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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790413/specific-language-impairment-and-reading-disability-categorical-distinction-or-continuum
#1
George C Spanoudis, Timothy C Papadopoulos, Spyroula Spyrou
Specific language impairment (SLI) and reading disability (RD) are familial, moderately heritable comorbid developmental disorders. The key deficit of SLI is oral language, whereas children with RD exhibit impairment in learning to read. The present study examines the possible co-occurrence of RD and SLI and the nature of this co-occurrence at a linguistic and a cognitive level in an orthographically consistent language. Four groups of children participated in the study: an RD group ( n = 10), an SLI group ( n = 13), a possible comorbid group ( n = 9), and a control-no deficit group ( n = 20)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790243/identifying-language-impairment-in-bilingual-children-in-france-and-in-germany
#2
Laurice Tuller, Cornelia Hamann, Solveig Chilla, Sandrine Ferré, Eléonore Morin, Philippe Prevost, Christophe Dos Santos, Lina Abed Ibrahim, Racha Zebib
BACKGROUND: The detection of specific language impairment (SLI) in children growing up bilingually presents particular challenges for clinicians. Non-word repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SR) tasks have proven to be the most accurate diagnostic tools for monolingual populations, raising the question of the extent of their usefulness in different bilingual populations. AIMS: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of NWR and SR tasks that incorporate phonological/syntactic complexity as discussed in recent linguistic theory...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786771/analysis-of-letter-representation-using-latin-and-arabic-scripts-a-masked-priming-study
#3
Julien Dirani, Arne Dietrich
Reading plays an essential role in our everyday lives. The aim of this study is to investigate how letters are represented in the brain using the unique characteristics of the Arabic language, which can be written with 2 different scripts. The hypothesis proposed is that the processing of script is sound based: Phonology is what determines letter identity. Using a forward-masked priming paradigm, we showed that Latin-script primes facilitated the recognition of subsequent Arabic-script targets which differed in orthography but shared phonology, thus suggesting a common level of phonological processing...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783124/neural-organization-of-ventral-white-matter-tracts-parallels-the-initial-steps-of-reading-development-a-dti-tractography-study
#4
Jolijn Vanderauwera, Astrid De Vos, Stephanie J Forkel, Marco Catani, Jan Wouters, Maaike Vandermosten, Pol Ghesquière
Insight in the developmental trajectory of the neuroanatomical reading correlates is important to understand related cognitive processes and disorders. In adults, a dual pathway model has been suggested encompassing a dorsal phonological and a ventral orthographic white matter system. This dichotomy seems not present in pre-readers, and the specific role of ventral white matter in reading remains unclear. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigated the relation between ventral white matter and cognitive processes underlying reading in children with a broad range of reading skills (n = 61)...
May 18, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781701/intervention-for-bilingual-speech-sound-disorders-a-case-study-of-an-isixhosa-english-speaking-child
#5
Kate Rossouw, Michelle Pascoe
 Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country. Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child's speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan. Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa-English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym) (chronological age 4 years and 2 months) with a speech sound disorder...
March 19, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781084/musical-rhythm-and-reading-development-does-beat-processing-matter
#6
REVIEW
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Aniruddh D Patel
There is mounting evidence for links between musical rhythm processing and reading-related cognitive skills, such as phonological awareness. This may be because music and speech are rhythmic: both involve processing complex sound sequences with systematic patterns of timing, accent, and grouping. Yet, there is a salient difference between musical and speech rhythm: musical rhythm is often beat-based (based on an underlying grid of equal time intervals), while speech rhythm is not. Thus, the role of beat-based processing in the reading-rhythm relationship is not clear...
May 20, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779434/a-cognitive-dimensional-approach-to-understanding-shared-and-unique-contributions-to-reading-math-and-attention-skills
#7
Amanda E Child, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher, Erik G Willcutt, Lynn S Fuchs
Disorders of reading, math, and attention frequently co-occur in children. However, it is not yet clear which cognitive factors contribute to comorbidities among multiple disorders and which uniquely relate to one, especially because they have rarely been studied as a triad. Thus, the present study considers how reading, math, and attention relate to phonological awareness, numerosity, working memory, and processing speed, all implicated as either unique or shared correlates of these disorders. In response to findings that the attributes of all three disorders exist on a continuum rather than representing qualitatively different groups, this study employed a dimensional approach...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754464/clapping-in-time-parallels-literacy-and-calls-upon-overlapping-neural-mechanisms-in-early-readers
#8
Silvia Bonacina, Jennifer Krizman, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
The auditory system is extremely precise in processing the temporal information of perceptual events and using these cues to coordinate action. Synchronizing movement to a steady beat relies on this bidirectional connection between sensory and motor systems, and activates many of the auditory and cognitive processes used when reading. Here, we use Interactive Metronome, a clinical intervention technology requiring an individual to clap her hands in time with a steady beat, to investigate whether the links between literacy and synchronization skills, previously established in older children, are also evident in children who are learning to read...
