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Daniel Schacter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648928/an-optimistic-outlook-creates-a-rosy-past-the-impact-of-episodic-simulation-on-subsequent-memory
#1
Aleea L Devitt, Daniel L Schacter
People frequently engage in future thinking in everyday life, but it is unknown how simulating an event in advance changes how that event is remembered once it takes place. To initiate study of this important topic, we conducted two experiments in which participants simulated emotional events before learning the hypothetical outcome of each event via narratives. Memory was assessed for emotional details contained in those narratives. Positive simulation resulted in a liberal response bias for positive information and a conservative bias for negative information...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572062/better-imagined-neural-correlates-of-the-episodic-simulation-boost-to-prospective-memory-performance
#2
R Nathan Spreng, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic simulation is an adaptive process that can support goal-directed activity and planning success. We investigated the neural architecture associated with the episodic simulation improvement to the likelihood of carrying out future actions by isolating the brain regions associated with this facilitation in a prospective memory paradigm. Participants performed a lexical decision task by making word/non-word judgments, with rarely occurring prospective memory target words requiring a pre-specified manual response...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547349/on-the-clock-evidence-for-the-rapid-and-strategic-modulation-of-mind-wandering
#3
Paul Seli, Jonathan S A Carriere, Jeffrey D Wammes, Evan F Risko, Daniel L Schacter, Daniel Smilek
We examined the hypothesis that people can modulate their mind wandering on the basis of their expectations of upcoming challenges in a task. To this end, we developed a novel paradigm in which participants were presented with an analog clock, via a computer monitor, and asked to push a button every time the clock's hand was pointed at 12:00. Importantly, the time at which the clock's hand was pointed at 12:00 was completely predictable and occurred at 20-s intervals. During some of the 20-s intervals, we presented thought probes to index participants' rates of mind wandering...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494184/flexible-retrieval-mechanisms-supporting-successful-inference-produce-false-memories-in-younger-but-not-older-adults
#4
Alexis C Carpenter, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic memory involves flexible retrieval processes that allow a person to link elements of distinct episodes in order to make novel inferences across events. In younger adults, we recently found that the same retrieval-related recombination mechanism that supports successful associative inference produces source misattributions as a consequence of erroneous binding of contextual elements from distinct episodes. In the current experiment, we found that older adults, in contrast to younger adults, did not show an increase in source misattributions following successful associative inference...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419307/false-memories-false-preferences-flexible-retrieval-mechanisms-supporting-successful-inference-bias-novel-decisions
#5
Alexis C Carpenter, Daniel L Schacter
Prior research suggests that episodic memory can guide value-based decisions when single episodes are encoded in relation to the specific reward-context in which they were experienced. The current experiments examine the role that a flexible recombination-related retrieval mechanism that allows one to link together distinct events plays in the misattribution of specific reward-contexts across distinct episodes. To determine whether the same recombination-related retrieval mechanism supports both successful inference and transfer of reward-context across episodes, we developed a modified version of an associative inference paradigm in which participants encoded overlapping associations (AB, BC) that could later be linked to support inferential retrieval (AC), where one element ("A") was tied to reward...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400595/remembering-the-past-and-imagining-the-future-attachment-effects-on-production-of-episodic-details-in-close-relationships
#6
Xiancai Cao, Kevin P Madore, Dahua Wang, Daniel L Schacter
Attachment theories and studies have shown that Internal Working Models (IWMs) can impact autobiographical memory and future-oriented information processing relevant to close relationships. According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis (CESH), both remembering the past and imagining the future rely on episodic memory. We hypothesised that one way IWMs may bridge past experiences and future adaptations is via episodic memory. The present study investigated the association between attachment and episodic specificity in attachment-relevant and attachment-irrelevant memory and imagination among young and older adults...
February 5, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355371/the-awakening-of-the-attention-evidence-for-a-link-between-the-monitoring-of-mind-wandering-and-prospective-goals
#7
Paul Seli, Daniel Smilek, Brandon C W Ralph, Daniel L Schacter
Across 2 independent samples, we examined the relation between individual differences in rates of self-caught mind wandering and individual differences in temporal monitoring of an unrelated response goal. Rates of self-caught mind wandering were assessed during a commonly used sustained-attention task, and temporal goal monitoring was indexed during a well-established prospective-memory task. The results from both samples showed a positive relation between rates of self-caught mind wandering during the sustained-attention task and rates of checking a clock to monitor the amount of time remaining before a response was required in the prospective-memory task...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353590/constructive-episodic-simulation-flexible-recombination-and-memory-errors
#8
Daniel L Schacter, Alexis C Carpenter, Aleea Devitt, Reece P Roberts, Donna Rose Addis
According to Mahr & Csibra (M&C), the view that the constructive nature of episodic memory is related to its role in simulating future events has difficulty explaining why memory is often accurate. We hold this view, but disagree with their conclusion. Here we consider ideas and evidence regarding flexible recombination processes in episodic retrieval that accommodate both accuracy and distortion.
