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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244877/identification-and-characterization-of-the-three-members-of-the-clc-family-of-anion-transport-proteins-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#1
Michael E Steinmann, Remo S Schmidt, Juan P Macêdo, Christina Kunz Renggli, Peter Bütikofer, Doris Rentsch, Pascal Mäser, Erwin Sigel
CLC type anion transport proteins are homo-dimeric or hetero-dimeric with an integrated transport function in each subunit. We have identified and partially characterized three members of this family named TbVCL1, TbVCL2 and TbVCL3 in Trypanosoma brucei. Among the human CLC family members, the T. brucei proteins display highest similarity to CLC-6 and CLC-7. TbVCL1, but not TbVCL2 and TbVCL3 is able to complement growth of a CLC-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant. All TbVCL-HA fusion proteins localize intracellulary in procyclic form trypanosomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244744/a-carbon-dioxide-limitation-inducible-protein-cola-supports-the-growth-of-synechococcus-sp-pcc-7002
#2
Ginga Shimakawa, Satoru Watanabe, Chikahiro Miyake
A limitation in carbon dioxide (CO₂), which occurs as a result of natural environmental variation, suppresses photosynthesis and has the potential to cause photo-oxidative damage to photosynthetic cells. Oxygenic phototrophs have strategies to alleviate photo-oxidative damage to allow life in present atmospheric CO₂ conditions. However, the mechanisms for CO₂ limitation acclimation are diverse among the various oxygenic phototrophs, and many mechanisms remain to be discovered. In this study, we found that the gene encoding a CO₂ limitation-inducible protein, ColA, is required for the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp...
December 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244083/nucleomethylin-deficiency-impairs-embryonic-erythropoiesis
#3
Shohei Murakami, Takuma Suzuki, Wataru Yokoyama, Satoko Yagi, Keita Matsumura, Yuka Nakajima, Hideo Harigae, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Hozumi Motohashi
Nucleomethylin (NML) has been shown to contribute to ribosome formation through regulating transcription and post-transcriptional modification of rRNA. Based on the observation that NML-/- mice are frequently embryonic lethal, we analyzed NML-/- embryos to clarify the role of NML in embryogenesis. We found that NML deficiency leads to lethality at the time point between E10.5 and E12.5. Most of E10.5 NML-/- embryos exhibited growth retardation and/or malformation with marked impairment of erythropoiesis. Consistent with a previous study, the m1A in 28S rRNA was dramatically reduced in NML-/- fetal liver cells...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243839/correlation-of-vitamin-d-and-vitamin-d-receptor-expression-in-patients-with-alopecia-areata-a-clinical-paradigm
#4
Manju Daroach, Tarun Narang, Uma N Saikia, Naresh Sachdeva, Muthu Sendhil Kumaran
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (Vit.D) deficiency has been reported in alopecia areata (AA). Downregulation of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) on hair follicles is associated with reduced hair growth. OBJECTIVE: To correlate serum Vit.D levels with severity, pattern, and duration of AA, and density of VDR expression over hair follicles in AA patients. METHODS: Prospective study including 30 AA patients and 30 healthy controls. Clinical details and serum Vit...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242607/the-impact-of-stromal-hic-5-on-the-tumorigenesis-of-colorectal-cancer-through-lysyl-oxidase-induction-and-stromal-remodeling
#5
Tomokatsu Omoto, Joo-Ri Kim-Kaneyama, Xiao-Feng Lei, Akira Orimo, Koji Ohnishi, Kosuke Yoshihara, Aya Miyauchi, Shuo Li, Lin Gao, Takahiro Umemoto, Junichi Tanaka, Kenta Nakahara, Motohiro Takeya, Fumio Ishida, Shin-Ei Kudo, Shogo Haraguchi, Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) influence tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis within the tumor-associated stroma. This suggests that CAFs would be a potential target for tumor therapy. Here we found that Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone-5 (Hic-5), also named transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein (Tgfb1i1), was strongly induced in CAFs found in human colorectal cancer. To investigate the role of Hic-5 in CAFs, we isolated CAFs and the control counterpart normal fibroblasts (NFs) from human colorectal cancer and non-cancerous regions, respectively...
December 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242356/pre-treatment-growth-and-igf-i-deficiency-as-main-predictors-of-response-to-growth-hormone-therapy-in-neural-models
#6
Urszula Smyczynska, Joanna Smyczynska, Maciej Hilczer, Renata Stawerska, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, Andrzej Lewinski
Mathematical models have been applied in prediction of growth hormone treatment effectiveness in children since the end of 1990s. Usually they were multiple linear regression models, however there are also examples derived by empirical non-linear methods. Proposed solution consists in application of machine learning technique - artificial neural networks - to analyse this problem. This new methodology, contrary to previous ones, allows detection of both linear and non-linear dependencies without assuming their character a priori...
