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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011902/ecil-6-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-candidiasis-aspergillosis-and-mucormycosis-in-leukemia-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#1
Frederic Tissot, Samir Agrawal, Livio Pagano, Georgios Petrikkos, Andreas H Groll, Anna Skiada, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Thierry Calandra, Claudio Viscoli, Raoul Herbrecht
The European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL) provides recommendations for diagnostic strategies and prophylactic, pre-emptive or targeted therapy strategies for various types of infection in patients with hematological malignancies or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Meetings are held every two years since 2005 and evidence-based recommendations are elaborated after evaluation of the literature and discussion among specialists of nearly all European countries. In this manuscript, the ECIL group presents the 2015-update of the recommendations for the targeted treatment of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis...
December 23, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994804/microbial-profile-of-corneal-ulcers-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#2
Chittur Y Ranjini, Vishnu V Waddepally
PURPOSE: To identify the prevalence and microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a tertiary eye care hospital, and to test for the in vitro antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial isolates. METHODS: A total of 312 patients presenting to a tertiary eye care hospital with infected corneal ulcer were enrolled in this study. Their socio-demographic data and risk factors were recorded. Corneal scrapings collected from the edge of the ulcer were processed for direct gram stain and KOH mount...
October 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986720/erg4a-and-erg4b-are-required-for-conidiation-and-azole-resistance-via-regulation-of-ergosterol-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#3
Nanbiao Long, Xiaoling Xu, Qiuqiong Zeng, Hong Sang, Ling Lu
: Ergosterol, a fungus-specific sterol enriched in cell plasma membranes, is an effective antifungal drug target. However, current knowledge of the ergosterol biosynthesis process in the saprophytic human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus remains limited. In this study, we found that two endoplasmic reticulum-localized sterol C-24 reductases encoded by both erg4A and erg4B homologs are required to catalyze the reaction during the final step of ergosterol biosynthesis. Loss of one homolog of Erg4 induces the overexpression of the other one, accompanied by almost normal ergosterol synthesis and wild-type colony growth...
February 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986496/medical-diagnostics-for-indoor-mold-exposure
#4
REVIEW
Julia Hurraß, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Gerhard A Wiesmüller
In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910139/characterization-of-patients-with-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-according-to-the-new-escmid-ers-ecmm-and-idsa-guidelines
#5
Helmut J F Salzer, Jan Heyckendorf, Barbara Kalsdorf, Thierry Rolling, Christoph Lange
Recently, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) in cooperation with the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) published guidelines for the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Both guidelines, however, carry significant differences. We retrospectively applied the diagnostic recommendations on a patient cohort of 71 previously diagnosed CPA patients in order to compare both guidelines...
December 1, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880667/the-current-treatment-landscape-other-fungal-diseases-cryptococcosis-fusariosis-and-mucormycosis
#6
Olivier Lortholary, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, John R Perfect
Compared with major invasive mycoses such as aspergillosis and candidiasis, the antifungal stewardship management strategies of other fungal diseases have different opportunities and considerations. Cryptococcosis, fusariosis and mucormycosis are globally prevalent invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), but are not currently included in antifungal prophylaxis guidelines for immunocompromised hosts. Since the implementation of biomarkers as part of diagnostic screening strategies, the concept of pre-emptive antifungal therapy has emerged for these IFDs...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862370/comparative-evaluation-of-pan-fungal-real-time-pcr-galactomannan-and-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-for-invasive-fungal-infection-in-paediatric-cancer-patients
#7
Prashant Gupta, Abrar Ahmad, Vineeta Khare, Archana Kumar, Gopa Banerjee, Nitya Verma, Mastan Singh
Limited specific data and investigations are available for the diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infection (IFI) in paediatrics cancer patients. Three non-invasive tests; Platelia Aspergillus EIA for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BDG) assay and pan-fungal real-time PCR for fungal DNA in blood were evaluated. One hundred twenty-five paediatrics cancer patients at the high risk of IFI were enrolled. Single blood and serum samples were evaluated by all the three methods. Patients were classified into 10 proven, 52 probable and 63 no IFI cases in accordance with EORTC MSG 2008 revised guidelines...