January 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300687/introduction
#9
Susan T Fiske, Daniel L Schacter, Shelley E Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161358/neural-mechanisms-of-episodic-retrieval-support-divergent-creative-thinking
#10
Kevin P Madore, Preston P Thakral, Roger E Beaty, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136310/brain-networks-of-the-imaginative-mind-dynamic-functional-connectivity-of-default-and-cognitive-control-networks-relates-to-openness-to-experience
#11
Roger E Beaty, Qunlin Chen, Alexander P Christensen, Jiang Qiu, Paul J Silvia, Daniel L Schacter
Imagination and creative cognition are often associated with the brain's default network (DN). Recent evidence has also linked cognitive control systems to performance on tasks involving imagination and creativity, with a growing number of studies reporting functional interactions between cognitive control and DN regions. We sought to extend the emerging literature on brain dynamics supporting imagination by examining individual differences in large-scale network connectivity in relation to Openness to Experience, a personality trait typified by imagination and creativity...
February 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130061/episodic-future-thinking-mechanisms-and-functions
#12
Daniel L Schacter, Roland G Benoit, Karl K Szpunar
Episodic future thinking refers to the capacity to imagine or simulate experiences that might occur in one's personal future. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging research concerning episodic future thinking has accelerated during recent years. This article discusses research that has delineated cognitive and neural mechanisms that support episodic future thinking as well as the functions that episodic future thinking serves. Studies focused on mechanisms have identified a core brain network that underlies episodic future thinking and have begun to tease apart the relative contributions of particular regions in this network, and the specific cognitive processes that they support...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116660/increased-hippocampus-to-ventromedial-prefrontal-connectivity-during-the-construction-of-episodic-future-events
#13
Karen L Campbell, Kevin P Madore, Roland G Benoit, Preston P Thakral, Daniel L Schacter
Both the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) appear to be critical for episodic future simulation. Damage to either structure affects one's ability to remember the past and imagine the future, and both structures are commonly activated as part of a wider core network during future simulation. However, the precise role played by each of these structures and, indeed, the direction of information flow between them during episodic simulation, is still not well understood. In this study, we scanned participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging while they imagined future events in response to object cues...
February 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951165/neural-activity-associated-with-repetitive-simulation-of-episodic-counterfactual-thoughts
#14
Felipe De Brigard, Natasha Parikh, Gregory W Stewart, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
When people revisit past autobiographical events they often imagine alternative ways in which such events could have occurred. Often these episodic counterfactual thoughts (eCFT) are momentary and fleeting, but sometimes they are simulated frequently and repeatedly. However, little is known about the neural differences between frequently versus infrequently repeated eCFT. The current study explores this issue. In a three-session study, participants were asked to simulate alternative ways positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical memories could have occurred...
November 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918525/increasing-participant-motivation-reduces-rates-of-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#15
Paul Seli, Daniel L Schacter, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
We explored the possibility that increasing participants' motivation to perform well on a focal task can reduce mind wandering. Participants completed a sustained-attention task either with standard instructions (normal motivation), or with instructions informing them that they could be excused from the experiment early if they achieved a certain level of performance (higher motivation). Throughout the task, we assessed rates of mind wandering (both intentional and unintentional types) via thought probes. Results showed that the motivation manipulation led to significant reductions in both intentional and unintentional mind wandering as well as improvements in task performance...
September 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886407/preparing-for-what-might-happen-an-episodic-specificity-induction-impacts-the-generation-of-alternative-future-events
#16
Helen G Jing, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
A critical adaptive feature of future thinking involves the ability to generate alternative versions of possible future events. However, little is known about the nature of the processes that support this ability. Here we examined whether an episodic specificity induction - brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience that selectively impacts tasks that draw on episodic retrieval - (1) boosts alternative event generation and (2) changes one's initial perceptions of negative future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly increased the number of alternative positive outcomes that participants generated to a series of standardized negative events, compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity...
December 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843046/characterizing-the-role-of-the-hippocampus-during-episodic-simulation-and-encoding
#17
Preston P Thakral, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
The hippocampus has been consistently associated with episodic simulation (i.e., the mental construction of a possible future episode). In a recent study, we identified an anterior-posterior temporal dissociation within the hippocampus during simulation. Specifically, transient simulation-related activity occurred in relatively posterior portions of the hippocampus and sustained activity occurred in anterior portions. In line with previous theoretical proposals of hippocampal function during simulation, the posterior hippocampal activity was interpreted as reflecting a transient retrieval process for the episodic details necessary to construct an episode...
December 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733357/a-role-for-the-left-angular-gyrus-in-episodic-simulation-and-memory
#18
Preston P Thakral, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633886/remembering-and-imagining-alternative-versions-of-the-personal-past
#19
Peggy L St Jacques, Alexis C Carpenter, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although autobiographical memory and episodic simulations recruit similar core brain regions, episodic simulations engage additional neural recruitment in the frontoparietal control network due to greater demands on constructive processes. However, previous functional neuroimaging studies showing differences in remembering and episodic simulation have focused on veridical retrieval of past experiences, and thus have not fully considered how retrieving the past in different ways from how it was originally experienced may also place similar demands on constructive processes...
February 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626776/aging-and-the-resting-state-is-cognition-obsolete
#20
Karen L Campbell, Daniel L Schacter
Recent years have seen the rise in popularity of the resting state approach to neurocognitive aging, with many studies examining age differences in functional connectivity at rest and relating these differences to cognitive performance outside the scanner. There are many advantages to the resting state that likely contribute to its popularity and indeed, many insights have been gained from this work. However, there are also several limitations of the resting state approach that restrict its ability to contribute to the study of neurocognitive aging...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
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