Read by QxMD icon Read

Complexity theory

Oscar L Olvera Astivia, Barry Forer, Gwenden L Dueker, Candace Cowling, Martin Guhn
BACKGROUND: Very little research exists that looks at the Ages and Stages Questionnaire simultaneously from a modern latent variable point of view and by looking at its psychometric properties over time. AIMS: To explore the latent factor structure of the ASQ using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling techniques for ordinal data and investigate its change over time using the method of vertical scaling from multidimensional Item Response Theory. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal, with the same children being assessed at multiple timepoints...
October 16, 2017: Early Human Development
Terry Z H Gani, Heather J Kulik
Accurate predictions of spin-state ordering, reaction energetics and barrier heights are critical for the computational discovery of open-shell transition metal (TM) catalysts. Semilocal approximations in density functional theory, such as the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), suffer from delocalization error that causes them to overstabilize strongly bonded states. Descriptions of energetics and bonding are often improved by introducing a fraction of exact exchange (e.g., erroneous low-spin GGA ground states instead correctly predicted as high-spin with a hybrid functional)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Han-Chung Huang, Gen-Yih Liao, Kay-Ling Chiu, Ching-I Teng
Online games can frustrate their gamers, but little was known about how such frustration impacts gamer loyalty. Because novice and experienced gamers may respond differently to frustration, this study investigates how gamers' frustration influences their loyalty and how this influence may differ between novice and experienced gamers. Because of the complexity of this issue, multiple theories were synthesized to develop the theoretical model. This study collected responses from 558 online gamers. Findings indicate that frustration is positively related to novice gamers' participation in task teams, and subsequently their loyalty...
October 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Grainne H Kirwan, Chris Fullwood, Brendan Rooney
Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques...
October 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Ellen W Yeung, Jason G Craggs, Ian R Gizer
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly comorbid with chronic pain (CP). Evidence has suggested that neuroadaptive processes characterized by reward deficit and stress surfeit are involved in the development of AUD and pain chronification. Neurological data suggest that shared genetic architecture associated with the reward and stress systems may contribute to the comorbidity of AUD and CP. This monograph first delineates the prevailing theories of the development of AUD and pain chronification focusing on the reward and stress systems...
October 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Linda-Lucila Landeros-Martinez, Daniel Glossman-Mitnik, Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda, Norma Flores-Holguín
The use of nanodiamonds as anticancer drug delivery vehicles has received much attention in recent years. In this theoretical paper, we propose using different esterification methods for nanodiamonds. The monomers proposed are 2-hydroxypropanal, polyethylene glycol, and polyglicolic acid. Specifically, the hydrogen bonds, infrared (IR) spectra, molecular polar surface area, and reactivity parameters are analyzed. The monomers proposed for use in esterification follow Lipinski's rule of five, meaning permeability is good, they have good permeation, and their bioactivity is high...
October 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Michelle McDowell, Perke Jacobs
The natural frequency facilitation effect describes the finding that people are better able to solve descriptive Bayesian inference tasks when represented as joint frequencies obtained through natural sampling, known as natural frequencies, than as conditional probabilities. The present meta-analysis reviews 20 years of research seeking to address when, why, and for whom natural frequency formats are most effective. We review contributions from research associated with the 2 dominant theoretical perspectives, the ecological rationality framework and nested-sets theory, and test potential moderators of the effect...
October 19, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
Chengshuai Li, Yizheng Zhu
Parameter estimation, especially frequency estimation, from noisy observations of interference is essential in optical interferometric sensing and metrology. The Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) of such estimation determines measurement sensitivity limit. Unlike the well-studied complex sinusoids in communication theory, an optical interference signal is distinctly different in its model parameters and noise statistics. The connection between these parameters and their estimation bounds has not been well understood. Here we propose a complete, realistic multiparameter interference model corrupted by a combination of shot noise, dark noise, and readout noise...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Zefenfen Jin, Zhiqiang Hou, Wangsheng Yu, Chuanhua Chen, Xin Wang
It is difficult for a single-feature tracking algorithm to achieve strong robustness under a complex environment. To solve this problem, we proposed a multifeature fusion tracking algorithm that is based on game theory. By focusing on color and texture features as two gamers, this algorithm accomplishes tracking by using a mean shift iterative formula to search for the Nash equilibrium of the game. The contribution of different features is always keeping the state of optical balance, so that the algorithm can fully take advantage of feature fusion...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Nisha Yadav, Garima Bhardwaj, S G Anjum, S Dalela, M J Siddiqui, P A Alvi
This paper reports a comprehensive theoretical study of W-shaped complex type-II InGaAs/InAs/GaAsSb nano-scale heterostructure consisting of two quantum wells of InAs material using the six-band k.p theory. The entire structure has been supposed to be grown on InP substrate. In order to optimize the optical gain, the probability densities of electrons and holes were optimized in the heterostructure. Following these calculations, dispersion relations for electron and hole energies, and transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations dependent dipole matrix elements and momentum matrix elements were calculated and, finally, the optical gain in both polarization modes was calculated...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Qingqing Huang, Mingjian Cheng, Lixin Guo, Jiangting Li, Xu Yan, Songhua Liu
Based on the complex-source-point method and the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, the scattering properties and polarization of aerosol particles by a Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam in marine atmosphere is investigated. The influences of beam mode, beam width, and humidity on the scattered field are analyzed numerically. Results indicate that when the number of HG beam modes u (v) increase, the radar cross section of aerosol particles alternating appears at maximum and minimum values in the forward and backward scattering, respectively, because of the special petal-shaped distribution of the HG beam...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
P Kontos, A Grigorovich, B Nowrouzi, B Sharma, J Lewko, T Mollayeva, A Colantonio
BACKGROUND: Work-related head injury is a critical public health issue due to its rising prevalence; the association with profound disruption of workers' lives; and significant economic burdens in terms of medical costs and lost wages. Efforts to understand and prevent these types of injuries have largely been dominated by epidemiological research and safety science, which has focused on identifying risk at the level of the individual worker, population group, or organizational sector...
