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Phonological processes

Annika Andersson, Lisa D Sanders, Donna Coch, Christina M Karns, Helen J Neville
During early literacy skills development, rhyming is an important indicator of the phonological precursors required for reading. To determine if neural signatures of rhyming are apparent in early childhood, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3- to 5-year-old, preliterate children (N = 62) in an auditory prime-target nonword rhyming paradigm (e.g., bly-gry, blane-vox). Overall, nonrhyming targets elicited a larger negativity (N450) than rhyming targets over posterior regions. In contrast, rhyming targets elicited a larger negativity than nonrhyming targets over fronto-lateral sites...
March 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhizhou Deng, Bharath Chandrasekaran, Suiping Wang, Patrick C M Wong
In second language acquisition studies, the high talker variability training approach has been frequently used to train participants to learn new speech patterns. However, the neuroplasticity induced by training is poorly understood. In the present study, native English speakers were trained on non-native pitch patterns (linguistic tones from Mandarin Chinese) in multi-talker (N = 16) or single-talker (N = 16) training conditions. We focused on two aspects of multi-talker training, voice processing and lexical phonology accessing, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activation and functional connectivity (FC) of two regions of interest in a tone identification task conducted before and after training, namely the anterior part of the right superior temporal gyrus (aRSTG) and the posterior left superior temporal gyrus (pLSTG)...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ulrike Schild, Claudia K Friedrich
It is a matter of debate, whether and how improved auditory discrimination abilities enable speeded speech comprehension in congenitally blind adults. Previous research concentrated on semantic and syntactic aspects of processing. Here we investigated phonologically mediated spoken word access processes by means of word onset priming. Blind adults and age- and gender-matched sighted adults listened to spoken word onsets (primes) followed by complete words (targets). Phonological overlap between primes and targets varied...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Yingying Tan, Randi C Martin
This study examined the role of verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive function (EF) underlying semantic and syntactic interference resolution during sentence comprehension for persons with aphasia (PWA) with varying degrees of STM and EF deficits. Semantic interference was manipulated by varying the semantic plausibility of the intervening NP as subject of the verb and syntactic interference was manipulated by varying whether the NP was another subject or an object. Nine PWA were assessed on sentence reading times and on comprehension question performance...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Qiuhai Yue, Randi C Martin, A Cris Hamilton, Nathan S Rose
Buffer versus embedded processes accounts of short-term memory (STM) for phonological information were addressed by testing subjects' perception and memory for speech and non-speech auditory stimuli. Univariate and multivariate (MVPA) approaches were used to assess whether brain regions recruited in recognizing speech were involved in maintaining speech representations over a delay. As expected, a left superior temporal region was found to support speech perception. However, contrary to the embedded processes approach, this region failed to show a load effect, or any sustained activation, during a maintenance delay...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Tian Hong, Lan Shuai, Stephen J Frost, Nicole Landi, Kenneth R Pugh, Hua Shu
We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition...
March 9, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
H Branch Coslett, Myrna F Schwartz
Although the parietal lobe was considered by many of the earliest investigators of disordered language to be a major component of the neural systems instantiating language, most views of the anatomic substrate of language emphasize the role of temporal and frontal lobes in language processing. We review evidence from lesion studies as well as functional neuroimaging, demonstrating that the left parietal lobe is also crucial for several aspects of language. First, we argue that the parietal lobe plays a major role in semantic processing, particularly for "thematic" relationships in which information from multiple sensory and motor domains is integrated...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Musetta C Fu, Basia Belza, Huong Nguyen, Rebecca Logsdon, Steven Demorest
PURPOSE: Participating in a group-singing program may be beneficial to healthy aging through engaging in active music-making activities and breathing exercises. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a 12-week group singing program on cognitive function, lung health and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre and post-test quasi-experimental design evaluated the impact of a group-singing program on older adult health...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Benjamin Kowialiewski, Steve Majerus
The lexicality effect in verbal short-term memory (STM), in which word lists are better recalled than nonwords lists, is considered to reflect the influence of linguistic long-term memory (LTM) knowledge on verbal STM performance. The locus of this effect remains, however, a matter of debate. The redintegrative account considers that degrading phonological traces of memoranda are reconstructed at recall by selecting lexical LTM representations that match the phonological traces. According to a strong version of this account, redintegrative processes should be strongly reduced in recognition paradigms, leading to reduced LTM effects...