May 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738874/phonological-processes-in-the-speech-of-school-age-children-with-hearing-loss-comparisons-with-children-with-normal-hearing
#9
Areej Nimer Asad, Suzanne C Purdy, Elaine Ballard, Liz Fairgray, Caroline Bowen
PURPOSE: In this descriptive study, phonological processes were examined in the speech of children aged 5;0-7;6 (years; months) with mild to profound hearing loss using hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to their peers. A second aim was to compare phonological processes of HA and CI users. METHOD: Children with hearing loss (CWHL, N = 25) were compared to children with normal hearing (CWNH, N = 30) with similar age, gender, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736907/multisensory-integration-processing-during-olfactory-visual-stimulation-an-fmri-graph-theoretical-network-analysis
#10
Isabelle Ripp, Anna-Nora Zur Nieden, Sonja Blankenagel, Nicolai Franzmeier, Johan N Lundström, Jessica Freiherr
In this study, we aimed to understand how whole-brain neural networks compute sensory information integration based on the olfactory and visual system. Task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was obtained during unimodal and bimodal sensory stimulation. Based on the identification of multisensory integration processing (MIP) specific hub-like network nodes analyzed with network-based statistics using region-of-interest based connectivity matrices, we conclude the following brain areas to be important for processing the presented bimodal sensory information: right precuneus connected contralaterally to the supramarginal gyrus for memory-related imagery and phonology retrieval, and the left middle occipital gyrus connected ipsilaterally to the inferior frontal gyrus via the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus including functional aspects of working memory...
May 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730484/current-perspectives-on-the-cerebellum-and-reading-development
#11
REVIEW
Travis A Alvarez, Julie A Fiez
The dominant neural models of typical and atypical reading focus on the cerebral cortex. However, Nicolson et al. (2001) proposed a model, the cerebellar deficit hypothesis, in which the cerebellum plays an important role in reading. To evaluate the evidence in support of this model, we qualitatively review the current literature and employ meta-analytic tools examining patterns of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral reading network. We find evidence for a phonological circuit with connectivity between the cerebellum and a dorsal fronto-parietal pathway, and a semantic circuit with cerebellar connectivity to a ventral fronto-temporal pathway...
May 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727819/alterations-in-white-matter-pathways-underlying-phonological-and-morphological-processing-in-chinese-developmental-dyslexia
#12
Mengmeng Su, Jingjing Zhao, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Wei Zhou, Gaolang Gong, Franck Ramus, Hua Shu
Chinese is a logographic language that is different from alphabetic languages in visual and semantic complexity. Thus far, it is still unclear whether Chinese children with dyslexia show similar disruption of white matter pathways as in alphabetic languages. The present study focused on the alteration of white matter pathways in Chinese children with dyslexia. Using diffusion tensor imaging tractography, the bilateral arcuate fasciculus (AF-anterior, AF-posterior and AF-direct segments), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) were delineated in each individual's native space...
