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A A Salifu, C Lekakou, F Labeed
Multilayer cellular stacks of crosslinked, electrospun 25 wt% hydroxyapatite (HA)-gelatin and pure gelatin fiber scaffolds, seeded with human foetal osteoblasts (hFOBs), were studied for up to 18 days in static and dynamic cell culture. Two types of stack models were investigated: a four-layer stack with cells seeded at the bottom surface of the first/top layer and the top surface of the fourth/bottom layer, so that the two middle layers were not seeded with cells with the aim to act as continuing conduits of culture medium and nutrients supply to the adjacent cell-populated zones; a three-layer stack with cells seeded at the bottom surface of each layer...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Cherif Akladios, Jean-Jacques Baldauf, Frederic Marchal, Michel Hummel, Laure-Emilie Rebstock, Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz, Thierry Petit, Karolina Afors, Carole Mathelin, Lise Lecointre, Stéphanie Schrot-Sanyan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the overall survival (OS) of patients with initially inoperable advanced ovarian cancer, tubal carcinoma, or primary peritoneal carcinoma of stages III or IV undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by cytoreductive surgery, according to the number of cycles performed. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in three main oncology centres in the east of France, reviewing the charts of all patients who underwent NAC between January 1, 1998 and October 31, 2012...
October 27, 2016: Oncology
Tsung-Yan Chen, Ting-Tse Lin, Mu-Yang Hsieh, Lin Lin, Chung-Wei Yang, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chih-Cheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) thrombosis is a relevant cause of morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been identified as a surrogate marker for vascular repair and health. Deficiency of EPCs has been demonstrated in dialysis patients to be associated with vascular events. Nonetheless, their role in thrombosis of AVFs remains unknown. METHODS: From January 2010 to May 2013, 147 HD patients with dysfunctional AVFs were enrolled...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Xin Zhou, Dewu Han, Ruiling Xu, Huiwen Wu, Chongxiao Qu, Feng Wang, Xiangyu Wang, Yuanchang Zhao
We set out to explore the hypothesis that glycine attenuates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rats and the possible mechanism by which is it does. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a diet containing high fat and high sucrose (HSHF) for 24 weeks to induce NASH. Blood and liver tissues were sampled at selected time points throughout the study. Compared with control animals, the content of alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma and the TG and FFA content in the liver was increased from week 4 to 24...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Ying Xiong, Li Liu, Jiajun Wang, Wei Xi, Yu Xia, Qi Bai, Yang Qu, Qilai Long, Jiejie Xu, Jianming Guo
BACKGROUND: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21), a ligand of the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7, has recently been identified as an immuno-based anti-cancer molecule for its dendritic cells and T lymphocytes chemoattractant function. The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic values of CCL21 expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with targeted therapy. METHODS: This study included 111 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving targeted therapy...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiangji Luo, Weidong Jia, Zhiyong Huang, Xiangcheng Li, Baocai Xing, Xiaoqing Jiang, Jun Li, Anfeng Si, Tian Yang, Chunfang Gao, Wan Yee Lau, Feng Shen
Patients with unresectable and advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) usually have short survival due to a lack of effective treatment. This multicenter, single arm, open labeled, prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of sorafenib combined with best supportive care (BSC) in these patients. We enrolled 44 patients with unresectable and advanced ICC who were treated with sorafenib (400 mg, twice daily) and BSC. The primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR) at week 12, and the secondary endpoints included time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), duration of therapy (DOT), and adverse events (AEs)...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Anke M Klein, Rianne van Niekerk, Giovanni Ten Brink, Ronald M Rapee, Jennifer L Hudson, Susan M Bögels, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories suggest that cognitive biases may be related and together influence the anxiety response. However, little is known about the interrelations of cognitive bias tasks and whether they allow for an improved prediction of fear-related behavior in addition to self-reports. This study simultaneously addressed several types of cognitive biases in children, to investigate attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias and fear-related associations, their interrelations and the prediction of behavior...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Joseph O Okeme, Eva M Webster, J Mark Parnis, Miriam L Diamond
Partition coefficients between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPUF-Air) are important when using PUF as a passive air sampler for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and when considering the fate of SVOCs indoors where PUF is a common material. Here, KPUF-Air for selected SVOCs was estimated using published methods, since measured data are unavailable for most of these compounds. Estimates of KPUF-Air were within one order of magnitude for SVOCs having values of log octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) of 5, but differed by nearly three orders of magnitude for SVOCs with log KOA of 12...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Michael C Gundry, Lorenzo Brunetti, Angelique Lin, Allison E Mayle, Ayumi Kitano, Dimitrios Wagner, Joanne I Hsu, Kevin A Hoegenauer, Cliona M Rooney, Margaret A Goodell, Daisuke Nakada
Our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) has been advanced by the ability to genetically manipulate mice; however, germline modification is time consuming and expensive. Here, we describe fast, efficient, and cost-effective methods to directly modify the genomes of mouse and human HSPCs using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Using plasmid and virus-free delivery of guide RNAs alone into Cas9-expressing HSPCs or Cas9-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes into wild-type cells, we have achieved extremely efficient gene disruption in primary HSPCs from mouse (>60%) and human (∼75%)...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Kathia Sandoval, Yan Ding, Piero Gardinali
Comprehensive characterization of exposure media used in toxicology studies is still an area of significant divergence when evaluating potential oil spill impacts. When preparing exposure media used for toxicology testing, small variations in simple parameters such as mixing energy, oil type and loading can significantly affect the concentration of the oil components to which test organisms are exposed. The key goal of this study was compare and contrast the physical and chemical compositions of oil water mixtures prepared using fresh and weathered Macondo-related oils under different conditions of mixing and in the presence/absence of chemical dispersants...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sangyun Lee, Heather B Mayes, Jessica M J Swanson, Gregory A Voth
The ClC family of transmembrane proteins functions throughout nature to control the transport of Cl- ions across biological membranes. ClC-ec1 from Escherichia coli is an antiporter, coupling the transport of Cl- and H+ ions in opposite directions and driven by the concentration gradients of the ions. Despite keen interest in this protein, the molecular mechanism of the Cl-/H+ coupling has not been fully elucidated. Here, we have used multiscale simulation to help identify the essential mechanism of the Cl-/H+ coupling...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Nilesh Chande, Cassandra M Townsend, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The results from controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of active Crohn's disease have been conflicting and controversial. An updated meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of these drugs for the induction of remission in active Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for induction of remission in active Crohn's disease...