October 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Angelo D'alessandro, Karim El Kasmi, Min Li, Hui Zhang, Petr Ježek, Kurt R Stenmark
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex disease of the pulmonary vasculature, which in severe cases terminates in right heart failure. Complex remodeling of pulmonary arteries comprises the central issue of its pathology. This includes extensive proliferation, apoptotic resistance and inflammation. As such, the molecular and cellular features of pulmonary hypertension resemble hallmark characteristics of cancer cell behavior. The vascular remodeling derives from significant metabolic changes in resident cells, which we describe in detail...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ruiqi Wu, Changle Zhou, Fei Chao, Zuyuan Zhu, Chih-Min Lin, Longzhi Yang
Inspired by infant development theories, a robotic developmental model combined with game elements is proposed in this paper. This model does not require the definition of specific developmental goals for the robot, but the developmental goals are implied in the goals of a series of game tasks. The games are characterized into a sequence of game modes based on the complexity of the game tasks from simple to complex, and the task complexity is determined by the applications of developmental constraints. Given a current mode, the robot switches to play in a more complicated game mode when it cannot find any new salient stimuli in the current mode...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Suzanne R Jongman, Antje S Meyer
Theories of conversation propose that in order to have smooth transitions from one turn to the next, speakers already plan their response while listening to their interlocutor. Moreover, it has been argued that speakers align their linguistic representations (i.e. prime each other), thereby reducing the processing costs associated with concurrent listening and speaking. In two experiments, we assessed how identity and associative priming from spoken words onto picture naming were affected by a concurrent speech planning task...
October 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Khanh-Hoa Tran-Ba, Daniel J Lee, Jieling Zhu, Keewook Paeng, Laura J Kaufman
Fibrillar type I collagen-based hydrogels are commonly used in tissue engineering and as matrices for biophysical studies. Mechanical and structural properties of these gels are known to be governed by the conditions under which fibrillogenesis occurs, exhibiting variation as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Deeper understanding of how macroscopic structure affects viscoelastic properties of collagen gels over the course of fibrillogenesis provides fundamental insight into biopolymer gel properties and promises enhanced control over the properties of such gels...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
David M Greenberg, Jonela Kolasi, Camilla P Hegsted, Yoni Berkowitz, Elliot L Jurist
Here we introduce a new assessment of emotion regulation called the Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS). A large online adult sample (N = 2,840) completed the 60-item MAS along with a battery of psychological measures. Results revealed a robust three-component structure underlying mentalized affectivity, which we labeled: Identifying emotions (the ability to identify emotions and to reflect on the factors that influence them); Processing emotions (the ability to modulate and distinguish complex emotions); and Expressing emotions (the tendency to express emotions outwardly or inwardly)...
2017: PloS One
Lei Xie, Chen Shi, Xin Cui, Jun Huang, Jingyi Wang, Qi Liu, Hongbo Zeng
Surface interactions involving deformable air bubbles have attracted tremendous interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as mineral flotation and bitumen extraction. In this work, for the first time, the interaction forces between air bubbles and bitumen surfaces in complex aqueous media of varying pH, salinity and salts were directly measured using a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique. The AFM topographic imaging reveals that bitumen surface tends to be rougher and form distinct domains at high NaCl concentration or under strongly alkaline environment...
October 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Thomas Knaak, Manuel Gruber, Christoph Lindström, Marie-Laure Bocquet, Jürgen Heck, Richard Berndt
Magnetic sandwich complexes are of particular interest for molecular spintronics. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we evidence the successful deposition of 1,3,5-tris-(η6-borabenzene-η5-cyclopentadienylcobalt) benzene, a molecule composed of three connected magnetic sandwich units, on Cu(111). Scanning tunneling spectra reveal two distinct spatial-dependent narrow resonances close to the Fermi level for the trimer molecules as well as for molecular fragments composed of one and two magnetic units. With the help of density functional theory, these resonances are interpreted as two Kondo resonances originating from two distinct non-degenerate d-like orbitals...
October 18, 2017: Nano Letters
David N Fisher, Andrew G McAdam
The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships, and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"