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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691988/insulin-receptor-in-the-brain-mechanisms-of-activation-and-the-role-in-the-cns-pathology-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Igor Pomytkin, João P Costa-Nunes, Vladimir Kasatkin, Ekaterina Veniaminova, Anna Demchenko, Alexey Lyundup, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Eugene D Ponomarev, Tatyana Strekalova
While the insulin receptor (IR) was found in the CNS decades ago, the brain was long considered to be an insulin-insensitive organ. This view is currently revisited, given emerging evidence of critical roles of IR-mediated signaling in development, neuroprotection, metabolism, and plasticity in the brain. These diverse cellular and physiological IR activities are distinct from metabolic IR functions in peripheral tissues, thus highlighting region specificity of IR properties. This particularly concerns the fact that two IR isoforms, A and B, are predominantly expressed in either the brain or peripheral tissues, respectively, and neurons express exclusively IR-A...
April 24, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691333/community-development-between-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-candida-albicans-mediated-by-inlj-and-als3
#2
Maryta N Sztukowska, Lindsay C Dutton, Christopher Delaney, Mark Ramsdale, Gordon Ramage, Howard F Jenkinson, Angela H Nobbs, Richard J Lamont
The pleiomorphic yeast Candida albicans is a significant pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. In the oral cavity, C. albicans is an inhabitant of polymicrobial communities, and interspecies interactions promote hyphal formation and biofilm formation. C. albicans colonizes the subgingival area, and the frequency of colonization increases in periodontal disease. In this study, we investigated the interactions between C. albicans and the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis C. albicans and P...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691281/loss-of-fgfr1-in-chondrocytes-inhibits-osteoarthritis-through-promoting-autophagic-activity-in-temporomandibular-joint
#3
Zuqiang Wang, Junlan Huang, Siru Zhou, Fengtao Luo, Qiaoyan Tan, Xianding Sun, Zhenhong Ni, Hangang Chen, Xiaolan Du, Yangli Xie, Lin Chen
Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) is common degenerative disease with few effective disease-modifying treatments in clinic. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is implicated in articular cartilage homeostasis, but the functional roles of FGFR1 in TMJ OA remain largely unknown. In this study, we report that deletion of Fgfr1 in TMJ chondrocytes delayed the TMJ OA progression in age-associated spontaneous OA model and abnormal dental occlusion OA model. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Fgfr1 deficiency decreased the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13),A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS5) , COL10A1, while increased aggrecan expression level in two TMJ OA models...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690568/mycoviruses-as-triggers-and-targets-of-rna-silencing-in-white-mold-fungus-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#4
Pauline Mochama, Prajakta Jadhav, Achal Neupane, Shin-Yi Lee Marzano
This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway. Specifically, dicer genes ( dcl-1, dcl-2 , and both dcl-1 / dcl-2 ) were displaced by selective marker(s). Disruption mutants were then compared for changes in phenotype, virulence, and susceptibility to virus infections...
April 22, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689429/a-mongolian-pine-specific-endoplasmic-reticulum-localized-calmodulin-like-calcium-binding-protein-enhances-arabidopsis-growth
#5
Jia Yang, Caili Wu, Yahui Yu, Huiping Mao, Yuying Bao, Yan Kang, Zhi Qi
Stress-adapted wild plants are natural sources of novel genes for molecular breeding. Here, we conducted a transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv, an evergreen pine in northeastern China, to identify a novel CALMODULIN-LIKE protein-encoding gene, PsCML1, no significant homologs found in other plant species. PsCML1 encodes a protein predicted to have a single trans-membrane domain at its N-terminal. Four EF-hand motifs (calcium [Ca]-binding structures) are located at its C-terminal and showed Ca2+ -specific affinity in isothermal titration calorimetric analysis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689292/tgf-%C3%AE-signalling-regulates-development-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-and-hindbrain-serotonergic-neuron-subgroups
#6
Enaam Chleilat, Lena Skatulla, Belal Rahhal, Manal T Hussein, Melanie Feuerstein, Kerstin Krieglstein, Eleni Roussa
Molecular and functional diversity within midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) and hindbrain serotonergic (5-HT) neurons has emerged as a relevant feature that could underlie selective vulnerability of neurons in clinical disorders. We have investigated the role of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) during development of mDA and 5-HT subgroups. We have generated TβRIIflox/flox ::En1cre/+ mice where type II TGF-β receptor is conditionally deleted from engrailed 1- expressing cells and have investigated the hindbrain serotonergic system of these mice together with Tgf-β2-/- mice...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689198/grasp55-senses-glucose-deprivation-through-o-glcnacylation-to-promote-autophagosome-lysosome-fusion
#7
Xiaoyan Zhang, Leibin Wang, Behnam Lak, Jie Li, Eija Jokitalo, Yanzhuang Wang
The Golgi apparatus is the central hub for protein trafficking and glycosylation in the secretory pathway. However, how the Golgi responds to glucose deprivation is so far unknown. Here, we report that GRASP55, the Golgi stacking protein located in medial- and trans-Golgi cisternae, is O-GlcNAcylated by the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT under growth conditions. Glucose deprivation reduces GRASP55 O-GlcNAcylation. De-O-GlcNAcylated GRASP55 forms puncta outside of the Golgi area, which co-localize with autophagosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes...
