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David Balota

Shruti Mishra, Brian A Gordon, Yi Su, Jon Christensen, Karl Friedrichsen, Kelley Jackson, Russ Hornbeck, David A Balota, Nigel J Cairns, John C Morris, Beau M Ances, Tammie L S Benzinger
Utilizing [18F]-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography (PET) as an Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarker will require identification of brain regions that are most important in detecting elevated tau pathology in preclinical AD. Here, we utilized an unsupervised learning, data-driven approach to identify brain regions whose tau PET is most informative in discriminating low and high levels of [18F]-AV-1451 binding. 84 cognitively normal participants who had undergone AV-1451 PET imaging were used in a sparse k-means clustering with resampling analysis to identify the regions most informative in dividing a cognitively normal population into high tau and low tau groups...
November 1, 2017: NeuroImage
Mate Gyurkovics, David A Balota, Jonathan D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The frequency of mind-wandering (MW) decreases as a function of age in healthy individuals. One possible explanation is that MW is a resource-dependent process, and cognitive resources decline with age. The present study provides the first investigation of MW in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to further examine the resource model and discontinuities between healthy aging and AD. METHOD: Three large cohorts completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART): a healthy middle-aged group (mean age = 61...
January 2018: Neuropsychology
Peter R Millar, David A Balota, Geoffrey B Maddox, Janet M Duchek, Andrew J Aschenbrenner, Anne M Fagan, Tammie L S Benzinger, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: Recollection and familiarity are independent processes that contribute to memory performance. Recollection is dependent on attentional control, which has been shown to be disrupted in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas familiarity is independent of attention. The present longitudinal study examines the sensitivity of recollection estimates based on Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to AD-related biomarkers in a large sample of well-characterized cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (N = 519) and the extent to which recollection discriminates these individuals from individuals with very mild symptomatic AD (N = 64)...
October 2017: Neuropsychology
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota
In standard attentional control tasks, interference effects are reduced following incongruent trials compared to congruent trials, a phenomenon known as the congruency sequence effect (CSE). Typical explanations of this effect suggest the CSE is due to changes in levels of control across adjacent trials. This interpretation has been questioned by the finding that older adults, individuals with impaired attentional control systems, have been shown to produce larger CSEs in the Stroop task compared with younger adult controls...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota, Alexandra J Weigand, Michele Scaltritti, Derek Besner
A prominent question in visual word recognition is whether letters within a word are processed in parallel or in a left to right sequence. Although most contemporary models posit parallel processing, this notion seems at odds with well-established serial position effects in word identification that indicate preferential processing for the initial letter. The present study reports 4 experiments designed to further probe the locus of the first position processing advantage. The paradigm involved masked target words presented for short durations and required participants to subsequently select from 2 alternatives, 1 which was identical to the target and 1 that differed by a single letter...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Anna Szekely, Eszter Kotyuk, Julianna Bircher, Andrea Vereczkei, David A Balota, Maria Sasvari-Szekely, Zsolt Ronai
Longevity is in part (25%) inherited, and genetic studies aim to uncover allelic variants that play an important role in prolonging life span. Results to date confirm only a few gene variants associated with longevity, while others show inconsistent results. However, GWAS studies concentrate on single nucleotide polymorphisms, and there are only a handful of studies investigating variable number of tandem repeat variations related to longevity. Recently, Grady and colleagues (2013) reported a remarkable (66%) accumulation of those carrying the 7 repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in a large population of 90-109 years old Californian centenarians, as compared to an ancestry-matched young population...
2016: PloS One
David A Balota, Andrew J Aschenbrenner, Melvin J Yap
There has been growing interest in dynamic changes in the lexical processing system across trials, which have typically been assessed via linear mixed effect modelling. In the current study, we explore the influence of previous trial lexicality and previous trial perceptual degradation on the effect of lexicality and degradation on the current trial. The results of analyses of three datasets (two previously published studies and a new study) provide evidence for a robust four-way interaction among previous trial lexicality and degradation and current trial lexicality and degradation effects...
October 26, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Emily R Cohen-Shikora, David A Balota
The current study examines visual word recognition in a large sample (N = 148) across the adult life span and across a large set of stimuli (N = 1,187) in three different lexical processing tasks (pronunciation, lexical decision, and animacy judgment). Although the focus of the present study is on the influence of word frequency, a diverse set of other variables are examined as the word recognition system ages and acquires more experience with language. Computational models and conceptual theories of visual word recognition and aging make differing predictions for age-related changes in the system...
