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Cheryl Grady

Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Because both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N = 359, 22-36 years, 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Liesel-Ann Meusel, Cheryl L Grady, Patricia E Ebert, Nicole D Anderson
There is considerable evidence for age-related decrements in source memory retrieval, but the literature on the neural correlates of these impairments is mixed. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine source memory retrieval-related brain activity, and the monotonic relationship between retrieval-related brain activity and source memory accuracy, as a function of both healthy aging (younger vs older) and memory ability within the older adult group (Hi-Old vs Lo-Old). Participants studied lists of word pairs, half visually, half aurally; these were re-presented visually in a scanned test phase and participants indicated if the pair was 'seen' or 'heard' in the study phase...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
John A E Anderson, Saman Sarraf, Tarek Amer, Buddhika Bellana, Vincent Man, Karen L Campbell, Lynn Hasher, Cheryl L Grady
Testing older adults in the morning generally improves behavioral performance relative to afternoon testing. Morning testing is also associated with brain activity similar to that of young adults. Here, we used graph theory to explore how time of day (TOD) affects the organization of brain networks in older adults across rest and task states. We used nodes from the automated anatomical labeling atlas to construct participant-specific correlation matrices of fMRI data obtained during 1-back tasks with interference and rest...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Rosanna K Olsen, Vinoja Sebanayagam, Yunjo Lee, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Jennifer D Ryan
There is consistent agreement regarding the positive relationship between cumulative eye movement sampling and subsequent recognition, but the role of the hippocampus in this sampling behavior is currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the eye movement repetition effect, i.e., fewer fixations to repeated, compared to novel, stimuli, depends on explicit recognition and/or an intact hippocampal system. We investigated the relationship between cumulative sampling, the eye movement repetition effect, subsequent memory, and the hippocampal system...
December 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Nathan W Churchill, Robyn Spring, Cheryl Grady, Bernadine Cimprich, Mary K Askren, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Mi Sook Jung, Scott Peltier, Stephen C Strother, Marc G Berman
There is growing evidence that fluctuations in brain activity may exhibit scale-free ("fractal") dynamics. Scale-free signals follow a spectral-power curve of the form P(f ) ∝ f(-β), where spectral power decreases in a power-law fashion with increasing frequency. In this study, we demonstrated that fractal scaling of BOLD fMRI signal is consistently suppressed for different sources of cognitive effort. Decreases in the Hurst exponent (H), which quantifies scale-free signal, was related to three different sources of cognitive effort/task engagement: 1) task difficulty, 2) task novelty, and 3) aging effects...
August 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tarek Amer, John A E Anderson, Karen L Campbell, Lynn Hasher, Cheryl L Grady
Older adults show decrements in the ability to ignore or suppress distraction relative to younger adults. However, age differences in the neural correlates of distraction control and the role of large-scale network interaction in regulating distractors are scarcely examined. In the current study, we investigated age differences in how the anticorrelation between an externally oriented dorsal attention network (DAN) and an internally focused default mode network (DMN) is related to inhibiting distractors presented during a 1-back working memory task...
October 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Cheryl Grady, Saman Sarraf, Cristina Saverino, Karen Campbell
Older adults typically show weaker functional connectivity (FC) within brain networks compared with young adults, but stronger functional connections between networks. Our primary aim here was to use a graph theoretical approach to identify age differences in the FC of 3 networks-default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network, and frontoparietal control (FPC)-during rest and task conditions and test the hypothesis that age differences in the FPC would influence age differences in the other networks, consistent with its role as a cognitive "switch...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Cristina Saverino, Zainab Fatima, Saman Sarraf, Anita Oder, Stephen C Strother, Cheryl L Grady
Human aging is characterized by reductions in the ability to remember associations between items, despite intact memory for single items. Older adults also show less selectivity in task-related brain activity, such that patterns of activation become less distinct across multiple experimental tasks. This reduced selectivity or dedifferentiation has been found for episodic memory, which is often reduced in older adults, but not for semantic memory, which is maintained with age. We used fMRI to investigate whether there is a specific reduction in selectivity of brain activity during associative encoding in older adults, but not during item encoding, and whether this reduction predicts associative memory performance...
