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Cheryl Grady

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842701/the-relationship-between-eye-movements-and-subsequent-recognition-evidence-from-individual-differences-and-amnesia
#1
Rosanna K Olsen, Vinoja Sebanayagam, Yunjo Lee, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Jennifer D Ryan
There is consistent agreement regarding the positive relationship between cumulative eye movement sampling and subsequent recognition, but the role of the hippocampus in this sampling behavior is currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the eye movement repetition effect, i.e., fewer fixations to repeated, compared to novel, stimuli, depends on explicit recognition and/or an intact hippocampal system. We investigated the relationship between cumulative sampling, the eye movement repetition effect, subsequent memory, and the hippocampal system...
October 22, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498696/the-suppression-of-scale-free-fmri-brain-dynamics-across-three-different-sources-of-effort-aging-task-novelty-and-task-difficulty
#2
Nathan W Churchill, Robyn Spring, Cheryl Grady, Bernadine Cimprich, Mary K Askren, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Mi Sook Jung, Scott Peltier, Stephen C Strother, Marc G Berman
There is growing evidence that fluctuations in brain activity may exhibit scale-free ("fractal") dynamics. Scale-free signals follow a spectral-power curve of the form P(f ) ∝ f(-β), where spectral power decreases in a power-law fashion with increasing frequency. In this study, we demonstrated that fractal scaling of BOLD fMRI signal is consistently suppressed for different sources of cognitive effort. Decreases in the Hurst exponent (H), which quantifies scale-free signal, was related to three different sources of cognitive effort/task engagement: 1) task difficulty, 2) task novelty, and 3) aging effects...
August 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338513/age-differences-in-the-neural-correlates-of-distraction-regulation-a-network-interaction-approach
#3
Tarek Amer, John A E Anderson, Karen L Campbell, Lynn Hasher, Cheryl L Grady
Older adults show decrements in the ability to ignore or suppress distraction relative to younger adults. However, age differences in the neural correlates of distraction control and the role of large-scale network interaction in regulating distractors are scarcely examined. In the current study, we investigated age differences in how the anticorrelation between an externally oriented dorsal attention network (DAN) and an internally focused default mode network (DMN) is related to inhibiting distractors presented during a 1-back working memory task...
June 20, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103529/age-differences-in-the-functional-interactions-among-the-default-frontoparietal-control-and-dorsal-attention-networks
#4
Cheryl Grady, Saman Sarraf, Cristina Saverino, Karen Campbell
Older adults typically show weaker functional connectivity (FC) within brain networks compared with young adults, but stronger functional connections between networks. Our primary aim here was to use a graph theoretical approach to identify age differences in the FC of 3 networks-default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network, and frontoparietal control (FPC)-during rest and task conditions and test the hypothesis that age differences in the FPC would influence age differences in the other networks, consistent with its role as a cognitive "switch...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082043/the-associative-memory-deficit-in-aging-is-related-to-reduced-selectivity-of-brain-activity-during-encoding
#5
Cristina Saverino, Zainab Fatima, Saman Sarraf, Anita Oder, Stephen C Strother, Cheryl L Grady
Human aging is characterized by reductions in the ability to remember associations between items, despite intact memory for single items. Older adults also show less selectivity in task-related brain activity, such that patterns of activation become less distinct across multiple experimental tasks. This reduced selectivity or dedifferentiation has been found for episodic memory, which is often reduced in older adults, but not for semantic memory, which is maintained with age. We used fMRI to investigate whether there is a specific reduction in selectivity of brain activity during associative encoding in older adults, but not during item encoding, and whether this reduction predicts associative memory performance...
September 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941384/effects-of-prior-knowledge-on-brain-activation-and-connectivity-during-associative-memory-encoding
#6
Zhong-Xu Liu, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
Forming new associations is a fundamental process of building our knowledge system. At the brain level, how prior-knowledge influences acquisition of novel associations has not been thoroughly investigated. Based on recent cognitive neuroscience literature on multiple-component memory processing, we hypothesize that prior-knowledge triggers additional evaluative, semantic, or episodic-binding processes, mainly supported by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior temporal pole (aTPL), and hippocampus (HPC), to facilitate new memory encoding...
March 3, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26773100/recovering-and-preventing-loss-of-detailed-memory-differential-rates-of-forgetting-for-detail-types-in-episodic-memory
#7
Melanie J Sekeres, Kyra Bonasia, Marie St-Laurent, Sara Pishdadian, Gordon Winocur, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults...
February 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559474/laterality-effects-in-functional-connectivity-of-the-angular-gyrus-during-rest-and-episodic-retrieval
#8
Buddhika Bellana, Zhongxu Liu, John A E Anderson, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady
INTRODUCTION: The angular gyrus (AG) is consistently reported in neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval and is a fundamental node within the default mode network (DMN). Its specific contribution to episodic memory is debated, with some suggesting it is important for the subjective experience of episodic recollection, rather than retrieval of objective episodic details. Across studies of episodic retrieval, the left AG is recruited more reliably than the right. We explored functional connectivity of the right and left AG with the DMN during rest and retrieval to assess whether connectivity could provide insight into the nature of this laterality effect...
January 8, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365712/expressive-suppression-and-neural-responsiveness-to-nonverbal-affective-cues
#9
Raluca Petrican, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl Grady
Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors...
October 2015: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26302674/inter-individual-differences-in-the-experience-of-negative-emotion-predict-variations-in-functional-brain-architecture
#10
Raluca Petrican, Cristina Saverino, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl Grady
Current evidence suggests that two spatially distinct neuroanatomical networks, the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the default mode network (DMN), support externally and internally oriented cognition, respectively, and are functionally regulated by a third, frontoparietal control network (FPC). Interactions among these networks contribute to normal variations in cognitive functioning and to the aberrant affective profiles present in certain clinical conditions, such as major depression. Nevertheless, their links to non-clinical variations in affective functioning are still poorly understood...
