali Suri, Dinesh Kumar, Ranjan Das
BACKGROUND: Overt vitamin A deficiency has been controlled in most parts of India, but prevalence of subclinical deficiency may still be high, which may enhance susceptibility to infections, reduce growth potential and also lead to higher mortality. We aimed to: (i) assess the consumption pattern of vitamin A-rich foods in children 1-5 years of age in rural Jammu; and (ii) estimate the dietary deficiency of vitamin A leading to risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in cluster- villages of the study area...
March 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815405/supplemented-organic-and-inorganic-selenium-affects-milk-performance-and-selenium-concentration-in-milk-and-tissues-in-the-guanzhong-dairy-goat
#17
L Zhang, X R Liu, J Z Liu, X P An, Z Q Zhou, B Y Cao, Y X Song
Trace amounts of selenium (Se) are essential for several organisms, and deficiencies therein have adverse effects on growth, development, and reproduction; this is particularly significant in animals raised for milk and livestock production. To study the effect of Se on Guanzhong dairy goats, their diets were supplemented with different sources (inorganic or organic) and Se concentrations (0.2 or 0.4 mg Se/kg). A non-Se-fortified basal diet served as a negative control, and a sixth treatment group received both inorganic and organic Se sources (0...
August 16, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815356/dent-disease-in-poland-what-we-have-learned-so-far
#18
Marcin Zaniew, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Iga Załuska-Leśniewska, Piotr Adamczyk, Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska, Adam Haliński, Jan Zawadzki, Beata S Lipska-Ziętkiewicz, Krzysztof Pawlaczyk, Przemysław Sikora, Michael Ludwig, Maria Szczepańska
PURPOSE: Dent disease (DD) is a rare tubulopathy characterized by proximal tubular dysfunction leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to characterize patients with DD in Poland. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a national cohort with genetically confirmed diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 24 males, all patients except one carried mutations in the CLCN5 gene; in one patient a mutation in the OCRL gene was disclosed. Molecular diagnosis was delayed 1 year on average (range 0-21 years)...
August 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815215/structural-characterization-of-acidic-m17-leucine-aminopeptidases-from-the-tritryps-and-evaluation-of-their-role-in-nutrient-starvation-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#19
Jennifer Timm, Maria Valente, Daniel García-Caballero, Keith S Wilson, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is found in all kingdoms of life and catalyzes the metal-dependent hydrolysis of the N-terminal amino acid residue of peptide or amino acyl substrates. LAPs have been shown to participate in the N-terminal processing of certain proteins in mammalian cells and in homologous recombination and transcription regulation in bacteria, while in parasites, they are involved in host cell invasion and provision of essential amino acids for growth. The enzyme is essential for survival in Plasmodium falciparum, where its drug target potential has been suggested...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814453/sympathetic-signaling-reactivates-quiescent%C3%A2-disseminated-prostate-cancer-cells-in-the-bone-marrow
#20
Ann Decker, Younghun Jung, Frank C Cackowski, Kenji Yumoto, Jingcheng Wang, Russell S Taichman
Clinical observations have identified an association between psychological stress and cancer relapse; suggesting that the sympathetic nervous system/norepinephrine (NE) plays a role in reactivation of dormant disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow niche. Here, the mechanism by which NE regulates prostate cancer (PCa) DTCs in the marrow is explored. NE directly stimulated PCa cell proliferation through β2-adrenergic receptors (ADRB2). NE also altered PCa proliferation in the marrow niche by indirectly by downregulating the secretion of the dormancy inducing molecule growth arrest specific-6 (GAS6) expressed by osteoblasts...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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