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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644433/ctla-4-mediated-posttranslational-modifications-direct-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-differentiation
#1
Holger Lingel, Josef Wissing, Aditya Arra, Denny Schanze, Stefan Lienenklaus, Frank Klawonn, Mandy Pierau, Martin Zenker, Lothar Jänsch, Monika C Brunner-Weinzierl
The blockade of inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4 (CD152) is being used as immune-checkpoint therapy, offering a powerful strategy to restore effective immune responses against tumors. To determine signal components that are induced under the control of CTLA-4 we analyzed activated murine CD8(+) T cells by quantitative proteomics. Accurate mass spectrometry revealed that CTLA-4 engagement led to central changes in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in T-cell differentiation. Beside other targets, we discovered a CTLA-4-mediated induction of the translational inhibitor programmed cell death-4 (PDCD4) as a result of FoxO1 nuclear re-localization...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644368/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-not-associated-with-growth-or-the-incidence-of-common-morbidities-among-tanzanian-infants
#2
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Emily R Smith, Said Aboud, Rodrick Kisenge, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and determine the association of vitamin D status with child growth and incidence of common morbidities among Tanzanian infants. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 581 Tanzanian infants born to HIV-uninfected mothers had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assessed at 6 weeks and 6 months of age. Infants were seen at monthly clinic visits for growth monitoring until 18 months of age...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643234/body-mass-disorders-in-healthy-short-children-and-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency
#3
Paweł Tomaszewski, Katarzyna Milde, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak, Gul Tiryaki-Sonmez, Brad J Schoenfeld
The aim of the study was to determine the degree of adiposity and the incidence of body mass disorders, including abdominal obesity, in healthy short children and children with growth hormone deficiency. The study included 134 short children (height < 10th percentile) aged 7-15. In this cohort there were 63 (31 boys and 32 girls) children without diagnosed hormonal disorders and 71 patients (35 boys and 36 girls) with growth hormone deficiency. Basic somatic features were assessed and the study participants were categorized according to the percentage of body fat (%FAT), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
June 23, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643176/a-promising-tool-in-retina-regeneration-current-perspectives-and-challenges-when-using-mesenchymal-progenitor-stem-cells-in-veterinary-and-human-ophthalmological-applications
#4
REVIEW
Anna Cislo-Pakuluk, Krzysztof Marycz
Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al...
June 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642785/potassium-starvation-limits-soybean-growth-more-than-the-photosynthetic-processes-across-co2-levels
#5
Shardendu K Singh, Vangimalla R Reddy
Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) often enhances plant photosynthesis, growth, and productivity. However, under nutrient-limited conditions the beneficial effects of high CO2 are often diminished. To evaluate the combined effects of potassium (K) deficiency and eCO2 on soybean photosynthesis, growth, biomass partitioning, and yields, plants were grown under controlled environment conditions with an adequate (control, 5.0 mM) and two deficient (0.50 and 0.02 mM) levels of K under ambient CO2 (aCO2; 400 μmol mol(-1)) and eCO2 (800 μmol mol(-1))...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642762/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-augments-arsenic-tolerance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-by-strengthening-antioxidant-defense-system-and-thiol-metabolism
#6
Surbhi Sharma, Garima Anand, Neeraja Singh, Rupam Kapoor
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642734/the-short-stature-homeobox-containing-gene-shox-shox-is-required-for-the-regulation-of-cell-proliferation-and-bone-differentiation-in-zebrafish-embryo-and-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Tomoaki Yokokura, Hiroyasu Kamei, Takashi Shibano, Daisuke Yamanaka, Rie Sawada-Yamaguchi, Fumihiko Hakuno, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi, Toshiaki Shimizu
The short-stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) was originally discovered as one of genes responsible for idiopathic short-stature syndromes in humans. Previous studies in animal models have shown the evolutionarily conserved link between this gene and skeletal formation in early embryogenesis. Here, we characterized developmental roles of shox/SHOX in zebrafish embryos and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using loss-of-function approaches. Morpholino oligo-mediated knockdown of zebrafish shox markedly hindered cell proliferation in the anterior region of the pharyngula embryos, which was accompanied by reduction in the dlx2 expression at mesenchymal core sites for future pharyngeal bones...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641923/rhodobacteraceae-on-the-marine-brown-alga-fucus-spiralis-are-abundant-and-show-physiological-adaptation-to-an-epiphytic-lifestyle
#8
Marco Dogs, Bernd Wemheuer, Laura Wolter, Nils Bergen, Rolf Daniel, Meinhard Simon, Thorsten Brinkhoff
Macroalgae harbour specific microbial communities on their surface that have functions related to host health and defence. In this study, the bacterial biofilm of the marine brown alga Fucus spiralis was investigated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based analysis and isolation of bacteria. Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria) were the predominant family constituting 23% of the epibacterial community. At the genus level, Sulfitobacter, Loktanella, Octadecabacter and a previously undescribed cluster were most abundant, and together they comprised 89% of the Rhodobacteraceae...