November 16, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837510/genus-and-species-specific-pcr-detection-methods
#8
Jan Springer, Jürgen Löffler
PCR-based detection of fungal pathogens offers a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. A large variety of different clinical specimen types can be used as original material. However, certain precautions, in addition to the published MIQE guidelines [1], need to be taken to prevent contaminations from airborne fungal spores and PCR reagents. In addition, the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) recently defined standards for Aspergillus PCR [2, 3], following these recommendations leads to superior sensitivity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742099/species-diversity-of-aspergillus-section-versicolores-in-clinical-samples-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#9
João Paulo Zen Siqueira, Deanna A Sutton, Dania García, Josepa Gené, Pamela Thomson, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
Aspergillus section Versicolores includes species of clinical relevance and many others that have been poorly studied but are occasionally found in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a multilocus phylogenetic approach, the spectrum of species of the section Versicolores and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. The study was based on a set of 77 clinical isolates from different USA medical centres, which had been previously identified as belonging to this section...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619810/usage-of-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-for-early-detection-of-invasive-mycoses-and-outcome-parameter-in-immunocompromised-critically-ill-patients
#10
Tobias Lahmer, Jürgen Held, Sebastian Rasch, Christopher Schnappauf, Analena Beitz, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. METHODS: Examination of 1,3-β-D-glucan (BDG) for IFD and as outcome parameter in immunocompromised critically ill patients with septic shock. RESULTS: Thirty-two (69 %) out of 46 included patients had BDG beyond the cutoff of >80 pg/ml (mean 320 pg/ml). Twelve (37 %) had findings of Aspergillus spp. in BAL (mean BDG 413 pg/ml)...
December 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590695/generic-aspects-of-the-airborne-spread-of-human-pathogens-indoors-and-emerging-air-decontamination-technologies
#11
REVIEW
M Khalid Ijaz, Bahram Zargar, Kathryn E Wright, Joseph R Rubino, Syed A Sattar
Indoor air can be an important vehicle for a variety of human pathogens. This review provides examples of airborne transmission of infectious agents from experimental and field studies and discusses how airborne pathogens can contaminate other parts of the environment to give rise to secondary vehicles leading air-surface-air nexus with possible transmission to susceptible hosts. The following groups of human pathogens are covered because of their known or potential airborne spread: vegetative bacteria (staphylococci and legionellae), fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp and Stachybotrys chartarum), enteric viruses (noro- and rotaviruses), respiratory viruses (influenza and coronaviruses), mycobacteria (tuberculous and nontuberculous), and bacterial spore formers (Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis)...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589956/aspergillus-fumigatus-carrying-tr34-l98h-resistance-allele-causing-complicated-suppurative-otitis-media-in-tanzania-call-for-improved-diagnosis-of-fungi-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Martha F Mushi, Gustave Buname, Oliver Bader, Uwe Groß, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Suppurative otitis media (SOM) is a major public health concern worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity. Cases of fungal suppurative otitis media were studied to establish the effect of fungi in otitis media. METHODS: Ear swabs from 410 patients were collected aseptically using sterile cotton swabs from discharging ear through perforated tympanic membrane. Swabs were subjected to microscopic and culture investigations. The species of fungal growing on Sabouraud's agar were identified using MALDI-TOF MS...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562696/antifungal-susceptibilities-of-non-aspergillus-filamentous-fungi-causing-invasive-infection-in-australia-support-for-current-antifungal-guideline-recommendations
#13
Catriona L Halliday, Sharon C-A Chen, Sarah E Kidd, Sebastian van Hal, Belinda Chapman, Christopher H Heath, Andie Lee, Karina J Kennedy, Kathryn Daveson, Tania C Sorrell, C Orla Morrissey, Deborah J Marriott, Monica A Slavin
Antifungal susceptibilities of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungal pathogens cannot always be inferred from their identification. Here we determined, using the Sensititre(®) YeastOne(®) YO10 panel, the in vitro activities of nine antifungal agents against 52 clinical isolates of emergent non-Aspergillus moulds representing 17 fungal groups in Australia. Isolates comprised Mucorales (n = 14), Scedosporium/Lomentospora spp. (n = 18) and a range of hyaline hyphomycetes (n = 9) and other dematiaceous fungi (n = 11)...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494831/azole-resistance-surveillance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-beneficial-or-biased
#14
Paul E Verweij, Pieter P A Lestrade, Willem J G Melchers, Jacques F Meis
Azole resistance is a growing concern with Aspergillus fumigatus, and may cause increased mortality in patients with azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis (IA). Microbial surveillance has been recognized as a fundamental component of resistance management. Surveillance information may be used to inform decisions regarding health services and research funding allocation, to guide local infection control in hospitals and communities, and to direct local and national drug policies and guidelines. Azole resistance frequencies have been based on screening of unselected A...