December 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242050/mutant-fgfr3-associated-with-saddan-disease-causes-cytoskeleton-disorganization-through-plc%C3%AE-1-src-mediated-paxillin-hyperphosphorylation
#7
R Montone, M G Romanelli, A Baruzzi, F Ferrarini, E Liboi, P M-J Lievens
K650M/E substitutions in the Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) are associated with Severe Achondroplasia with Developmental Delay and Acanthosis Nigricans (SADDAN) and Thanatophoric Dysplasia type II (TDII), respectively. Both SADDAN and TDII present with affected endochondral ossification marked by impaired chondrocyte functions and growth plate disorganization. In vitro, K650M/E substitutions confer FGFR3 constitutive kinase activity leading to impaired biosynthesis and accumulation of immature receptors in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241543/ppgpp-controls-global-gene-expression-in-light-and-in-darkness-in-s-%C3%A2-elongatus
#8
Anna M Puszynska, Erin K O'Shea
The bacterial and plant stringent response involves production of the signaling molecules guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate ((p)ppGpp), leading to global reorganization of gene expression. The function of the stringent response has been well characterized in stress conditions, but its regulatory role during unstressed growth is less studied. Here, we demonstrate that (p)ppGpp-deficient strains of S. elongatus have globally deregulated biosynthetic capacity, with increased transcription rate, translation rate, and cell size in unstressed conditions in light and impaired viability in darkness...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240953/influence-of-excess-branched-chain-amino-acid-uptake-by-streptococcus-mutans-in-human-host-cells
#9
Takafumi Arimoto, Rei Yambe, Hirobumi Morisaki, Haruka Umezawa, Hideo Kataoka, Shohei Matsui, Hirotaka Kuwata
Oral streptococci, including cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans, comprise a large percentage of human supragingival plaque, which contacts both tooth surfaces and gingiva. Eukaryotic cells are able to take up macromolecules and particles, including bacteria, by endocytosis. Increasing evidence indicates endocytosis may be used as an entry process by bacteria. We hypothesized some endocytosed bacteria might survive and obtain nutrients, such as amino acids, until they are killed. To verify this hypothesis, we focused on bacterial utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) in host cells...
December 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240677/amniotic-fluid-arginine-from-gestational-weeks-13-to-15-is-a-predictor-of-birth-weight-length-and-head-circumference
#10
Astrid Bjørke-Jenssen, Per Magne Ueland, Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen
Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference...
December 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240123/detecting-crop-population-growth-using-chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging
#11
Heng Wang, Xiangjie Qian, Lan Zhang, Sailong Xu, Haifeng Li, Xiaojian Xia, Liankui Dai, Liang Xu, Jingquan Yu, Xu Liu
For both field and greenhouse crops, it is challenging to evaluate their growth information on a large area over a long time. In this work, we developed a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging-based system for crop population growth information detection. Modular design was used to make the system provide high-intensity uniform illumination. This system can perform modulated chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics measurement and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter imaging over a large area of up to 45  cm×34  cm...
December 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239034/succinate-dehydrogenase-sdh-deficient-neoplasia
#12
REVIEW
Anthony J Gill
The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is a key respiratory enzyme composed of four subunits: SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Remarkably, immunohistochemistry for SDHB becomes negative whenever there is bi-alleic inactivation of any component of SDH, which is very rare in the absence of syndromic disease. Therefore, loss of SDHB immunohistochemistry serves as a marker of syndromic disease, usually germline mutation of one of the SDH subunits. Tumours which show loss of SDHB expression are termed succinate dehydrogenase-deficient...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238041/foxo1-is-a-regulator-of-mhc-ii-expression-and-anti-tumor-effect-of-tumor-associated-macrophages
#13
Jing-Bo Yang, Zhi-Bin Zhao, Qing-Zhi Liu, Tai-Dou Hu, Jie Long, Kai Yan, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Macrophages are a critical component in host immune responses against tumor. In this work we investigated the role of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) in the transcriptional regulation in macrophages, which affects the anti-tumor functions of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). First, we showed that TAMs expressed reduced levels of FoxO1, which was associated with their protumoral M2 polarization state. The suppression of FoxO1 expression in TAM was induced by the hypoxic condition in the tumor microenviroment. Next, we confirmed that FoxO1 positively regulates MHC-II genes by binding to the promoter region of Ciita gene, the master activator of multiple MHC-II genes...
