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Phonological processes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345153/the-functional-architectures-of-addition-and-subtraction-network-discovery-using-fmri-and-dcm
#1
Yang Yang, Ning Zhong, Karl Friston, Kazuyuki Imamura, Shengfu Lu, Mi Li, Haiyan Zhou, Haiyuan Wang, Kuncheng Li, Bin Hu
The neuronal mechanisms underlying arithmetic calculations are not well understood but the differences between mental addition and subtraction could be particularly revealing. Using fMRI and dynamic causal modeling (DCM), this study aimed to identify the distinct neuronal architectures engaged by the cognitive processes of simple addition and subtraction. Our results revealed significantly greater activation during subtraction in regions along the dorsal pathway, including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle portion of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (mDLPFC), and supplementary motor area (SMA), compared with addition...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337135/deficits-in-letter-speech-sound-associations-but-intact-visual-conflict-processing-in-dyslexia-results-from-a-novel-erp-paradigm
#2
Sarolta Bakos, Karin Landerl, Jürgen Bartling, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Kristina Moll
The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with the frequently used visual-auditory oddball paradigm, we developed a novel electrophysiological letter-speech sound interference paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335558/modeling-the-development-of-audiovisual-cue-integration-in-speech-perception
#3
Laura M Getz, Elke R Nordeen, Sarah C Vrabic, Joseph C Toscano
Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories...
March 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326994/effects-of-lexical-competition-and-dialect-exposure-on-phonological-priming
#4
Cynthia G Clopper, Abby Walker
A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326989/perception-of-nonnative-accented-sentences-by-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults-the-role-of-phonological-processing-skills
#5
Tessa Bent, Eriko Atagi
To acquire language and successfully communicate in multicultural and multilingual societies, children must learn to understand speakers with various accents and dialects. This study investigated adults' and 5- to 8-year-old children's perception of native- and nonnative-accented English sentences in noise. Participants' phonological memory and phonological awareness were assessed to investigate factors associated with individual differences in word recognition. Although both adults and children performed less accurately with nonnative talkers than native talkers, children showed greater performance decrements...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326896/investigating-the-effect-of-regional-native-accents-on-sentence-comprehension-in-children-with-language-impairment
#6
Pauline Frizelle, Jennifer Harte, Paul Fletcher, Fiona Gibbon
PURPOSE: Research has shown that accent variation can affect typically developing (TD) children's understanding of language, as well as that of children with speech difficulties, neuro-typical adults and those with aphasia and dementia. This study aims to investigate the effect of regional native accents on sentence comprehension in children with language impairment (LI), an area not previously explored. METHOD: Forty-three children with LI (mean age 6.04) and forty-five younger TD children (mean age 4...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319684/what-do-we-do-with-what-we-learn-statistical-learning-of-orthographic-regularities-impacts-written-word-processing
#7
Fabienne Chetail
Individuals rapidly become sensitive to recurrent patterns present in the environment and this occurs in many situations. However, evidence of a role for statistical learning of orthographic regularities in reading is mixed, and its role has peripheral status in current theories of visual word recognition. Additionally, exactly which regularities readers learn to be sensitive to is still unclear. To address these two issues, three experiments were conducted with artificial scripts. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants were exposed to a flow of artificial words (five characters) for a few minutes, with either two or four bigrams occurring very frequently...
March 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306348/differences-in-dyslexic-students-before-and-after-a-remediation-program-a-clinical-neuropsychological-and-event-related-potential-study
#8
Nikolaos C Zygouris, Elias Avramidis, Argyris V Karapetsas, George I Stamoulis
Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected specific and persistent failure to acquire efficient reading skills despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and sociocultural opportunity. This article reports the outcomes of a study that evaluated the implementation of a 4-month intervention program. The intervention consisted of structured activities aiming at improving (a) the children's phonological awareness, (b) their visual and auditory memory, (c) their visual discrimination ability, and (d) their text comprehension...
March 17, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306339/working-memory-in-school-age-children-with-and-without-a-persistent-speech-sound-disorder
#9
Kelly Farquharson, Tiffany P Hogan, John E Bernthal
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). METHOD: Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301184/the-phonological-unit-of-japanese-kanji-compounds-a-masked-priming-investigation
#10
Masahiro Yoshihara, Mariko Nakayama, Rinus G Verdonschot, Yasushi Hino
Using the masked priming paradigm, we examined which phonological unit is used when naming Kanji compounds. Although the phonological unit in the Japanese language has been suggested to be the mora, Experiment 1 found no priming for mora-related Kanji prime-target pairs. In Experiment 2, significant priming was only found when Kanji pairs shared the whole sound of their initial Kanji characters. Nevertheless, when the same Kanji pairs used in Experiment 2 were transcribed into Kana, significant mora priming was observed in Experiment 3...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290103/cross-linguistic-differences-in-the-use-of-durational-cues-for-the-segmentation-of-a-novel-language
#11
Mikhail Ordin, Leona Polyanskaya, Itziar Laka, Marina Nespor
It is widely accepted that duration can be exploited as phonological phrase final lengthening in the segmentation of a novel language, i.e., in extracting discrete constituents from continuous speech. The use of final lengthening for segmentation and its facilitatory effect has been claimed to be universal. However, lengthening in the world languages can also mark lexically stressed syllables. Stress-induced lengthening can potentially be in conflict with right edge phonological phrase boundary lengthening...