March 7, 2018: Memory
George K Georgiou, Raabia Ghazyani, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine different hypotheses in relation to RAN deficits in dyslexia. Thirty university students with dyslexia and 32 chronological-age controls were assessed on RAN Digits and Colors as well as on two versions of RAN Letters and Objects (one with five items repeated 16 times and one with 20 items repeated four times). In addition, participants were tested on discrete letter and object naming, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and speed of processing, and the RAN Letters and Objects total times were partitioned into pause times and articulation times...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Gabrielle Miller, Barbara Lewis, Penelope Benchek, Emily Buss, Lauren Calandruccio
Purpose: The relationship between reading (decoding) skills, phonological processing abilities, and masked speech recognition in typically developing children was explored. This experiment was designed to evaluate the relationship between phonological processing and decoding abilities and 2 aspects of masked speech recognition in typically developing children: (a) the ability to benefit from temporal and spectral modulations within a noise masker and (b) the masking exerted by a speech masker...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Pilar Sellés, Vicenta Ávila, Tomás Martínez, Liz Ysla
This paper deals with the skills related to the early reading acquisition in two countries that share language. Traditionally on reading readiness research there is a great interest to find out what factors affect early reading ability, but differ from other academic skills that affect general school learnings. Furthermore, it is also known how the influence of pre-reading variables in two countries with the same language, affect the development of the reading. On the other hand, several studies have examined what skills are related to reading readiness (phonological awareness, alphabetic awareness, naming speed, linguistic skills, metalinguistic knowledge and basic cognitive processes), but there are no studies showing whether countries can also influence the development of these skills...
2018: PloS One
Bethany L Sussman, Samir Reddigari, Sharlene D Newman
Visual word recognition has been studied for decades. One question that has received limited attention is how different text presentation orientations disrupt word recognition. By examining how word recognition processes may be disrupted by different text orientations it is hoped that new insights can be gained concerning the process. Here, we examined the impact of rotating and inverting text on the neural network responsible for visual word recognition focusing primarily on a region of the occipto-temporal cortex referred to as the visual word form area (VWFA)...
February 27, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Irene Minkina, Nadine Martin, Kristie A Spencer, Diane L Kendall
Purpose: This study explored the relationship between anomia and verbal short-term memory (STM) in the context of an interactive activation language processing model. Method: Twenty-four individuals with aphasia and reduced STM spans (i.e., impaired immediate serial recall of words) completed a picture-naming task and a word pair repetition task (a measure of verbal STM). Correlations between verbal STM and word retrieval errors made on the picture-naming task were examined...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Sarah Grace Hudspeth Dalton, Christine Shultz, Maya L Henry, Argye E Hillis, Jessica D Richardson
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the linguistic environment of phonological paraphasias in 3 variants of primary progressive aphasia (semantic, logopenic, and nonfluent) and to describe the profiles of paraphasia production for each of these variants. Method: Discourse samples of 26 individuals diagnosed with primary progressive aphasia were investigated for phonological paraphasias using the criteria established for the Philadelphia Naming Test (Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, 2013)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Sara De Felice, Cristina Romani, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Liana Palermo
We provide an in-depth analysis of language functions in early-treated adults with phenylketonuria (AwPKUs, N = 15-33), as compared to age- and education-matched controls (N = 24-32; N varying across tasks), through: a. narrative production (the Cinderella story), b. language pragmatics comprehension (humour, metaphors, inferred meaning), c. prosody discrimination d. lexical inhibitory control and planning (Blocked Cyclic Naming; Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Burgess & Shallice, 1997). AwPKUs exhibited intact basic language processing (lexical retrieval, phonology/articulation, sentence construction)...
February 28, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Lotte Meteyard, Arpita Bose
Purpose: Impaired naming is one of the most common symptoms in aphasia, often treated with cued picture naming paradigms. It has been argued that semantic cues facilitate the reliable categorization of the picture, and phonological cues facilitate the retrieval of target phonology. To test these hypotheses, we compared the effectiveness of phonological and semantic cues in picture naming for a group of individuals with aphasia. To establish the locus of effective cueing, we also tested whether cue type interacted with lexical and image properties of the targets...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Frances A Conners, Andrew S Tungate, Leonard Abbeduto, Edward C Merrill, Gayle G Faught
Forty-two adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) ages 10 to 21 years completed a battery of language and phonological memory measures twice, 2 years apart. Individual differences were highly stable across two years. Receptive vocabulary scores improved, there was no change in receptive or expressive grammar scores, and nonword repetition scores declined. Digit memory and expressive vocabulary scores improved among younger adolescents, but generally held steady among older adolescents. These patterns may reveal key points in development at which interventions may be best applied...
March 2018: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Ye Wang, Julia A Silvestri, Laudan B Jahromi
The purpose of the study was to identify factors related to reading comprehension, and to compare similarities and differences in the reading processes of deaf and hearing adults. The sample included four groups, each consisting of 15 adults. The groups were identified as (a) deaf high-achieving readers, (b) deaf low-achieving readers, (c) hearing high-achieving readers, and (d) hearing low-achieving readers. Measurement instruments included a demographic form along with assessments of reading comprehension, phonological skills, and metacognition, the latter of which contained both a making-inferences measure and a think-aloud discussion with a reading strategies checklist...
2018: American Annals of the Deaf
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