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Daniel Schacter

Kevin P Madore, Karl K Szpunar, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Recent behavioral work suggests that an episodic specificity induction-brief training in recollecting the details of a past experience-enhances performance on subsequent tasks that rely on episodic retrieval, including imagining future experiences, solving open-ended problems, and thinking creatively. Despite these far-reaching behavioral effects, nothing is known about the neural processes impacted by an episodic specificity induction. Related neuroimaging work has linked episodic retrieval with a core network of brain regions that supports imagining future experiences...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aleea L Devitt, Daniel L Schacter
As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring...
August 31, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Lise Matzke, Sindy Babinszky, Alex Slotty, Anna Meredith, Tania Castillo-Pelayo, Marianne Henderson, Daniel Simeon-Dubach, Brent Schacter, Peter H Watson
The notion of attributing user fees to researchers for biospecimens provided by biobanks has been discussed frequently in the literature. However, the considerations around how to attribute the cost for these biospecimens and data have, until recently, not been well described. Common across most biobank disciplines are similar factors that influence user fees such as capital and operating costs, internal and external demand, and market competition. A biospecimen user fee calculator tool developed by CTRNet, a tumor biobank network, was published in 2014 and is accessible online at www...
August 30, 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Martin J Chadwick, Raeesa S Anjum, Dharshan Kumaran, Daniel L Schacter, Hugo J Spiers, Demis Hassabis
Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Felipe De Brigard, Timothy F Brady, Luka Ruzic, Daniel L Schacter
Previous research has shown that prior knowledge structures or schemas affect recognition memory. However, since the acquisition of schemas occurs over prolonged periods of time, few paradigms allow the direct manipulation of schema acquisition to study their effect on memory performance. Recently, a number of parallelisms in recognition memory between studies involving schemas and studies involving category learning have been identified. The current paper capitalizes on these findings and offers a novel experimental paradigm that allows manipulation of category learning between individuals to study the effects of schema acquisition on recognition...
August 5, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Laura E Paige, Brittany S Cassidy, Daniel L Schacter, Angela H Gutchess
Age-related increases in reliance on gist-based processes can cause increased false recognition. Understanding the neural basis for this increase helps to elucidate a mechanism underlying this vulnerability in memory. We assessed age differences in gist-based false memory by increasing image set size at encoding, thereby increasing the rate of false alarms. False alarms during a recognition test elicited increased hippocampal activity for older adults as compared to younger adults for the small set sizes, whereas the age groups had similar hippocampal activation for items associated with larger set sizes...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
R Nathan Spreng, W Dale Stevens, Joseph D Viviano, Daniel L Schacter
Anticorrelation between the default and dorsal attention networks is a central feature of human functional brain organization. Hallmarks of aging include impaired default network modulation and declining medial temporal lobe (MTL) function. However, it remains unclear if this anticorrelation is preserved into older adulthood during task performance, or how this is related to the intrinsic architecture of the brain. We hypothesized that older adults would show reduced within- and increased between-network functional connectivity (FC) across the default and dorsal attention networks...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Paul Seli, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek, Daniel L Schacter
The past decade has seen a surge of research examining mind-wandering, but most of this research has not considered the potential importance of distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. However, a recent series of papers have demonstrated that mind-wandering reported in empirical investigations frequently occurs with and without intention, and, more crucially, that intentional and unintentional mind-wandering are dissociable. This emerging literature suggests that, to increase clarity in the literature, there is a need to reconsider the bulk of the mind-wandering literature with an eye toward deconvolving these two different cognitive experiences...
August 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Helen G Jing, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although learning through a computer interface has become increasingly common, little is known about how to best structure video-recorded lectures to optimize learning. In 2 experiments, we examine changes in focused attention and the ability for students to integrate knowledge learned during a 40-min video-recorded lecture. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that interpolating a lecture with memory tests (tested group), compared to studying the lecture material for the same amount of time (restudy group), improves overall learning and boosts integration of related information learned both within individual lecture segments and across the entire lecture...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
David Maillet, Daniel L Schacter
In recent years, several studies have indicated that healthy older adults exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering compared with young adults. However, relatively little research has examined the extent to which ongoing thoughts in young and older adults are dependent on environmental stimuli. In the current study, we assessed age-related differences in frequency of stimulus-dependent thoughts (SDTs) and stimulus-independent thoughts (SITs) during a slow-paced incidental encoding task. Based on previous research suggesting that older adults rely on external information to a greater extent than young adults, we hypothesized that ongoing thoughts in older adults may be more stimulus-dependent than in young adults...
