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David Balota

Emily R Cohen-Shikora, David A Balota
The current study examines visual word recognition in a large sample (N = 148) across the adult life span and across a large set of stimuli (N = 1,187) in three different lexical processing tasks (pronunciation, lexical decision, and animacy judgment). Although the focus of the present study is on the influence of word frequency, a diverse set of other variables are examined as the word recognition system ages and acquires more experience with language. Computational models and conceptual theories of visual word recognition and aging make differing predictions for age-related changes in the system...
August 2016: Psychology and Aging
Mark J Huff, David A Balota, Keith A Hutchison
We examined whether 2 types of interpolated tasks (i.e., retrieval-practice via free recall or guessing a missing critical item) improved final recognition for related and unrelated word lists relative to restudying or completing a filler task. Both retrieval-practice and guessing tasks improved correct recognition relative to restudy and filler tasks, particularly when study lists were semantically related. However, both retrieval practice and guessing also generally inflated false recognition for the nonpresented critical words...
March 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
David A Balota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Mark J Huff, David A Balota, Meredith Minear, Andrew J Aschenbrenner, Janet M Duchek
A task-switching paradigm was used to examine differences in attentional control across younger adults, middle-aged adults, healthy older adults, and individuals classified in the earliest detectable stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A large sample of participants (570) completed a switching task in which participants were cued to classify the letter (consonant/vowel) or number (odd/even) task-set dimension of a bivalent stimulus (e.g., A 14), respectively. A pure block consisting of single-task trials and a switch block consisting of nonswitch and switch trials were completed...
December 2015: Psychology and Aging
Emily R Cohen-Shikora, David A Balota
The current study investigated the extent to which young and older adults are able to direct attention to distinct processes in mapping spelling onto sound. Young and older adults completed either a speeded pronunciation task (reading aloud words) or regularization task (pronouncing words based on spelling-to-sound correspondences, e.g., pronouncing PINT such that it rhymes with HINT) in order to bias processing of lexical, whole-word information, or sublexical, spelling-to-sound mapping, respectively. Both younger and older adults produced reduced word-frequency effects and lexicality effects in the regularization task compared to the normal pronunciation task...
2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Steven M Nelson, Neil K Savalia, Andrew K Fishell, Adrian W Gilmore, Fan Zou, David A Balota, Kathleen B McDermott
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures...
August 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota, Brian A Gordon, Roger Ratcliff, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: A family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk of developing AD and can influence the accumulation of well-established AD biomarkers. There is some evidence that family history can influence episodic memory performance even in cognitively normal individuals. We attempted to replicate the effect of family history on episodic memory and used a specific computational model of binary decision making (the diffusion model) to understand precisely how family history influences cognition...
February 2016: Neuropsychology
Emmanuel Keuleers, David A Balota
This paper introduces and summarizes the special issue on megastudies, crowdsourcing, and large datasets in psycholinguistics. We provide a brief historical overview and show how the papers in this issue have extended the field by compiling new databases and making important theoretical contributions. In addition, we discuss several studies that use text corpora to build distributional semantic models to tackle various interesting problems in psycholinguistics. Finally, as is the case across the papers, we highlight some methodological issues that are brought forth via the analyses of such datasets...
2015: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Eszter Kotyuk, Janet Duchek, Denise Head, Anna Szekely, Alison M Goate, David A Balota
Association studies between the NEO five factor personality inventory and COMT rs4680 have focused on young adults and the results have been inconsistent. However, personality and cortical changes with age may put older adults in a more sensitive range for detecting a relationship. The present study examined associations of COMT rs4680 and personality in older adults. Genetic association analyses were carried out between the NEO and the targeted COMT rs4680 in a large, well-characterized sample of healthy, cognitively normal older adults (N = 616, mean age = 69...
August 1, 2015: Personality and Individual Differences
Brian A Gordon, Jeffrey M Zacks, Tyler Blazey, Tammie L S Benzinger, John C Morris, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman, David A Balota
There is a growing emphasis on examining preclinical levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in the absence of cognitive impairment. Previous work examining biomarkers has focused almost exclusively on memory, although there is mounting evidence that attention also declines early in disease progression. In the current experiment, 2 attentional control tasks were used to examine alterations in task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data related to biomarkers of AD pathology. Seventy-one cognitively normal individuals (females = 44, mean age = 63...
May 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
Geoffrey B Maddox, David A Balota
In the present study, we examined how the function relating continued retrieval practice (e.g., one, three, or five tests) and long-term memory retention is modulated by desirable difficulty (R. A. Bjork, 1994). Of particular interest was how retrieval difficulty differed across young and older adults and across manipulations of lag (Exp. 1) and spacing (Exp. 2). To extend on previous studies, the acquisition phase response latency was used as a proxy for retrieval difficulty, and our analysis of final-test performance was conditionalized on acquisition phase retrieval success, to more directly examine the influence of desirable difficulty on retention...