June 15, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640740/differential-effects-of-isc-operon-mutations-on-the-biosynthesis-and-activity-of-key-anaerobic-metalloenzymes-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Monique Jaroschinsky, Constanze Pinske, R Gary Sawers
Escherichia coli has two machineries for the synthesis of FeS clusters, namely Isc (iron-sulfur cluster) and Suf (sulfur formation). The Isc machinery, encoded by the iscRSUA-hscBA-fdx-iscXoperon, plays a crucial role in the biogenesis of FeS clusters for the oxidoreductases of aerobic metabolism. Less is known, however, about the role of ISC in the maturation of key multi-subunit metalloenzymes of anaerobic metabolism. Here, we determined the contribution of each iscoperon gene product towards the functionality of the major anaerobic oxidoreductases in E...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640711/effects-of-season-and-postmortem-changes-on-blood-analytes-in-pyrenean-chamois-rupicapra-pyrenaica
#10
Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Ignasi Marco, Rafaela Cuenca, Santiago Lavín, Josep Pastor
Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of the 1) season, and 2) postmortem changes on serum biochemistries related with metabolism in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica). Serum samples from 98 animals obtained from 2009 to 2012 were included. To investigate seasonal influences on blood parameters, the Pyrenean chamois were captured in drive-nets during the feed abundant (FA; n=32) and food deficient (FD; n=35) seasons. To evaluate the possible differences in biochemistry analytes when sampling live or dead animals, we used serum samples from 32 captured animals and 31 dead animals (obtained during controlled hunting) in the FA season...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639129/the-inhibition-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-accelerates-early-liver-regeneration-in-mice-after-partial-hepatectomy
#11
Hideyuki Ogiso, Hiroyasu Ito, Ayumu Kanbe, Tatsuya Ando, Akira Hara, Masahito Shimizu, Hisataka Moriwaki, Mitsuru Seishima
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The inflammatory response accelerates early liver regeneration after liver injury and resection. Recent studies have demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) suppresses the activation of inflammatory cells and induces immune tolerance. In this study, we examined the role of IDO1 in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx). METHODS: WT or IDO1-knockout (IDO1-KO) mice received 70% PHx. The liver-body weight ratio after PHx was measured and hepatocyte growth was assessed by immunostaining...
June 21, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639003/the-crucial-role-of-activin-a-alk4-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ang-ii-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Qian Wang, Ying Yu, Pengpai Zhang, Yihe Chen, Changyi Li, Jie Chen, Yuepeng Wang, Yigang Li
Atrial fibrosis, the hallmark of structural remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), is characterized by abnormal proliferation of atrial fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/Smad2/3/4 pathway has been reported to be involved in the process. Recent studies have implicated both activin A and its specific downstream component activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) in stimulating fibrosis in non-cardiac organs...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638668/severe-short-stature-in-an-adolescent-male-with-prader-willi-syndrome-and-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-a-therapeutic-conundrum
#13
Meredith Wasserman, Erin M Mulvihill, Angela Ganan-Soto, Serife Uysal, Jose Bernardo Quintos
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency results in excess androgen production which can lead to early epiphyseal fusion and short stature. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder resulting from a defect on chromosome 15 due to paternal deletion, maternal uniparental disomy, or imprinting defect. Ninety percent of patients with PWS have short stature. In this article we report a patient with simple-virilizing CAH and PWS who was overtreated with glucocorticoids for CAH and not supplemented with growth hormone for PWS, resulting in a significantly short adult height...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638391/glomus-mosseae-inoculation-improves-the-root-system-architecture-photosynthetic-efficiency-and-flavonoids-accumulation-of-liquorice-under-nutrient-stress
#14
Meilan Chen, Guang Yang, Ye Sheng, Pengying Li, Hongyan Qiu, Xiuteng Zhou, Luqi Huang, Zhi Chao
The poor quality and low productivity of cultivated liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) continues to put pressure on wild plant populations. As arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are known to support plant growth and in some cases even to enhance the accumulation of valuable molecules in the plant, the effect of Glomus mosseae on the growth and active ingredient contents was evaluated in liquorice plants grown under nutrient deficiency. We created a nutrient-deficient environment by mixing paddy soil, washed river sand, and pumice at a ratio of 1:5:1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638048/maternal-folate-deficiency-causes-inhibition-of-mtor-signaling-down-regulation-of-placental-amino-acid-transporters-and-fetal-growth-restriction-in-mice
#15
Fredrick J Rosario, Peter W Nathanielsz, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson
Maternal folate deficiency is linked to restricted fetal growth, however the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. Here we tested the hypothesis that mTOR functions as a folate sensor in vivo in mice and that maternal folate deficiency inhibits placental mTOR signaling and amino acid transporter activity and causes fetal growth restriction. Folate deficient mice had lower serum folate (-60%). In late pregnancy, fetal weight in the folate deficient group was decreased (-17%, p < 0.05), whereas placental weight, litter size and crown rump length were unaltered...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637831/oshad1-a-haloacid-dehalogenase-like-apase-enhances-phosphate-accumulation
#16
Bipin Kumar Pandey, Poonam Mehra, Lokesh Verma, Jyoti Bhadouria, Jitender Giri
Phosphorus (P) deficiency limits plant growth and crop yield. Since, plants can absorb only inorganic form of P (Pi), a large portion of soil P (organic and inorganic P complexes) remains largely unused. Here, we identified and characterized a PHR2 regulated; novel low Pi responsive haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like hydrolase, OsHAD1. While, OsHAD1 is a functional HAD protein having both acid phosphatase and phytase activity; it showed little homology with other known low Pi responsive HAD superfamily members...
