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Cheryl Grady

Nicole D Anderson, Patricia L Ebert, Cheryl L Grady, Janine M Jennings
The objectives of this study were to replicate age-related decrements in recollection and source memory, and to determine if repetition lag training improves recollection and whether these effects maintain and transfer to other tasks. Sixteen young adults and 46 healthy older adults participated, the latter of whom comprised hi-old (n = 16) and lo-old (n = 30) based on neuropsychological memory tests. All participants completed memory tests and questionnaires at baseline, and then half of the lo-old underwent nine days of repetition lag training while the other half engaged in a 9-day active control program...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Tarek Amer, Kelly S Giovanello, Cheryl L Grady, Lynn Hasher
Older adults typically show poor associative memory performance relative to younger adults. This age-related effect, however, is mediated by the meaningfulness of the materials used, such that age differences are minimized with the use of information that is consistent with prior knowledge. While this effect has been interpreted as facilitative learning through schematic support, the role of memory retrieval on this effect has yet to be explored. Using an associative memory paradigm that varied the extent of controlled retrieval for previously studied meaningful or arbitrary associations, older and younger adults in the present study retrieved realistic and unrealistic grocery item prices in a speeded, or in a slow, more control-based retrieval condition...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Kyra Bonasia, Melanie J Sekeres, Asaf Gilboa, Cheryl L Grady, Gordon Winocur, Morris Moscovitch
Congruence with prior knowledge and novelty have long been identified as two prominent factors that, despite their opposing characteristics, can both enhance episodic memory. Using narrative film clip stimuli, this study investigated these effects in naturalistic event memories - examining behaviour and neural activation to help explain this paradox. Furthermore, we examined encoding, immediate retrieval, and one-week delayed retrieval to determine how these effects evolve over time. Behaviourally, both congruence with prior knowledge and incongruence/novelty enhanced memory for events, though incongruent events were recalled with more errors over time...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
John A E Anderson, John G Grundy, Jaisalmer De Frutos, Ryan M Barker, Cheryl Grady, Ellen Bialystok
Bilingualism can delay the onset of dementia symptoms and has thus been characterized as a mechanism for cognitive or brain reserve, although the origin of this reserve is unknown. Studies with young adults generally show that bilingualism is associated with a strengthening of white matter, but there is conflicting evidence for how bilingualism affects white matter in older age. Given that bilingualism has been shown to help stave off the symptoms of dementia by up to four years, it is crucial that we clarify the mechanism underlying this reserve...
November 22, 2017: NeuroImage
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Patrick M Fisher, Nathan W Churchill, Vincent Beliveau, Cheryl Grady, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Background: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder characterized by seasonally occurring depression that often presents with atypical vegetative symptoms such as hypersomnia and carbohydrate craving. It has recently been shown that unlike healthy people, patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption to the environmental stressor of winter in females with the short 5-HTTLPR genotype, a specific subgroup previously reported to be at increased risk for developing SAD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Zhong-Xu Liu, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
It is known that prior knowledge can facilitate memory acquisition. It is unclear, however, whether prior knowledge can affect post-encoding brain activity to facilitate memory consolidation. In this fMRI study, we asked participants to associate novel houses with famous/nonfamous faces and investigated how associative-encoding tasks with/without prior knowledge differentially affected post-encoding brain connectivity during rest. Besides memory advantages in the famous condition, we found that post-encoding hippocampal connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA) and ventral-medial-prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was stronger following encoding of associations with famous than non-famous faces...
November 20, 2017: NeuroImage
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
December 2017: NeuroImage
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Because both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N = 359, 22-36 years, 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Liesel-Ann Meusel, Cheryl L Grady, Patricia E Ebert, Nicole D Anderson
There is considerable evidence for age-related decrements in source memory retrieval, but the literature on the neural correlates of these impairments is mixed. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine source memory retrieval-related brain activity, and the monotonic relationship between retrieval-related brain activity and source memory accuracy, as a function of both healthy aging (younger vs older) and memory ability within the older adult group (Hi-Old vs Lo-Old). Participants studied lists of word pairs, half visually, half aurally; these were re-presented visually in a scanned test phase and participants indicated if the pair was 'seen' or 'heard' in the study phase...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
John A E Anderson, Saman Sarraf, Tarek Amer, Buddhika Bellana, Vincent Man, Karen L Campbell, Lynn Hasher, Cheryl L Grady
Testing older adults in the morning generally improves behavioral performance relative to afternoon testing. Morning testing is also associated with brain activity similar to that of young adults. Here, we used graph theory to explore how time of day (TOD) affects the organization of brain networks in older adults across rest and task states. We used nodes from the automated anatomical labeling atlas to construct participant-specific correlation matrices of fMRI data obtained during 1-back tasks with interference and rest...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Rosanna K Olsen, Vinoja Sebanayagam, Yunjo Lee, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Jennifer D Ryan
There is consistent agreement regarding the positive relationship between cumulative eye movement sampling and subsequent recognition, but the role of the hippocampus in this sampling behavior is currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the eye movement repetition effect, i.e., fewer fixations to repeated, compared to novel, stimuli, depends on explicit recognition and/or an intact hippocampal system. We investigated the relationship between cumulative sampling, the eye movement repetition effect, subsequent memory, and the hippocampal system...