August 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418867/in-vitro-antifungal-activities-against-moulds-isolated-from-dermatological-specimens
#15
Tzar Mohd Nizam, Rabiatul Adawiyah Ag Binting, Shafika Mohd Saari, Thivyananthini Vijaya Kumar, Marianayati Muhammad, Hartini Satim, Hamidah Yusoff, Jacinta Santhanam
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens. METHODS: We identified 29 moulds from dermatological specimens between October 2012 and March 2013 by conventional methods. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing on six antifungal agents, amphotericin B, clotrimazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and terbinafine, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines contained in the M38-A2 document...
May 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979736/pediatric-clinical-pharmacology-of-voriconazole-role-of-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-in-pharmacotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Rajendra S Kadam, Johannes N Van Den Anker
Voriconazole is a potent antifungal agent used for the treatment of invasive fungal infections caused by Aspergillus and Candida species in adult and pediatric patients. Voriconazole has a narrow therapeutic index and a large intra- and inter-individual pharmacokinetics (PK) variability. Several factors including non-linear PK, age, body weight, cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype, concomitant drugs, liver function, and food are responsible for the large variability in voriconazole PK. A combination of a narrow therapeutic index with a large PK variability results in treatment failure in many patients at clinically recommended doses...
September 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901377/common-invasive-fungal-diseases-an-overview-of-invasive-candidiasis-aspergillosis-cryptococcosis-and-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#17
REVIEW
Yvonne Schmiedel, Stephan Zimmerli
Every year, Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus and Pneumocystis infect an estimated two million individuals worldwide. Most are immunocompromised or critically ill. Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of the critically ill and of recipients of transplanted abdominal organs. In high-risk haemato-oncological patients, in contrast, the introduction of antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole and later with mould-active posaconazole has led to a remarkable reduction of invasive candidiasis and is likely to have a similar effect on invasive aspergillosis...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26699723/chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-rationale-and-clinical-guidelines-for-diagnosis-and-management
#18
David W Denning, Jacques Cadranel, Catherine Beigelman-Aubry, Florence Ader, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Stijn Blot, Andrew J Ullmann, George Dimopoulos, Christoph Lange
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is an uncommon and problematic pulmonary disease, complicating many other respiratory disorders, thought to affect ~240 000 people in Europe. The most common form of CPA is chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA), which untreated may progress to chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. Less common manifestations include: Aspergillus nodule and single aspergilloma. All these entities are found in non-immunocompromised patients with prior or current lung disease...
January 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643334/international-evaluation-of-mic-distributions-and-epidemiological-cutoff-value-ecv-definitions-for-fusarium-species-identified-by-molecular-methods-for-the-clsi-broth-microdilution-method
#19
A Espinel-Ingroff, A L Colombo, S Cordoba, P J Dufresne, J Fuller, M Ghannoum, G M Gonzalez, J Guarro, S E Kidd, J F Meis, T M S C Melhem, T Pelaez, M A Pfaller, M W Szeszs, J P Takahaschi, A M Tortorano, N P Wiederhold, J Turnidge
The CLSI epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of antifungal agents are available for various Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and the Mucorales. However, those categorical endpoints have not been established for Fusarium spp., mostly due to the difficulties associated with collecting sufficient CLSI MICs for clinical isolates identified according to the currently recommended molecular DNA-PCR-based identification methodologies. CLSI MIC distributions were established for 53 Fusarium dimerum species complex (SC), 10 F...
February 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26372838/voriconazole-exposure-and-risk-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-aspergillus-colonization-invasive-aspergillosis-and-death-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#20
M Mansh, M Binstock, K Williams, F Hafeez, J Kim, D Glidden, R Boettger, S Hays, J Kukreja, J Golden, M M Asgari, P Chin-Hong, J P Singer, S T Arron
Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal used to prevent and treat invasive fungal infections after lung transplantation, but it has been associated with an increased risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Despite widespread use, there are no clear guidelines for optimal prophylactic regimens that balance the competing risks and benefits. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all lung transplant recipients at the University of California, San Francisco, who were transplanted between October 1991 and December 2012 (n = 455) to investigate whether voriconazole exposure affected development of SCC, Aspergillus colonization, invasive aspergillosis and all-cause mortality...
January 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
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