December 2015: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26219536/neural-activity-patterns-evoked-by-a-spouse-s-incongruent-emotional-reactions-when-recalling-marriage-relevant-experiences
#11
Raluca Petrican, Rachel Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl Grady
Resonance with the inner states of another social actor is regarded as a hallmark of emotional closeness. Nevertheless, sensitivity to potential incongruities between one's own and an intimate partner's subjective experience is reportedly also important for close relationship quality. Here, we tested whether perceivers show greater neurobehavioral responsiveness to a spouse's positive (rather than negative) context-incongruent emotions, and whether this effect is influenced by the perceiver's satisfaction with the relationship...
October 2015: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25929825/5-httlpr-differentially-predicts-brain-network-responses-to-emotional-faces
#12
Patrick M Fisher, Cheryl L Grady, Martin K Madsen, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 76 healthy adults...
July 2015: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25882039/context-memory-decline-in-middle-aged-adults-is-related-to-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-function
#13
Diana Kwon, David Maillet, Stamatoula Pasvanis, Elizabeth Ankudowich, Cheryl L Grady, M Natasha Rajah
The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA...
June 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25834058/the-role-of-relational-binding-in-item-memory-evidence-from-face-recognition-in-a-case-of-developmental-amnesia
#14
Rosanna K Olsen, Yunjo Lee, Jana Kube, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Cheryl L Grady, Morris Moscovitch, Jennifer D Ryan
Current theories state that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory representations regarding relations, whereas extrahippocampal cortical regions support representations for single items. However, findings of impaired item memory in hippocampal amnesics suggest a more nuanced role for the hippocampus in item memory. The hippocampus may be necessary when the item elements need to be bound within and across episodes to form a lasting representation that can be used flexibly. The current investigation was designed to test this hypothesis in face recognition...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25747739/flexor-tendon-repair-with-a-knotless-bidirectional-barbed-suture-an-in-vivo-biomechanical-analysis
#15
Grady E Maddox, Jonathan Ludwig, Eric R Craig, David Woods, Aaron Joiner, Nilesh Chaudhari, Cheryl Killingsworth, Gene P Siegal, Alan Eberhardt, Brent Ponce
PURPOSE: To compare and analyze biomechanical properties and histological characteristics of flexor tendons either repaired by a 4-strand modified Kessler technique or using barbed suture with a knotless repair technique in an in vivo model. METHODS: A total of 25 chickens underwent surgical transection of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon followed by either a 4-strand Kessler repair or a knotless repair with barbed suture. Chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups with various postoperative times to death...
May 2015: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25725380/the-effect-of-lifelong-bilingualism-on-regional-grey-and-white-matter-volume
#16
Rosanna K Olsen, Melissa M Pangelinan, Cari Bogulski, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gigi Luk, Cheryl L Grady, Ellen Bialystok
Lifelong bilingualism is associated with the delayed diagnosis of dementia, suggesting bilingual experience is relevant to brain health in aging. While the effects of bilingualism on cognitive functions across the lifespan are well documented, less is known about the neural substrates underlying differential behaviour. It is clear that bilingualism affects brain regions that mediate language abilities and that these regions are at least partially overlapping with those that exhibit age-related decline. Moreover, the behavioural advantages observed in bilingualism are generally found in executive function performance, suggesting that the frontal lobes may also be sensitive to bilingualism, which exhibit volume reductions with age...
July 1, 2015: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25541365/age-differences-in-brain-activity-related-to-unsuccessful-declarative-memory-retrieval
#17
Cheryl L Grady, Marie St-Laurent, Hana Burianová
Although memory recall is known to be reduced with normal aging, little is known about the patterns of brain activity that accompany these recall failures. By assessing faulty memory, we can identify the brain regions engaged during retrieval attempts in the absence of successful memory and determine the impact of aging on this functional activity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine age differences in brain activity associated with memory failure in three memory retrieval tasks: autobiographical (AM), episodic (EM) and semantic (SM)...
July 1, 2015: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25445783/brain-network-activity-in-monolingual-and-bilingual-older-adults
#18
Cheryl L Grady, Gigi Luk, Fergus I M Craik, Ellen Bialystok
Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs...
January 2015: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25305570/neural-responses-to-monetary-incentives-in-younger-and-older-adults
#19
Julia Spaniol, Holly J Bowen, Pete Wegier, Cheryl Grady
Reward anticipation is associated with activity in the dopaminergic midbrain as well as the ventral striatum, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex. Dopaminergic neuromodulation declines with age, suggesting that incentive processing should also undergo age-related change. However, the literature is mixed, perhaps reflecting variation in the degree to which tasks made demands on learning and memory. Furthermore, the emphasis has been on the reward network, with few studies addressing reward-related activations in other brain regions...
July 1, 2015: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25154600/functional-connectivity-of-hippocampal-and-prefrontal-networks-during-episodic-and-spatial-memory-based-on-real-world-environments
#20
Jessica Robin, Marnie Hirshhorn, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Gordon Winocur, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady
Several recent studies have compared episodic and spatial memory in neuroimaging paradigms in order to understand better the contribution of the hippocampus to each of these tasks. In the present study, we build on previous findings showing common neural activation in default network areas during episodic and spatial memory tasks based on familiar, real-world environments (Hirshhorn et al. (2012) Neuropsychologia 50:3094-3106). Following previous demonstrations of the presence of functionally connected sub-networks within the default network, we performed seed-based functional connectivity analyses to determine how, depending on the task, the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex differentially couple with one another and with distinct whole-brain networks...
January 2015: Hippocampus
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