August 2016: Psychology and Aging
Mark J Huff, David A Balota, Keith A Hutchison
We examined whether 2 types of interpolated tasks (i.e., retrieval-practice via free recall or guessing a missing critical item) improved final recognition for related and unrelated word lists relative to restudying or completing a filler task. Both retrieval-practice and guessing tasks improved correct recognition relative to restudy and filler tasks, particularly when study lists were semantically related. However, both retrieval practice and guessing also generally inflated false recognition for the nonpresented critical words...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
David A Balota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Mark J Huff, David A Balota, Meredith Minear, Andrew J Aschenbrenner, Janet M Duchek
A task-switching paradigm was used to examine differences in attentional control across younger adults, middle-aged adults, healthy older adults, and individuals classified in the earliest detectable stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A large sample of participants (570) completed a switching task in which participants were cued to classify the letter (consonant/vowel) or number (odd/even) task-set dimension of a bivalent stimulus (e.g., A 14), respectively. A pure block consisting of single-task trials and a switch block consisting of nonswitch and switch trials were completed...
December 2015: Psychology and Aging
Emily R Cohen-Shikora, David A Balota
The current study investigated the extent to which young and older adults are able to direct attention to distinct processes in mapping spelling onto sound. Young and older adults completed either a speeded pronunciation task (reading aloud words) or regularization task (pronouncing words based on spelling-to-sound correspondences, e.g., pronouncing PINT such that it rhymes with HINT) in order to bias processing of lexical, whole-word information, or sublexical, spelling-to-sound mapping, respectively. Both younger and older adults produced reduced word-frequency effects and lexicality effects in the regularization task compared to the normal pronunciation task...
2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Steven M Nelson, Neil K Savalia, Andrew K Fishell, Adrian W Gilmore, Fan Zou, David A Balota, Kathleen B McDermott
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures...
August 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota, Brian A Gordon, Roger Ratcliff, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: A family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk of developing AD and can influence the accumulation of well-established AD biomarkers. There is some evidence that family history can influence episodic memory performance even in cognitively normal individuals. We attempted to replicate the effect of family history on episodic memory and used a specific computational model of binary decision making (the diffusion model) to understand precisely how family history influences cognition...
February 2016: Neuropsychology
Emmanuel Keuleers, David A Balota
This paper introduces and summarizes the special issue on megastudies, crowdsourcing, and large datasets in psycholinguistics. We provide a brief historical overview and show how the papers in this issue have extended the field by compiling new databases and making important theoretical contributions. In addition, we discuss several studies that use text corpora to build distributional semantic models to tackle various interesting problems in psycholinguistics. Finally, as is the case across the papers, we highlight some methodological issues that are brought forth via the analyses of such datasets...
2015: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Eszter Kotyuk, Janet Duchek, Denise Head, Anna Szekely, Alison M Goate, David A Balota
Association studies between the NEO five factor personality inventory and COMT rs4680 have focused on young adults and the results have been inconsistent. However, personality and cortical changes with age may put older adults in a more sensitive range for detecting a relationship. The present study examined associations of COMT rs4680 and personality in older adults. Genetic association analyses were carried out between the NEO and the targeted COMT rs4680 in a large, well-characterized sample of healthy, cognitively normal older adults (N = 616, mean age = 69...
August 1, 2015: Personality and Individual Differences
Brian A Gordon, Jeffrey M Zacks, Tyler Blazey, Tammie L S Benzinger, John C Morris, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman, David A Balota
There is a growing emphasis on examining preclinical levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in the absence of cognitive impairment. Previous work examining biomarkers has focused almost exclusively on memory, although there is mounting evidence that attention also declines early in disease progression. In the current experiment, 2 attentional control tasks were used to examine alterations in task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data related to biomarkers of AD pathology. Seventy-one cognitively normal individuals (femalesĀ = 44, mean ageĀ = 63...
May 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
Geoffrey B Maddox, David A Balota
In the present study, we examined how the function relating continued retrieval practice (e.g., one, three, or five tests) and long-term memory retention is modulated by desirable difficulty (R. A. Bjork, 1994). Of particular interest was how retrieval difficulty differed across young and older adults and across manipulations of lag (Exp. 1) and spacing (Exp. 2). To extend on previous studies, the acquisition phase response latency was used as a proxy for retrieval difficulty, and our analysis of final-test performance was conditionalized on acquisition phase retrieval success, to more directly examine the influence of desirable difficulty on retention...
July 2015: Memory & Cognition
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota
Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task...
March 2015: Psychology and Aging
Melvin J Yap, Daragh E Sibley, David A Balota, Roger Ratcliff, Jay Rueckl
Researchers have extensively documented how various statistical properties of words (e.g., word frequency) influence lexical processing. However, the impact of lexical variables on nonword decision-making performance is less clear. This gap is surprising, because a better specification of the mechanisms driving nonword responses may provide valuable insights into early lexical processes. In the present study, item-level and participant-level analyses were conducted on the trial-level lexical decision data for almost 37,000 nonwords in the English Lexicon Project in order to identify the influence of different psycholinguistic variables on nonword lexical decision performance and to explore individual differences in how participants respond to nonwords...
May 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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