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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#1
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132048/brain-white-matter-structure-and-language-ability-in-preschool-aged-children
#2
Matthew Walton, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum...
November 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124823/differences-between-child-and-adult-large-scale-functional-brain-networks-for-reading-tasks
#3
Xin Liu, Yue Gao, Qiqi Di, Jiali Hu, Chunming Lu, Yun Nan, James R Booth, Li Liu
Reading is an important high-level cognitive function of the human brain, requiring interaction among multiple brain regions. Revealing differences between children's large-scale functional brain networks for reading tasks and those of adults helps us to understand how the functional network changes over reading development. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 adults (19-28 years old) and 16 children (11-13 years old), and graph theoretical analyses to investigate age-related changes in large-scale functional networks during rhyming and meaning judgment tasks on pairs of visually presented Chinese characters...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121588/infants-sensitivity-to-vowel-harmony-and-its-role-in-segmenting-speech
#4
Toben H Mintz, Rachel L Walker, Ashlee Welday, Celeste Kidd
A critical part of infants' ability to acquire any language involves segmenting continuous speech input into discrete word forms. Certain properties of words could provide infants with reliable cues to word boundaries. Here we investigate the potential utility of vowel harmony (VH), a phonological property whereby vowels within a word systematically exhibit similarity ("harmony") for some aspect of the way they are pronounced. We present evidence that infants with no experience of VH in their native language nevertheless actively use these patterns to generate hypotheses about where words begin and end in the speech stream...
November 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121484/erp-evidence-of-distinct-processes-underlying-semantic-facilitation-and-interference-in-word-production
#5
Grégoire Python, Raphaël Fargier, Marina Laganaro
In everyday conversations, we take advantage of lexical-semantic contexts to facilitate speech production, but at the same time, we also have to reduce interference and inhibit semantic competitors. The blocked cyclic naming paradigm (BCNP) has been used to investigate such context effects. Typical results on production latencies showed semantic facilitation (or no effect) during the first presentation cycle, and interference emerging in subsequent cycles. Even if semantic contexts might be just as facilitative as interfering, previous BCNP studies focused on interference, which was interpreted as reflecting lemma selection and self-monitoring processes...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116479/contrasting-grammatical-and-lexical-determiners
#6
Violaine Michel Lange, Maria Messerschmidt, Kasper Boye
This paper investigates the difference between the production of grammatical determiners and lexical determiners in the production of adjective-noun phrases (NPs) in Danish. Models of sentence processing (Garrett in Psychology of learning and motivation, Academic press, New York, pp 133-177, 1975; Bock in J Mem Lang 26(2):119-137, 1987) suggest that the phonological encoding stage of grammatical items can only be specified once lexical items have been phonologically encoded. In their usage-based linguistic theory of the grammar-lexicon distinction, Boye and Harder (Lang 88(1):1-44, 2012) propose that this later encoding of grammatical elements is motivated by two specific features of grammatical elements...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105247/increased-functional-connectivity-in-the-ventral-and-dorsal-streams-during-retrieval-of-novel-words-in-professional-musicians
#7
Eva Dittinger, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Lutz Jäncke, Mireille Besson, Stefan Elmer
Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations...
November 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094990/eye-movements-reveal-persistent-sensitivity-to-sound-symbolism-during-word-learning
#8
Kate Pirog Revill, Laura L Namy, Lynne C Nygaard
Although the relationship between sound and meaning in language is assumed to be largely arbitrary, reliable correspondences between sound and meaning in natural language appear to facilitate word learning. Using a set of independently normed pseudoword and shape stimuli, we examined the real-time effects of sound-to-shape correspondences at initial presentation and throughout an extended learning process resulting in high accuracy. In addition to accuracy and response time (RT) measures, we monitored participants' eye movements to investigate the extent to which visual orienting to objects is influenced by the sound symbolic characteristics of novel labels at initial exposure and throughout learning...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094234/erp-responses-to-violations-in-the-hierarchical-structure-of-functional-categories-in-japanese-verb-conjugation
#9
Yuki Kobayashi, Yoko Sugioka, Takane Ito
An event-related potential experiment was conducted in order to investigate readers' response to violations in the hierarchical structure of functional categories in Japanese, an agglutinative language where functional heads like Negation (Neg) as well as Tense (Tns) are realized as suffixes. A left-lateralized negativity followed by a P600 was elicited for the anomaly of attaching a Neg morpheme outside a Tns-marking suffix (i.e., syntactic violation of the form *[[V - Tns] - Neg]), while only P600 was observed for the anomalous form with a purely morphological/morpho-phonological violation, i...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075747/verbal-working-memory-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#10
Susan Nittrouer, Amanda Caldwell-Tarr, Keri E Low, Joanna H Lowenstein
Purpose: Verbal working memory in children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing was examined. Participants: Ninety-three fourth graders (47 with normal hearing, 46 with cochlear implants) participated, all of whom were in a longitudinal study and had working memory assessed 2 years earlier. Method: A dual-component model of working memory was adopted, and a serial recall task measured storage and processing. Potential predictor variables were phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, nonverbal IQ, and several treatment variables...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058989/unstressed-vowel-reduction-across-majorcan-catalan-dialects-production-and-spoken-word-recognition
#11
Miquel Llompart, Miquel Simonet
This study investigates the production and auditory lexical processing of words involved in a patterned phonological alternation in two dialects of Catalan spoken on the island of Majorca, Spain. One of these dialects, that of Palma, merges /ɔ/ and /o/ as [o] in unstressed position, and it maintains /u/ as an independent category, [u]. In the dialect of Sóller, a small village, speakers merge unstressed /ɔ/, /o/, and /u/ to [u]. First, a production study asks whether the discrete, rule-based descriptions of the vowel alternations provided in the dialectological literature are able to account adequately for these processes: are mergers complete? Results show that mergers are complete with regards to the main acoustic cue to these vowel contrasts, that is, F1...