March 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287166/pitch-discrimination-associated-with-phonological-awareness-evidence-from-congenital-amusia
#12
Yanan Sun, Xuejing Lu, Hao Tam Ho, William Forde Thompson
Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266332/vowels-consonants-and-lexical-tones-sensitivity-to-phonological-variation-in-monolingual-mandarin-and-bilingual-english-mandarin-toddlers
#13
Thilanga D Wewalaarachchi, Liang Hui Wong, Leher Singh
Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263923/bilingualism-modulates-the-white-matter-structure-of-language-related-pathways
#14
Sini Hämäläinen, Viljami Sairanen, Alina Leminen, Minna Lehtonen
Learning and speaking a second language (L2) may result in profound changes in the human brain. Here, we investigated local structural differences along two language-related white matter trajectories, the arcuate fasciculus and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), between early simultaneous bilinguals and late sequential bilinguals. We also examined whether early exposure to two languages might lead to a more bilateral structural organization of the arcuate fasciculus. Fractional anisotropy, mean and radial diffusivities (FA, MD, and RD respectively) were extracted to analyse tract-specific changes...
March 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261133/semantic-and-syntactic-interference-in-sentence-comprehension-a-comparison-of-working-memory-models
#15
Yingying Tan, Randi C Martin, Julie A Van Dyke
This study investigated the nature of the underlying working memory system supporting sentence processing through examining individual differences in sensitivity to retrieval interference effects during sentence comprehension. Interference effects occur when readers incorrectly retrieve sentence constituents which are similar to those required during integrative processes. We examined interference arising from a partial match between distracting constituents and syntactic and semantic cues, and related these interference effects to performance on working memory, short-term memory (STM), vocabulary, and executive function tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259773/different-activity-patterns-for-action-and-language-within-their-shared-neural-areas-an-fmri-study-on-action-observation-and-language-phonology
#16
Zuo Zhang, Yaoru Sun, Glyn W Humphreys, Yalin Song
The neural processes for action and language activate shared brain regions including the left inferior frontal, parietal and temporal-occipital cortices. However, it still remains unclear how action and language are related and what neural activity patterns are elicited within these shared cortical regions. In this study we examined the neural activation for action observation and language phonology in their shared cortical regions by conducting three experiments in a single fMRI session: a mixed-task experiment involving both action and language phonological processing, and two independent experiments involving language phonology and action observation respectively...
March 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257876/are-semantic-and-phonological-fluency-based-on-the-same-or-distinct-sets-of-cognitive-processes-insights-from-factor-analyses-in-healthy-adults-and-stroke-patients
#17
Charlotte S M Schmidt, Lena V Schumacher, Pia Römer, Rainer Leonhart, Lena Beume, Markus Martin, Andrea Dressing, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph P Kaller
Verbal fluency for semantic categories and phonological letters is frequently applied to studies of language and executive functions. Despite its popularity, it is still debated whether measures of semantic and phonological fluency reflect the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes. Word generation in the two task variants is believed to involve different types of search processes. Findings from the lesion and neuroimaging literature further suggest a stronger reliance of phonological and semantic fluency on frontal and temporal brain areas, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256035/tracking-independence-and-merging-of-prosodic-and-phonemic-processing-across-infancy
#18
Angelika Becker, Ulrike Schild, Claudia K Friedrich
Recent evidence suggests division of labor in phonological analysis underlying speech recognition. Adults and children appear to decompose the speech stream into phoneme-relevant information and into syllable stress. Here we investigate whether both speech processing streams develop from a common path in infancy, or whether there are two separate streams from early on. We presented stressed and unstressed syllables (spoken primes) followed by initially stressed early learned disyllabic German words (spoken targets)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253637/the-influence-of-lexical-characteristics-and-talker-accent-on-the-recognition-of-english-words-by-speakers-of-japanese
#19
Kiyoko Yoneyama, Benjamin Munson
Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253505/event-related-potentials-reflect-deficits-in-lexical-access-the-n200-in-prematurely-born-school-aged-children
#20
Pirjo Korpilahti, Marita Valkama, Eira Jansson-Verkasalo
OBJECTIVES: Children born preterm have a high prevalence of neurocognitive deficits early in life. We examined whether the neural correlates of lexical access are atypical in 9-year-old children born preterm, and whether the findings of acoustic mapping correlate with language- and attention-related skills. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects were fourteen 9-year-old children born preterm and 14 full-term, typically developing controls. Two auditory event-related potential (ERP) components, the N200 and the N400, were used to assess discrimination response and word recognition...
2016: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
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