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learning Radiology

Simon Kocbek, Lawrence Cavedon, David Martinez, Christopher Bain, Chris Mac Manus, Gholamreza Haffari, Ingrid Zukerman, Karin Verspoor
OBJECTIVE: Text and data mining play an important role in obtaining insights from Health and Hospital Information Systems. This paper presents a text mining system for detecting admissions marked as positive for several diseases: Lung Cancer, Breast Cancer, Colon Cancer, Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Respiratory and Digestive Organs, Multiple Myeloma and Malignant Plasma Cell Neoplasms, Pneumonia, and Pulmonary Embolism. We specifically examine the effect of linking multiple data sources on text classification performance...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
David J Keene, Dipesh Mistry, Julian Nam, Elizabeth Tutton, Robert Handley, Lesley Morgan, Emma Roberts, Bridget Gray, Andrew Briggs, Ranjit Lall, Tim Js Chesser, Ian Pallister, Sarah E Lamb, Keith Willett
BACKGROUND: Close contact casting (CCC) may offer an alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery for unstable ankle fractures in older adults. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (1) determine if CCC for unstable ankle fractures in adults aged over 60 years resulted in equivalent clinical outcome compared with ORIF, (2) estimate cost-effectiveness to the NHS and society and (3) explore participant experiences. DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic evaluation and qualitative study...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Alvin Rajkomar, Sneha Lingam, Andrew G Taylor, Michael Blum, John Mongan
The study aimed to determine if computer vision techniques rooted in deep learning can use a small set of radiographs to perform clinically relevant image classification with high fidelity. One thousand eight hundred eighty-five chest radiographs on 909 patients obtained between January 2013 and July 2015 at our institution were retrieved and anonymized. The source images were manually annotated as frontal or lateral and randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets. Training and validation sets were augmented to over 150,000 images using standard image manipulations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Wen-Wai Yim, Sharon W Kwan, Meliha Yetisgen
BACKGROUND: Anaphoric references occur ubiquitously in clinical narrative text. However, the problem, still very much an open challenge, is typically less aggressively focused on in clinical text domain applications. Furthermore, existing research on reference resolution is often conducted disjointly from real-world motivating tasks. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we present our machine-learning system that automatically performs reference resolution and a rule-based system to extract tumor characteristics, with component-based and end-to-end evaluations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
M Hayakawa
In Fukushima Prefecture, disaster-related death is a social problem for individuals who were forced to leave their hometowns as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Disaster-related death is caused by stress, exhaustion, and worsening of pre-existing illnesses due to evacuation. The number of disaster-related deaths has reached almost 2000, and continues to rise. Prolonged uncertainty and deteriorating living conditions suggest no end to such deaths, although response measures have been taken to improve the situation...
October 4, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
Fintan J McEvoy, Nicholas W Shen, Dorte H Nielsen, Lene E Buelund, Peter Holm
Communicating radiological reports to peers has pedagogical value. Students may be uneasy with the process due to a lack of communication and peer review skills or to their failure to see value in the process. We describe a communication exercise with peer review in an undergraduate veterinary radiology course. The computer code used to manage the course and deliver images online is reported, and we provide links to the executable files. We tested to see if undergraduate peer review of radiological reports has validity and describe student impressions of the learning process...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
F Rollinger, J Lochard, T Schneider
Since November 2011, Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN) experts have participated in the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) dialogue initiative for the rehabilitation of living conditions after the Fukushima accident. In 2013, IRSN and Centre d'étude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucléaire (CEPN) launched a study to identify the main lessons that can be learned from these dialogues, and benefit French IRSN experts in the event of a postaccident situation...
October 3, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Ankur M Doshi, Luke A Ginocchio, Yindalon Aphinyanaphongs
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the performance of a text classification machine-learning model in predicting highly cited articles within the recent radiological literature and to identify the model's most influential article features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We downloaded from PubMed the title, abstract, and medical subject heading terms for 10,065 articles published in 25 general radiology journals in 2012 and 2013. Three machine-learning models were applied to predict the top 10% of included articles in terms of the number of citations to the article in 2014 (reflecting the 2-year time window in conventional impact factor calculations)...
September 27, 2016: Academic Radiology
Antonio Pinna, Maria Laura Cossu, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Giorgio Carlo Ginesu, Alessandro Fancellu, Alberto Porcu
AIM: The aim of this case series is to describe the pathophysiological, clinical, and radiological features of Spigelian hernias, and to describe their modern surgical management. MATERIAL OF STUDY: We describe the clinical management of four cases of Spigelian hernias, and we discuss the main issues and controversies in the current scientific literature. RESULTS: In all the cases the clinical suspect arouses during the clinical examination of the patients, and it was confirmed through imaging techniques...
2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
David B Larson, Lane F Donnelly, Daniel J Podberesky, Arnold C Merrow, Richard E Sharpe, Jonathan B Kruskal
In September 2015, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published a report titled "Improving Diagnosis in Health Care," in which it was recommended that "health care organizations should adopt policies and practices that promote a nonpunitive culture that values open discussion and feedback on diagnostic performance." It may seem counterintuitive that a report addressing a highly technical skill such as medical diagnosis would be focused on organizational culture. The wisdom becomes clearer, however, when examined in the light of recent advances in the understanding of human error and individual and organizational performance...