October 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056862/recent-language-experience-influences-cross-language-activation-in-bilinguals-with-different-scripts
#12
Chuchu Li, Min Wang, Candise Y Lin
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine whether the phonological information in the non-target language is activated and its influence on bilingual processing. APPROACH: Using the Stroop paradigm, Mandarin-English bilinguals named the ink color of Chinese characters in English in Experiment 1 and named the Chinese characters in addition to the color naming in English in Experiment 2. Twenty-four participants were recruited in each experiment. In both experiments, the visual stimuli included color characters (e...
August 2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052729/consonant-age-of-acquisition-effects-in-nonword-repetition-are-not-articulatory-in-nature
#13
Michelle W Moore, Julie A Fiez, Connie A Tompkins
Purpose: Most research examining long-term-memory effects on nonword repetition (NWR) has focused on lexical-level variables. Phoneme-level variables have received little attention, although there are reasons to expect significant sublexical effects in NWR. To further understand the underlying processes of NWR, this study examined effects of sublexical long-term phonological knowledge by testing whether performance differs when the stimuli comprise consonants acquired later versus earlier in speech development...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051682/rapid-recovery-from-aphasia-after-infarction-of-wernicke-s-area
#14
Stephanie A Yagata, Melodie Yen, Angelica McCarron, Alexa Bautista, Genevieve Lamair-Orosco, Stephen M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period. AIMS: The goal of this study was to document recovery after infarction of Wernicke's area in detail in the first 3 months after stroke. Specifically, we aimed to address two questions about language recovery. First, which impaired language domains improve over time, and which do not? Second, what is the time course of recovery? METHODS & PROCEDURES: We used quantitative analysis of connected speech and a brief aphasia battery to document language recovery in two individuals with aphasia following infarction of the posterior superior temporal gyrus...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035070/verbal-fluency-in-male-and-female-schizophrenia-patients-different-patterns-of-association-with-processing-speed-working-memory-span-and-clinical-symptoms
#15
Gildas Brébion, Christian Stephan-Otto, Susana Ochoa, Lourdes Nieto, Montserrat Contel, Judith Usall
OBJECTIVE: Decreased processing speed in schizophrenia patients has been identified as a major impairment factor in various neuropsychological domains. Working memory span has been found to be involved in several deep or effortful cognitive processes. We investigated the impact that these 2 cognitive functions may have on phonological and semantic fluency in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants. METHOD: Fifty-five patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy participants were administered a neuropsychological battery including phonological and semantic fluency, working memory, and cognitive and motor speed...
October 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025925/strength-of-temporal-white-matter-pathways-predicts-semantic-learning
#16
Pablo Ripollés, Davina Biel, Claudia Peñaloza, Jörn Kaufmann, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Toemme Noesselt, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word-learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber-tracking...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018396/the-influence-of-closeness-centrality-on-lexical-processing
#17
Rutherford Goldstein, Michael S Vitevitch
The present study examined how the network science measure known as closeness centrality (which measures the average distance between a node and all other nodes in the network) influences lexical processing. In the mental lexicon, a word such as CAN has high closeness centrality, because it is close to many other words in the lexicon. Whereas, a word such as CURE has low closeness centrality because it is far from other words in the lexicon. In an auditory lexical decision task (Experiment 1) participants responded more quickly to words with high closeness centrality...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985888/speech-sound-disorders-or-differences-insights-from-bilingual-children-speaking-two-chinese-languages
#18
Kitty K Y Lam, Carol K S To
The study investigated how Putonghua-Cantonese bilingual children differ from monolinguals in their acquisition of speech sound and phonological patterns. Fifty-four typically developing Putonghua-Cantonese bilingual children aged 3;6-6;0 were recruited from nurseries in the North District of Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test (Cheung et al., 2006) and a Putonghua picture-naming task (Zhu & Dodd, 2000) were used to elicit single-word samples of both languages. Acquisition of speech sound and phonological patterns exhibited by ≥20% of the children in an age group were compared to the normative data on children who were Cantonese native or Putonghua monolingual speakers...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973172/emergent-literacy-skills-in-preschool-children-with-hearing-loss-who-use-spoken-language-initial-findings-from-the-early-language-and-literacy-acquisition-ella-study
#19
Krystal L Werfel
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method: Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed measures of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge twice at a 6-month interval. A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare change across groups...
September 22, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968426/neuroimaging-of-decoding-and-language-comprehension-in-young-very-low-birth-weight-vlbw-adolescents-indications-for-compensatory-mechanisms
#20
Helene van Ettinger-Veenstra, Carin Widén, Maria Engström, Thomas Karlsson, Ingemar Leijon, Nina Nelson
In preterm children with very low birth weight (VLBW ≤ 1500 g), reading problems are often observed. Reading comprehension is dependent on word decoding and language comprehension. We investigated neural activation-within brain regions important for reading-related to components of reading comprehension in young VLBW adolescents in direct comparison to normal birth weight (NBW) term-born peers, with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that the decoding mechanisms will be affected by VLBW, and expect to see increased neural activity for VLBW which may be modulated by task performance and cognitive ability...
2017: PloS One
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