April 23, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689066/understanding-dietary-and-staple-food-transitions-in-china-from-multiple-scales
#8
Xiao Chang, Ruth S DeFries, Liming Liu, Kyle Davis
China is facing both non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and micronutrient deficiency, which have been largely related to transitions within Chinese diets, for example, the overconsumption of vegetable oils and animal-source products and decreasing consumption of coarse staple foods. In this study, we use three metrics-dietary diversity score (DDS), staple diversity score (SDS) and the proportion of coarse staple consumption (PoCS)- to investigate overall dietary transitions as well as trends in staple food consumption for nine provinces in China from 1997 to 2009...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688888/body-composition-and-metabolic-health-of-young-male-adults-with-childhood-onset-multiple-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-after-cessation-of-growth-hormone-treatment
#9
Hongbo Yang, Linjie Wang, Xiaonan Qiu, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong, Huijuan Zhu, Hui Pan
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy is usually stopped after linear growth completion in patients with growth hormone deficiency. In patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD), the long-term effects of discontinuation of rhGH replacement are unknown. METHODS: In this study, the anthropometric and metabolic parameters of 24 male patients with adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) due to MPHD in childhood after cessation of rhGH therapy for a mean of 7...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688760/effects-of-an-antioxidant-enriched-multivitamin-in-cystic-fibrosis-randomized-controlled-multicenter-trial
#10
Scott D Sagel, Umer Khan, Raksha Jain, Gavin Graff, Cori L Daines, Jordan M Dunitz, Drucy Borowitz, David M Orenstein, Ibrahim Abdulhamid, Julie Noe, John P Clancy, Bonnie Slovis, Michael J Rock, Karen S McCoy, Steven Strausbaugh, Floyd R Livingston, Konstantinos A Papas, Michele L Shaffer
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by dietary antioxidant deficiencies, which may contribute to an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the effects of an oral antioxidant-enriched multivitamin supplement on antioxidant concentrations, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and clinical outcomes. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 73 pancreatic insufficient CF subjects 10 years of age and older with an FEV1 between 40-100% predicted were randomized to 16 weeks of an antioxidant-enriched multivitamin or control multivitamin without antioxidant enrichment...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688721/nano-encapsulation-of-novel-inhibitors-of-pnkp-for-selective-sensitization-to-ionizing-radiation-and-irinotecan-and-induction-of-synthetic-lethality
#11
Zahra Shire, Mohammad Reza Vakili, Timothy D R Morgan, Dennis G Hall, Afsaneh Lavasanifar, Michael Weinfeld
There is increasing interest in developing and applying DNA repair inhibitors in cancer treatment to augment the efficacy of radiation and conventional genotoxic chemotherapy. However, targeting the inhibitor is required to avoid reducing the repair capacity of normal tissue. The aim of this study was to develop nano-delivery systems for the encapsulation of novel imidopiperidine-based inhibitors of the DNA 3'-phosphatase activity of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP), a DNA repair enzyme that plays a critical role in rejoining DNA single- and double-strand breaks...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688323/silac-based-phosphoproteomics-reveals-new-pp2a-cdc55-regulated-processes-in-budding-yeast
#12
Barbara Baro, Soraya Játiva, Inés Calabria, Judith Vinaixa, Joan-Josep Bech-Serra, Carolina de LaTorre, João Rodrigues, María Luisa Hernáez, Concha Gil, Silvia Barceló-Batllori, Martin R Larsen, Ethel Queralt
Background: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a family of conserved serine/threonine phosphatases involved in several essential aspects of cell growth and proliferation. PP2ACdc55 phosphatase has been extensively related to cell cycle events in budding yeast, however few PP2ACdc55 substrates have been identified. Here, we performed a quantitative mass spectrometry approach to reveal new substrates of PP2ACdc55 phosphatase and new PP2A-related processes in mitotic arrested cells. Results: We identified 62 statistically significant PP2ACdc55 substrates involved mainly in actin-cytoskeleton organization...