September 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Zhong-Xu Liu, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
Forming new associations is a fundamental process of building our knowledge system. At the brain level, how prior-knowledge influences acquisition of novel associations has not been thoroughly investigated. Based on recent cognitive neuroscience literature on multiple-component memory processing, we hypothesize that prior-knowledge triggers additional evaluative, semantic, or episodic-binding processes, mainly supported by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior temporal pole (aTPL), and hippocampus (HPC), to facilitate new memory encoding...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Melanie J Sekeres, Kyra Bonasia, Marie St-Laurent, Sara Pishdadian, Gordon Winocur, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults...
February 2016: Learning & Memory
Buddhika Bellana, Zhongxu Liu, John A E Anderson, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady
INTRODUCTION: The angular gyrus (AG) is consistently reported in neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval and is a fundamental node within the default mode network (DMN). Its specific contribution to episodic memory is debated, with some suggesting it is important for the subjective experience of episodic recollection, rather than retrieval of objective episodic details. Across studies of episodic retrieval, the left AG is recruited more reliably than the right. We explored functional connectivity of the right and left AG with the DMN during rest and retrieval to assess whether connectivity could provide insight into the nature of this laterality effect...
January 8, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Raluca Petrican, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl Grady
Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors...
October 2015: Neuropsychologia
Raluca Petrican, Cristina Saverino, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl Grady
Current evidence suggests that two spatially distinct neuroanatomical networks, the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the default mode network (DMN), support externally and internally oriented cognition, respectively, and are functionally regulated by a third, frontoparietal control network (FPC). Interactions among these networks contribute to normal variations in cognitive functioning and to the aberrant affective profiles present in certain clinical conditions, such as major depression. Nevertheless, their links to non-clinical variations in affective functioning are still poorly understood...
December 2015: NeuroImage
Raluca Petrican, Rachel Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl Grady
Resonance with the inner states of another social actor is regarded as a hallmark of emotional closeness. Nevertheless, sensitivity to potential incongruities between one's own and an intimate partner's subjective experience is reportedly also important for close relationship quality. Here, we tested whether perceivers show greater neurobehavioral responsiveness to a spouse's positive (rather than negative) context-incongruent emotions, and whether this effect is influenced by the perceiver's satisfaction with the relationship...
October 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Patrick M Fisher, Cheryl L Grady, Martin K Madsen, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 76 healthy adults...
July 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Diana Kwon, David Maillet, Stamatoula Pasvanis, Elizabeth Ankudowich, Cheryl L Grady, M Natasha Rajah
The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA...
June 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Rosanna K Olsen, Yunjo Lee, Jana Kube, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl L Grady, Morris Moscovitch, Jennifer D Ryan
Current theories state that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory representations regarding relations, whereas extrahippocampal cortical regions support representations for single items. However, findings of impaired item memory in hippocampal amnesics suggest a more nuanced role for the hippocampus in item memory. The hippocampus may be necessary when the item elements need to be bound within and across episodes to form a lasting representation that can be used flexibly. The current investigation was designed to test this hypothesis in face recognition...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Grady E Maddox, Jonathan Ludwig, Eric R Craig, David Woods, Aaron Joiner, Nilesh Chaudhari, Cheryl Killingsworth, Gene P Siegal, Alan Eberhardt, Brent Ponce
PURPOSE: To compare and analyze biomechanical properties and histological characteristics of flexor tendons either repaired by a 4-strand modified Kessler technique or using barbed suture with a knotless repair technique in an in vivo model. METHODS: A total of 25 chickens underwent surgical transection of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon followed by either a 4-strand Kessler repair or a knotless repair with barbed suture. Chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups with various postoperative times to death...
May 2015: Journal of Hand Surgery
Rosanna K Olsen, Melissa M Pangelinan, Cari Bogulski, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gigi Luk, Cheryl L Grady, Ellen Bialystok
Lifelong bilingualism is associated with the delayed diagnosis of dementia, suggesting bilingual experience is relevant to brain health in aging. While the effects of bilingualism on cognitive functions across the lifespan are well documented, less is known about the neural substrates underlying differential behaviour. It is clear that bilingualism affects brain regions that mediate language abilities and that these regions are at least partially overlapping with those that exhibit age-related decline. Moreover, the behavioural advantages observed in bilingualism are generally found in executive function performance, suggesting that the frontal lobes may also be sensitive to bilingualism, which exhibit volume reductions with age...
July 1, 2015: Brain Research
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