April 13, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725839/executive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#13
Itaru Tamura, Asako Takei, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Michio Nonaka, Sanae Homma, Fumio Moriwaka
The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive functions of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(SCA3). We examined 15 patients with genetically confirmed SCA3 and 15 healthy control subjects matched for age, years of education, and intellectual ability. We administered verbal memory (word recall and word recognition) and executive function tasks (word fluency test, forward and backward digit and visual span tests, Kana Pick-out Test, Trail Making Test, and conflicting instructions and a Go/NoGo task from the Frontal Assessment Battery)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725313/what-is-the-influence-of-morphological-knowledge-in-the-early-stages-of-reading-acquisition-among-low-ses-children-a-graphical-modeling-approach
#14
Pascale Colé, Eddy Cavalli, Lynne G Duncan, Anne Theurel, Edouard Gentaz, Liliane Sprenger-Charolles, Abdessadek El-Ahmadi
Children from low-SES families are known to show delays in aspects of language development which underpin reading acquisition such as vocabulary and listening comprehension. Research on the development of morphological skills in this group is scarce, and no studies exist in French. The present study investigated the involvement of morphological knowledge in the very early stages of reading acquisition (decoding), before reading comprehension can be reliably assessed. We assessed listening comprehension, receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, morphological awareness as well as decoding, word reading and non-verbal IQ in 703 French first-graders from low-SES families after 3 months of formal schooling (November)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724639/speech-recognition-in-noise-by-children-with-and-without-dyslexia-how-is-it-related-to-reading
#15
Susan Nittrouer, Letitia M Krieg, Joanna H Lowenstein
PURPOSE: Developmental dyslexia is commonly viewed as a phonological deficit that makes it difficult to decode written language. But children with dyslexia typically exhibit other problems, as well, including poor speech recognition in noise. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the speech-in-noise problems of children with dyslexia are related to their reading problems, and if so, if a common underlying factor might explain both. The specific hypothesis examined was that a spectral processing disorder results in these children receiving smeared signals, which could explain both the diminished sensitivity to phonological structure - leading to reading problems - and the speech recognition in noise difficulties...
June 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720729/electrophysiological-dynamics-of-chinese-phonology-during-visual-word-recognition-in-chinese-english-bilinguals
#16
Yun Wen, Ruth Filik, Walter J B van Heuven
Silent word reading leads to the activation of orthographic (spelling), semantic (meaning), as well as phonological (sound) information. For bilinguals, native language information can also be activated automatically when they read words in their second language. For example, when Chinese-English bilinguals read words in their second language (English), the phonology of the Chinese translations is automatically activated. Chinese phonology, however, consists of consonants and vowels (segmental) and tonal information...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716459/spoken-word-production-in-korean-a-non-word-masked-priming-and-phonological-stroop-task-investigation
#17
Jeong-Im Han, Rinus G Verdonschot
Speech production studies have shown that phonological unit initially used to fill the metrical frame during phonological encoding is language specific, that is, a phoneme for English and Dutch, an atonal syllable for Mandarin Chinese, and a mora for Japanese. However, only a few studies chronometrically investigated speech production in Korean, and they obtained mixed results. Korean is particularly interesting as there might be both phonemic and syllabic influences during phonological encoding. The purpose of this study is to further examine the initial phonological preparation unit in Korean, employing a masked priming task (Experiment 1) and a phonological Stroop task (Experiment 2)...
April 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715582/does-dynamic-information-about-the-speaker-s-face-contribute-to-semantic-speech-processing-erp-evidence
#18
David Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rasha Abdel Rahman, Manuel Martín-Loeches, Francisco Muñoz, Annekathrin Schacht, Werner Sommer
Face-to-face interactions characterize communication in social contexts. These situations are typically multimodal, requiring the integration of linguistic auditory input with facial information from the speaker. In particular, eye gaze and visual speech provide the listener with social and linguistic information, respectively. Despite the importance of this context for an ecological study of language, research on audiovisual integration has mainly focused on the phonological level, leaving aside effects on semantic comprehension...
April 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710328/heart-and-____-or-give-and-____-an-exploration-of-variables-that-influence-binomial-completion-for-individuals-with-and-without-aphasia
#19
Catherine Torrington Eaton, Rochelle S Newman
Purpose: The goal of this research was to institute an evidence base behind commonly used elicitation materials known as binomials (e.g., "day and night") that are commonly used for persons with aphasia (PWAs). The study explored a number of linguistic variables that could influence successful binomial completion in nonaphasic adults and PWAs. Method: Thirty nonaphasic adults and 11 PWAs were asked to verbally complete 128 binomials; responses were scored by accuracy and reaction time...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702572/musical-experience-sensorineural-auditory-processing-and-reading-subskills-in-adults
#20
Parker Tichko, Erika Skoe
Developmental research suggests that sensorineural auditory processing, reading subskills (e.g., phonological awareness and rapid naming), and musical experience are related during early periods of reading development. Interestingly, recent work suggests that these relations may extend into adulthood, with indices of sensorineural auditory processing relating to global reading ability. However, it is largely unknown whether sensorineural auditory processing relates to specific reading subskills, such as phonological awareness and rapid naming, as well as musical experience in mature readers...
April 27, 2018: Brain Sciences
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