October 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Georgios N Panagopoulos, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Peripheral nerve injury can have a potentially devastating impact on a patient's quality of life, resulting in severe disability with substantial social and personal cost. Refined microsurgical techniques, advances in peripheral nerve topography, and a better understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular basis of nerve injury have all led to a decisive leap forward in the field of translational neurophysiology. Nerve repair, nerve grafting, and nerve transfers have improved significantly with consistently better functional outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
Katharine Kripke, Jason Reed, Catherine Hankins, Gregory Smiley, Catey Laube, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: The report of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for World AIDS Day 2014 highlighted a Fast-Track Strategy that sets ambitious treatment and prevention targets to reduce global HIV incidence to manageable levels by 2020 and end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The 90-90-90 treatment targets for 2020 call for 90% of people living with HIV to know their HIV status, 90% of people who know their status to receive treatment, and 90% of people on HIV treatment to be virally suppressed...
2016: PloS One
Xanthi D Andrianou, Stephanie Gängler, Andra Piciu, Pantelis Charisiadis, Christina Zira, Kyriacos Aristidou, Doina Piciu, Russ Hauser, Konstantinos C Makris
Although the increasing prevalence of thyroid nodular disease (TND) has been partially attributed to the more frequent usage of improved diagnostics, environmental factors, such as exposures to thyroid-disrupting chemicals may contribute to TND and altered thyroid function. We investigated the association between exposures to bisphenol A (BPA), its chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA), and bisphenol F (BPF) with TND and thyroid measures in adult women. A case-control study in Cyprus and Romania (n = 212) was conducted, where cases were those with thyroid nodules (diameter >3mm), and controls without nodules...
2016: PloS One
Frank M J Sommerlandt, Johannes Spaethe, Wolfgang Rössler, Adrian G Dyer
Honeybees learn color information of rewarding flowers and recall these memories in future decisions. For fine color discrimination, bees require differential conditioning with a concurrent presentation of target and distractor stimuli to form a long-term memory. Here we investigated whether the long-term storage of color information shapes the neural network of microglomeruli in the mushroom body calyces and if this depends on the type of conditioning. Free-flying honeybees were individually trained to a pair of perceptually similar colors in either absolute conditioning towards one of the colors or in differential conditioning with both colors...
2016: PloS One
Michel Tchuenche, Vibhuti Haté, Dacia McPherson, Eurica Palmer, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Steven Forsythe
In 2010, South Africa launched a countrywide effort to scale up its voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program on the basis of compelling evidence that circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual intercourse. Even though VMMC is free there, clients can incur indirect out-of-pocket costs (for example transportation cost or foregone income). Because these costs can be barriers to increasing the uptake of VMMC services, we assessed them from a client perspective, to inform VMMC demand creation policies...
2016: PloS One
Aurelie Thomas, Amy Miller, Johnny Roughan, Aneesa Malik, Katherine Haylor, Charlotte Sandersen, Paul Flecknell, Matthew Leach
Concerns over interactions between analgesics and experimental outcomes are a major reason for withholding opioids from rats undergoing surgical procedures. Only a fraction of morphine injected intravenously reaches receptors responsible for analgesia in the central nervous system. Intrathecal administration of morphine may represent a way to provide rats with analgesia while minimizing the amount of morphine injected. This study aimed to assess whether morphine injected intrathecally via direct lumbar puncture provides sufficient analgesia to rats exposed to acute surgical pain (caudal laparotomy)...
2016: PloS One
Ji-Jin Yao, Guan-Qun Zhou, Fan Zhang, Wang-Jian Zhang, Li Lin, Ling-Long Tang, Yan-Ping Mao, Jun Ma, Ying Sun
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of patients with ascending type (T4&N0-1) and descending type (T1-2&N3) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) + intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT) or NACT + CCRT. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 839 patients with ascending or descending types of NPC treated at a single institution between October 2009 to February 2012. CCRT was delivered to 236 patients, NACT + RT to 302 patients, and NACT + CCRT to 301 patients...
2016: PloS One
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