September 27, 2016: Radiology
Aruna Ramesh, Rumpa Ganguly
PURPOSE: The use of electronic tools in teaching is growing rapidly in all fields, and there are many options to choose from. We present one such platform, Learning Catalytics™ (LC) (Pearson, New York, NY, USA), which we utilized in our oral and maxillofacial radiology course for second-year dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of our study was to assess the correlation between students' performance on course exams and self-assessment LC quizzes. The performance of 354 predoctoral dental students from 2 consecutive classes on the course exams and LC quizzes was assessed to identify correlations using the Spearman rank correlation test...
September 2016: Imaging Science in Dentistry
Ying Liu, Yoganand Balagurunathan, Thomas Atwater, Sanja Antic, Qian Li, Ronald C Walker, Gary Smith, Pierre P Massion, Matthew B Schabath, Robert J Gillies
PURPOSE: We propose a systematic methodology to quantify incidentally identified pulmonary nodules based on observed radiological traits (semantics) quantified on a point scale and a machine learning method using these data to predict cancer status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 172 patients who had low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) images, with 102 and 70 patients grouped into training and validation cohorts, respectively. On the images, 24 radiological traits were systematically scored and a linear classifier was built to relate the traits to malignant status...
September 23, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
T Lazo
Between September 2011 and August 2015, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) organised a series of 12 stakeholder dialogue workshops with residents of Fukushima Prefecture. Discussions focused on recovery, addressing topics such as protection of children, management of contaminated food, monitoring, and self-help measures. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) supported, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) Secretariat attended, all 12 meetings to listen directly to the concerns of affected individuals and draw lessons for CRPPH...
September 20, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
Alberto Stefano Tagliafico
Peripheral nerve imaging is recognized as a complement to clinical and neurophysiological assessment in the evaluation of peripheral nerves with the ability to impact patient management, even for small and difficult nerves. The European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology, suggest to use ultrasound (US) for nerve evaluation due to the fact that, in sever anatomical area, magnetic resonance imaging is not able to give additional informations. US could be considered the first-choice approach for the assessment of peripheral nerves...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Marc H Willis, L Alexandre Frigini, Jay Lin, David M Wynne, Karla A Sepulveda
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We have been called to reform radiology undergraduate medical education (UME) curricula. Clinically available clinical decision support provides an opportunity to improve education regarding appropriate imaging utilization, patient safety, and cost-effective care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We created an education simulation portal utilizing integrated clinical decision support. The portal was then piloted with 34 volunteer medical students at our institution in a blended learning environment...
October 2016: Academic Radiology
Takayoshi Terashita, Naomi Tamura, Kengo Kisa, Hidenobu Kawabata, Katsuhiko Ogasawara
BACKGROUND: Knowledge and skill expected of healthcare providers continues to increase alongside developments in medicine and healthcare. Problem-based learning (PBL) is therefore increasingly necessary in training courses for radiological technologists. However, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of PBL to completely introduce it in our education programs. As a Hypothesis, it seems that a change occurs in the student's attitudes by participating in PBL practical training. There is the Semantic Differential (SeD) technique as a method to identify student's attitudes...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Michael V Kushdilian, Lauren M Ladd, Richard B Gunderman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In this article, we review the core principles of bone physiology alongside imaging examples that demonstrate such principles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The core principles of bone physiology are reviewed and further solidified with a corresponding abnormal pathophysiologic example. The key principles of bone physiology to be reviewed include the following: (1) formation and growth, (2) maintenance and repair, (3) metabolism and regulation, and (4) neoplastic disease...
October 2016: Academic Radiology
Glaucia Nize M Santos, André F Leite, Paulo T de S Figueiredo, Nara M Pimentel, Carlos Flores-Mir, Nilce S de Melo, Eliete N S Guerra, Graziela De Luca Canto
E-learning has been used recently in dental curricula to support traditional learning methods. However, the published literature concerning e-learning in oral radiology has shown mixed conclusions. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a synthesis of the effectiveness of e-learning in oral radiology education when compared with traditional classroom learning methods. A search of the literature was conducted on the LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Trials registries were also consulted for ongoing trials, and a partial grey literature search was conducted...
September 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Jesse Courtier, Emily M Webb, Andrew S Phelps, David M Naeger
BACKGROUND: Games with educational intent offer a possible advantage of being more interactive and increasing learner satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a two-armed experiment to evaluate student satisfaction and content mastery for an introductory pediatric radiology topic, taught by either an interactive digital game or with a traditional didactic lecture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical students participating in a fourth-year radiology elective were invited to participate...
August 31, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Wen-Wai Yim, Tyler Denman, Sharon W Kwan, Meliha Yetisgen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly disease affecting the liver for which there are many available therapies. Targeting treatments towards specific patient groups necessitates defining patients by stage of disease. Criteria for such stagings include information on tumor number, size, and anatomic location, typically only found in narrative clinical text in the electronic medical record (EMR). Natural language processing (NLP) offers an automatic and scale-able means to extract this information, which can further evidence-based research...
2016: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
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