July 2015: Memory & Cognition
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota
Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task...
March 2015: Psychology and Aging
Melvin J Yap, Daragh E Sibley, David A Balota, Roger Ratcliff, Jay Rueckl
Researchers have extensively documented how various statistical properties of words (e.g., word frequency) influence lexical processing. However, the impact of lexical variables on nonword decision-making performance is less clear. This gap is surprising, because a better specification of the mechanisms driving nonword responses may provide valuable insights into early lexical processes. In the present study, item-level and participant-level analyses were conducted on the trial-level lexical decision data for almost 37,000 nonwords in the English Lexicon Project in order to identify the influence of different psycholinguistic variables on nonword lexical decision performance and to explore individual differences in how participants respond to nonwords...
May 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota, Chi-Shing Tse, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman, Tammie L S Benzinger, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: Past studies have shown that measures of attentional control and semantic memory are sensitive markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The effects of established biomarkers of AD (cerebrospinal fluid tau and amyloid-beta42, positron emission tomography Pittsburgh compound-B, and apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype) on concurrent cognitive performance in cognitively normal individuals have been mixed. The present study examined the utility of combining attentional control with semantic retrieval as a sensitive correlate of AD biomarkers and used mediation analyses to examine possible mechanisms by which the biomarkers influence cognition...
May 2015: Neuropsychology
Fabienne Chetail, David Balota, Rebecca Treiman, Alain Content
Although the majority of research in visual word recognition has targeted single-syllable words, most words are polysyllabic. These words engender special challenges, one of which concerns their analysis into smaller units. According to a recent hypothesis, the organization of letters into groups of successive consonants (C) and vowels (V) constrains the orthographic structure of printed words. So far, evidence has been reported only in French with factorial studies of relatively small sets of items. In the present study, we performed regression analyses on corpora of megastudies (English and British Lexicon Project databases) to examine the influence of the CV pattern in English...
2015: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jim M Monti, David A Balota, David E Warren, Neal J Cohen
Early pathology and tissue loss in Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) occurs in the hippocampus, a brain region that has recently been implicated in relational processing irrespective of delay. Thus, tasks that involve relational processing will especially tax the hippocampal memory system, and should be sensitive to even mild dysfunction typical of early AD. Here we used a short-lag, short-delay memory task previously shown to be sensitive to hippocampal integrity in an effort to discriminate cognitive changes due to healthy aging from those associated with very mild AD...
July 2014: Neuropsychologia
Mary A Pyc, David A Balota, Kathleen B McDermott, Tim Tully, Henry L Roediger
Although the benefits of spaced retrieval for long-term retention are well established, the majority of this work has involved spacing over relatively short intervals (on the order of seconds or minutes). In the present experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of spaced retrieval across relatively short intervals (within a single session), as compared to longer intervals (between sessions spaced a day apart), for long-term retention (i.e., one day or one week). Across a series of seven experiments, participants (N = 536) learned paired associates to a criterion of 70 % accuracy and then received one test-feedback trial for each item...
August 2014: Memory & Cognition
Martha Storandt, David A Balota, Andrew J Aschenbrenner, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to describe clinical, cognitive, and personality characteristics at baseline assessment of 249 participants, 19 to 60 years of age, in a multinational longitudinal study of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). METHOD: Participants (74% cognitively normal) were from ADAD families with mutations in 1 of 3 genes (APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2). Mixed model analyses, including family as a random variable and controlling for years from expected time of symptomatic onset of ADAD based on parental age at onset, compared 3 groups (cognitively normal mutation noncarriers, cognitively normal mutation carriers, very mildly impaired mutation carriers)...
January 2014: Neuropsychology
Jonathan D Jackson, Yana Weinstein, David A Balota
Recent research has examined how often mind-wandering occurs about past vs. future events. However, mind-wandering may also be atemporal, although previous investigations of this possibility have not yielded consistent results. Indeed, it is unclear what proportion of mind-wandering is atemporal, and also how an atemporal response option would affect the future-oriented bias often reported during low-demand tasks used to measure mind-wandering. The present study examined self-reported (Experiment 1) and probe-caught (Experiment 2) mind-wandering using the low-demand Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) in younger (18-30) and older (50-73) adults in an experimental paradigm developed to measure mind-wandering using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (Mturk)...
2013: Frontiers in Psychology
Janet M Duchek, David A Balota, Jewell B Thomas, Abraham Z Snyder, Patrick Rich, Tammie L Benzinger, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman, John C Morris, Beau M Ances
OBJECTIVE: Early biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are needed for developing therapeutic interventions. Measures of attentional control in Stroop-type tasks discriminate healthy aging from early stage AD and predict future development of AD in cognitively normal individuals. Disruption in resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) has been reported in AD and in healthy controls at risk for AD. We explored the relationship among Stroop performance, rs-fcMRI, and CSF Aβ₄₂ levels in cognitively normal older adults...
September 2013: Neuropsychology
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