April 24, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688011/mutual-dependence-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-as-key-nutrient-elements-one-facilitates-dolichospermum-flos-aquae-to-overcome-limitation-by-the-other
#13
Siyang Wang, Jian Xiao, Lingling Wan, Zijun Zhou, Zhicong Wang, Chunlei Song, Yiyong Zhou, Xiuyun Cao
Dolichospermum flos-aquae (formerly Anabaena flos-aquae) is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium causing harmful blooms worldwide, which is partly attributed to its capacity to compete for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Preventing the blooms by reducing P alone or both N and P has caused debate. To test the effects alone and together on the growth of cyanobacteria, we performed culture experiments in different eutrophication scenarios. N2 fixation in terms of heterocyst density, nitrogenase activity and nifH expression increased significantly in P-replete cultures, suggesting that P enrichment facilitates N2 fixation...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687367/atovaquone-enhances-doxorubicin-s-efficacy-via-inhibiting-mitochondrial-respiration-and-stat3-in-aggressive-thyroid-cancer
#14
Zhuo Lv, Xintong Yan, Liying Lu, Chun Su, Yin He
The clinical management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma is challenging and requires an alternative therapeutic strategy. Although atovaquone is an FDA-approved anti-malarial drug, studies has recently demonstrated its anti-cancer activities. In line with these efforts, our study shows that atovaquone is an attractive candidate for thyroid cancer treatment. We show that atovaquone significantly inhibits growth, migration and survival in a concentration-dependent manner in 8505C and FTC113 cells...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687201/folate-promotes-s-adenosyl-methionine-reactions-and-the-microbial-methylation-cycle-and-boosts-ruminants-production-and-reproduction
#15
REVIEW
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Lamei Wang, Mohamed E Abd El Hack, Ayman A Swelum, Ren Hao, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
Folate has gained significant attention due to its vital role in biological methylation and epigenetic machinery. Folate, or vitamin (B9 ), is only produced through a de novo mechanism by plants and micro-organisms in the rumen of mature animals. Although limited research has been conducted on folate in ruminants, it has been noted that ruminal synthesis could not maintain folate levels in high yielding dairy animals. Folate has an essential role in one-carbon metabolism and is a strong antiproliferative agent...
April 23, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687007/association-between-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis-gene-polymorphisms-and-short-stature-in-chinese-children
#16
Yanhong Zhang, Mei Zhang, Yuntian Chu, Baolan Ji, Qian Shao, Bo Ban
Objective: This study was designed to analyze the association between the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis gene polymorphisms and short stature in Chinese children. Methods: 181 growth hormone deficiency (GHD) patients and 206 normal stature controls were enrolled to attend this study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the GH receptor (GHR) and 5 SNPs within the GH-signaling pathway were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686723/comparison-of-six-different-methods-to-calculate-cell-densities
#17
Carolina Camacho-Fernández, David Hervás, Alba Rivas-Sendra, Mª Pilar Marín, Jose M Seguí-Simarro
Background: For in vitro culture of plant and animal cells, one of the critical steps is to adjust the initial cell density. A typical example of this is isolated microspore culture, where specific cell densities have been determined for different species. Out of these ranges, microspore growth is not induced, or is severely reduced. A similar situation occurs in many other plant and animal cell culture systems. Traditionally, researchers have used counting chambers (hemacytometers) to calculate cell densities, but little is still known about their technical advantages...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686301/endocannabinoids-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-are-essential-for-the-mobilization-of-cholesterol-from-internal-reserves
#18
Celina Galles, Gastón M Prez, Sider Penkov, Sebastian Boland, Exequiel O J Porta, Silvia G Altabe, Guillermo R Labadie, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Teymuras V Kurzchalia, Diego de Mendoza
Proper cholesterol transport is crucial for the functionality of cells. In C. elegans, certain cholesterol derivatives called dafachronic acids (DAs) govern the entry into diapause. In their absence, worms form a developmentally arrested dauer larva. Thus, cholesterol transport to appropriate places for DA biosynthesis warrants the reproductive growth. Recently, we discovered a novel class of glycosphingolipids, PEGCs, required for cholesterol mobilization/transport from internal storage pools. Here, we identify other components involved in this process...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686164/-treatment-of-rathke-s-cleft-cyst-technical-note-for-preservation-of-pituitary-function
#19
Miiko Ito, Kenichiro Matsuda, Atsushi Kuge, Shinya Sato, Takamasa Kayama, Yukihiko Sonoda
Pituitary dysfunction, such as panhypopituitarism or diabetes insipidus(DI), is often found in patients with Rathke's cleft cyst. Patients were treated with transsphenoidal microscopic surgery; however, pituitary dysfunction did not usually recover. Recently, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery(eTSS)has enabled minimally invasive surgery for patients with Rathke's cleft cyst. In this study, we analyzed 22 consecutive patients with Rathke's cleft cyst who underwent eTSS to determine if pituitary dysfunction recovered...
April 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685894/bambi-is-a-novel-hif1-dependent-modulator-of-tgf%C3%AE-mediated-disruption-of-cell-polarity-in-hypoxia
#20
Irina Raykhel, Fazeh Moafi, Satu M Myllymäki, Patricia G Greciano, Karl S Matlin, Jose V Moyano, Aki Manninen, Johanna Myllyharju
Hypoxia and loss of cell polarity are common features of malignant carcinomas. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is the major regulator of cellular hypoxia response through activation of ∼300 genes. Increased HIF1 signaling is known to be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. Here we report that hypoxia disrupts polarized epithelial morphogenesis of MDCK cells in HIF1α-dependent manner by modulating the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway. Analysis of potential HIF1 targets in the TGFβ pathway identified the bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), a transmembrane glycoprotein related to the type I receptors of the TGFβ family, whose expression was essentially lost in HIF1-depleted cells...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
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