December 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237839/upon-infection-the-cellular-wd-repeat-containing-protein-5-wdr5-localizes-to-cytoplasmic-inclusion-bodies-and-enhances-measles-virus-replication
#14
Dzwokai Ma, Cyril X George, Jason Nomburg, Christian K Pfaller, Roberto Cattaneo, Charles E Samuel
Replication of negative-strand RNA viruses occurs in association with discrete cytoplasmic foci called inclusion bodies. Whereas inclusion bodies represent a prominent subcellular structure induced by viral infection, our knowledge of the cellular protein components involved in inclusion body formation and function is limited. Using measles virus-infected HeLa cells, we found that the WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a subunit of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases, was selectively recruited to virus-induced inclusion bodies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236063/recent-advances-in-the-role-of-slc39a-zip-zinc-transporters-in-vivo
#15
REVIEW
Teruhisa Takagishi, Takafumi Hara, Toshiyuki Fukada
Zinc (Zn), which is an essential trace element, is involved in numerous mammalian physiological events; therefore, either a deficiency or excess of Zn impairs cellular machineries and influences physiological events, such as systemic growth, bone homeostasis, skin formation, immune responses, endocrine function, and neuronal function. Zn transporters are thought to mainly contribute to Zn homeostasis within cells and in the whole body. Recent genetic, cellular, and molecular studies of Zn transporters highlight the dynamic role of Zn as a signaling mediator linking several cellular events and signaling pathways...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234580/laser-assisted-fabrication-of-gold-nanoparticle-composed-structures-embedded-in-borosilicate-glass
#16
Nikolay Nedyalkov, Mihaela Koleva, Nadya Stankova, Rosen Nikov, Mitsuhiro Terakawa, Yasutaka Nakajima, Lyubomir Aleksandrov, Reni Iordanova
We present results on laser-assisted formation of two- and three-dimensional structures comprised of gold nanoparticles in glass. The sample material was gold-ion-doped borosilicate glass prepared by conventional melt quenching. The nanoparticle growth technique consisted of two steps - laser-induced defect formation and annealing. The first step was realized by irradiating the glass by nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses over a wide range of fluences and number of applied pulses. The irradiation by nanosecond laser pulses (emitted by a Nd:YAG laser system) induced defect formation, expressed by brown coloration of the glass sample, only at a wavelength of 266 nm...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234490/geminin-deficiency-enhances-survival-in-a-murine-medulloblastoma-model-by-inducing-apoptosis-of-preneoplastic-granule-neuron-precursors
#17
Savita Sankar, Ethan Patterson, Emily M Lewis, Laura E Waller, Caili Tong, Joshua Dearborn, David Wozniak, Joshua B Rubin, Kristen L Kroll
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain cancer of childhood. Further understanding of tumorigenic mechanisms may define new therapeutic targets. Geminin maintains genome fidelity by controlling re-initiation of DNA replication within a cell cycle. In some contexts, Geminin inhibition induces cancer-selective cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and/or sensitizes cancer cells to Topoisomerase IIα inhibitors such as etoposide, which is used in combination chemotherapies for medulloblastoma. However, Geminin's potential role in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis remained undefined...
September 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234342/melatonin-is-involved-in-regulation-of-bermudagrass-growth-and-development-and-response-to-low-k-stress
#18
Liang Chen, Jibiao Fan, Zhengrong Hu, Xuebing Huang, Erick Amombo, Ao Liu, Aoyue Bi, Ke Chen, Yan Xie, Jinmin Fu
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays critical roles in plant growth and development and during the response to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the roles of melatonin in plant response to K+ deficiency remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed that the endogenous melatonin contents in bermudagrass were remarkably increased by low K+ (LK) treatment, suggesting that melatonin was involved in bermudagrass response to LK stress. Further phenotype analysis revealed that exogenous melatonin application conferred Bermudagrass enhanced tolerance to LK stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234196/glycochenodeoxycholic-acid-does-not-increase-transforming-growth-factor-beta-expression-in-bile-duct-epithelial-cells-or-collagen-synthesis-in-myofibroblasts
#19
Anna Wang, Dorothy Yu, Yuewen Gong, Jessie Garber, Gerald Y Minuk
Background/Aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive hepatobiliary disorder characterized by extensive fibrosis and stricturing of the intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile ducts: Previous studies have documented low phosphatylcholine (PC) concentrations in PSC bile. The aim of this study was to determine whether low PC levels in bile facilitate toxic bile acid induced injury of biliary tract epithelial cells resulting in enhanced transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) expression and increased collagen synthesis by myofibroblasts...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233962/lipoteichoic-acid-deficiency-permits-normal-growth-but-impairs-virulence-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#20
Nathalie Heß, Franziska Waldow, Thomas P Kohler, Manfred Rohde, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Torsten Hain, Dominik Schwudke, Waldemar Vollmer, Sven Hammerschmidt, Nicolas Gisch
Teichoic acid (TA), a crucial cell wall constituent of the pathobiont Streptococcus pneumoniae, is bound to peptidoglycan (wall teichoic acid, WTA) or to membrane glycolipids (lipoteichoic acid, LTA). Both TA polymers share a common precursor synthesis pathway, but differ in the final transfer of the TA chain to either peptidoglycan or a glycolipid. Here, we show that LTA exhibits a different linkage conformation compared to WTA, and identify TacL (previously known as RafX) as a putative lipoteichoic acid ligase required for LTA assembly...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
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