June 2016: Psychology and Aging
David Maillet, Daniel L Schacter
During cognitive tasks requiring externally directed attention, activation in the default-network (DN) typically decreases below baseline levels ('deactivation'). Healthy aging is associated with reduced deactivation, which is usually attributed to a failure to suppress DN processes. Recent evidence instead suggests that older adults may be more reliant on DN than young adults when performing these tasks.
September 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Kevin P Madore, Helen G Jing, Daniel L Schacter
Recent research has suggested that an episodic specificity induction-brief training in recollecting the details of a past experience-enhances divergent creative thinking on the alternate uses task (AUT) in young adults, without affecting performance on tasks thought to involve little divergent thinking; however, the generalizability of these results to other populations and tasks is unknown. In the present experiments, we examined whether the effects of an episodic specificity induction would extend to older adults and a different index of divergent thinking, the consequences task...
August 2016: Memory & Cognition
Helen G Jing, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction--brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience--enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants' performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i...
April 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
David Maillet, Daniel L Schacter
The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval...
January 8, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Roger E Beaty, Mathias Benedek, Paul J Silvia, Daniel L Schacter
Creative thinking is central to the arts, sciences, and everyday life. How does the brain produce creative thought? A series of recently published papers has begun to provide insight into this question, reporting a strikingly similar pattern of brain activity and connectivity across a range of creative tasks and domains, from divergent thinking to poetry composition to musical improvisation. This research suggests that creative thought involves dynamic interactions of large-scale brain systems, with the most compelling finding being that the default and executive control networks, which can show an antagonistic relation, tend to cooperate during creative cognition and artistic performance...
February 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Karl K Szpunar, Helen G Jing, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
Simulations of future experiences are often emotionally arousing, and the tendency to repeatedly simulate negative future outcomes has been identified as a predictor of the onset of symptoms of anxiety. Nonetheless, next to nothing is known about how the healthy human brain processes repeated simulations of emotional future events. In this study, we present a paradigm that can be used to study repeated simulations of the emotional future in a manner that overcomes phenomenological confounds between positive and negative events...
2015: PloS One
Timothy Brady, Daniel Schacter, George Alvarez
In addition to allowing us to remember objects and events that we have actually experienced, human memory systems are also subject to distortions, biases, and the creation of false memories. However, there are also potential benefits to our imperfect memory system: there are cases where memory distortion is actually adaptive, increasing the overall accuracy of memories. To examine one case where memory distortion might be adaptive, we had 24 participants view multiple real-world objects from a given category (10 airplanes, 10 backpacks…), and later recall the color of each object via a psychophysical adjustment task that allows us to examine both the variability of internal representations of color and the probability of forgetting an object's color altogether (see Brady et al...
2015: Journal of Vision
Kevin P Madore, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
People produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems after receiving an episodic-specificity induction-brief training in recollecting details of a recent event-than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic-specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited a selective boost on a divergent-thinking task (generating unusual uses of common objects) after a specificity induction compared with a control induction; by contrast, performance following the two inductions was similar on an object association task thought to involve little divergent thinking...
September 2015: Psychological Science
Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
It has been suggested that the simulation of hypothetical episodes and the recollection of past episodes are supported by fundamentally the same set of brain regions. The present article specifies this core network via Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE). Specifically, a first meta-analysis revealed joint engagement of expected core-network regions during episodic memory and episodic simulation. These include parts of the medial surface, the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex within the medial temporal lobes, and the temporal and inferior posterior parietal cortices on the lateral surface...
August 2015: Neuropsychologia
R Nathan Spreng, Kathy D Gerlach, Gary R Turner, Daniel L Schacter
To engage in purposeful behavior, it is important to make plans, which organize subsequent actions. Most studies of planning involve "look-ahead" puzzle tasks that are unrelated to personal goals. We developed a task to assess autobiographical planning, which involves the formulation of personal plans in response to real-world goals, and examined autobiographical planning in 63 adults during fMRI scanning. Autobiographical planning was found to engage the default network, including medial-temporal lobe and midline structures, and executive control regions in lateral pFC and parietal cortex and caudate...
November 2015: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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