December 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Nathan W Churchill, Robyn Spring, Cheryl Grady, Bernadine Cimprich, Mary K Askren, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Mi Sook Jung, Scott Peltier, Stephen C Strother, Marc G Berman
There is growing evidence that fluctuations in brain activity may exhibit scale-free ("fractal") dynamics. Scale-free signals follow a spectral-power curve of the form P(f ) ∝ f(-β), where spectral power decreases in a power-law fashion with increasing frequency. In this study, we demonstrated that fractal scaling of BOLD fMRI signal is consistently suppressed for different sources of cognitive effort. Decreases in the Hurst exponent (H), which quantifies scale-free signal, was related to three different sources of cognitive effort/task engagement: 1) task difficulty, 2) task novelty, and 3) aging effects...
August 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tarek Amer, John A E Anderson, Karen L Campbell, Lynn Hasher, Cheryl L Grady
Older adults show decrements in the ability to ignore or suppress distraction relative to younger adults. However, age differences in the neural correlates of distraction control and the role of large-scale network interaction in regulating distractors are scarcely examined. In the current study, we investigated age differences in how the anticorrelation between an externally oriented dorsal attention network (DAN) and an internally focused default mode network (DMN) is related to inhibiting distractors presented during a 1-back working memory task...
October 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Cheryl Grady, Saman Sarraf, Cristina Saverino, Karen Campbell
Older adults typically show weaker functional connectivity (FC) within brain networks compared with young adults, but stronger functional connections between networks. Our primary aim here was to use a graph theoretical approach to identify age differences in the FC of 3 networks-default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network, and frontoparietal control (FPC)-during rest and task conditions and test the hypothesis that age differences in the FPC would influence age differences in the other networks, consistent with its role as a cognitive "switch...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Cristina Saverino, Zainab Fatima, Saman Sarraf, Anita Oder, Stephen C Strother, Cheryl L Grady
Human aging is characterized by reductions in the ability to remember associations between items, despite intact memory for single items. Older adults also show less selectivity in task-related brain activity, such that patterns of activation become less distinct across multiple experimental tasks. This reduced selectivity or dedifferentiation has been found for episodic memory, which is often reduced in older adults, but not for semantic memory, which is maintained with age. We used fMRI to investigate whether there is a specific reduction in selectivity of brain activity during associative encoding in older adults, but not during item encoding, and whether this reduction predicts associative memory performance...
September 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Zhong-Xu Liu, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
Forming new associations is a fundamental process of building our knowledge system. At the brain level, how prior-knowledge influences acquisition of novel associations has not been thoroughly investigated. Based on recent cognitive neuroscience literature on multiple-component memory processing, we hypothesize that prior-knowledge triggers additional evaluative, semantic, or episodic-binding processes, mainly supported by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior temporal pole (aTPL), and hippocampus (HPC), to facilitate new memory encoding...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Melanie J Sekeres, Kyra Bonasia, Marie St-Laurent, Sara Pishdadian, Gordon Winocur, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults...
February 2016: Learning & Memory
Buddhika Bellana, Zhongxu Liu, John A E Anderson, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady
INTRODUCTION: The angular gyrus (AG) is consistently reported in neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval and is a fundamental node within the default mode network (DMN). Its specific contribution to episodic memory is debated, with some suggesting it is important for the subjective experience of episodic recollection, rather than retrieval of objective episodic details. Across studies of episodic retrieval, the left AG is recruited more reliably than the right. We explored functional connectivity of the right and left AG with the DMN during rest and retrieval to assess whether connectivity could provide insight into the nature of this laterality effect...
January 8, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Raluca Petrican, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl Grady
Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors...
October 2015: Neuropsychologia
Raluca Petrican, Cristina Saverino, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl Grady
Current evidence suggests that two spatially distinct neuroanatomical networks, the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the default mode network (DMN), support externally and internally oriented cognition, respectively, and are functionally regulated by a third, frontoparietal control network (FPC). Interactions among these networks contribute to normal variations in cognitive functioning and to the aberrant affective profiles present in certain clinical conditions, such as major depression. Nevertheless, their links to non-clinical variations in affective functioning are still poorly understood...
December 2015: NeuroImage
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