June 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637710/the-combined-action-of-duplicated-boron-transporters-is-required-for-maize-growth-in-boron-deficient-conditions
#17
Mithu Chatterjee, Qiujie Liu, Caitlin Menello, Mary Galli, Andrea Gallavotti
The micronutrient boron is essential in maintaining the structure of plant cell walls and is critical for high yields in crop species. Boron can move into plants by diffusion or by active and facilitated transport mechanisms. We recently showed that mutations in the maize boron efflux transporter ROTTEN EAR (RTE) cause severe developmental defects and sterility. RTE is part of a small gene family containing five additional members (RTE2-RTE6) that show tissue specific expression. The close paralogous gene RTE2 encodes a protein with 95% amino acid identity with RTE and is similarly expressed in shoot and root cells surrounding the vasculature...
June 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637693/neuroblast-differentiation-during-development-and-in-neuroblastoma-requires-kif1b%C3%AE-mediated-transport-of-trka
#18
Stuart M Fell, Shuijie Li, Karin Wallis, Anna Kock, Olga Surova, Vilma Rraklli, Carolin S Höfig, Wenyu Li, Jens Mittag, Marie Arsenian Henriksson, Rajappa S Kenchappa, Johan Holmberg, Per Kogner, Susanne Schlisio
We recently identified pathogenic KIF1Bβ mutations in sympathetic nervous system malignancies that are defective in developmental apoptosis. Here we deleted KIF1Bβ in the mouse sympathetic nervous system and observed impaired sympathetic nervous function and misexpression of genes required for sympathoadrenal lineage differentiation. We discovered that KIF1Bβ is required for nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent neuronal differentiation through anterograde transport of the NGF receptor TRKA. Moreover, pathogenic KIF1Bβ mutations identified in neuroblastoma impair TRKA transport...
May 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637087/deleting-pck-improves-growth-and-suppresses-by-product-formation-during-1-3-propanediol-fermentation-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#19
Yongqiang Zhang, Zongxiao Ji, Jie Lin, Danfeng Xu, Shuilin Fu, Heng Gong
AIMS: To investigate the role of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation in cell metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of deleting pck, which encodes PEP carboxykinase (PCK), and/or ppc, which encodes PEP carboxylase (PPC), on growth, enzyme activity, and metabolite formation of K. pneumoniae were investigated. A self-regulatory mechanism of PEP carboxylation was found in ppc- or pck-deficient mutants, which resulted in almost no change of succinate formation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636992/acetylsalicylic-acid-inhibits-the-growth-of-melanoma-tumors-via-sox2-dependent-paf-r-independent-signaling-pathway
#20
Anita Thyagarajan, Jeremiah Saylae, Ravi P Sahu
Acquired resistance to standard therapies remains a serious challenge, requiring novel therapeutic approaches that incorporate potential factors involved in tumor resistance. As cancers including melanoma express inflammatory cyclooxygenases generating prostaglandins implicated in tumor growth, we investigated mechanism of anti-inflammatory drug, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) which has been shown to inhibit various tumor types, however, its effects against highly aggressive melanoma model are unclear. Given our reports that an activation of platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R) augments the growth and impede efficacies of therapeutic agents in experimental melanoma, we also sought to determine if PAF-R mediates anti-melanoma activity of ASA...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
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