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Daniel Schacter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951165/neural-activity-associated-with-repetitive-simulation-of-episodic-counterfactual-thoughts
#1
Felipe De Brigard, Natasha Parikh, Gregory W Stewart, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
When people revisit past autobiographical events they often imagine alternative ways in which such events could have occurred. Often these episodic counterfactual thoughts (eCFT) are momentary and fleeting, but sometimes they are simulated frequently and repeatedly. However, little is known about the neural differences between frequently versus infrequently repeated eCFT. The current study explores this issue. In a three-session study, participants were asked to simulate alternative ways positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical memories could have occurred...
September 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918525/increasing-participant-motivation-reduces-rates-of-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#2
Paul Seli, Daniel L Schacter, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
We explored the possibility that increasing participants' motivation to perform well on a focal task can reduce mind wandering. Participants completed a sustained-attention task either with standard instructions (normal motivation), or with instructions informing them that they could be excused from the experiment early if they achieved a certain level of performance (higher motivation). Throughout the task, we assessed rates of mind wandering (both intentional and unintentional types) via thought probes. Results showed that the motivation manipulation led to significant reductions in both intentional and unintentional mind wandering as well as improvements in task performance...
September 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886407/preparing-for-what-might-happen-an-episodic-specificity-induction-impacts-the-generation-of-alternative-future-events
#3
Helen G Jing, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
A critical adaptive feature of future thinking involves the ability to generate alternative versions of possible future events. However, little is known about the nature of the processes that support this ability. Here we examined whether an episodic specificity induction - brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience that selectively impacts tasks that draw on episodic retrieval - (1) boosts alternative event generation and (2) changes one's initial perceptions of negative future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly increased the number of alternative positive outcomes that participants generated to a series of standardized negative events, compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity...
December 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843046/characterizing-the-role-of-the-hippocampus-during-episodic-simulation-and-encoding
#4
Preston P Thakral, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
The hippocampus has been consistently associated with episodic simulation (i.e., the mental construction of a possible future episode). In a recent study, we identified an anterior-posterior temporal dissociation within the hippocampus during simulation. Specifically, transient simulation-related activity occurred in relatively posterior portions of the hippocampus and sustained activity occurred in anterior portions. In line with previous theoretical proposals of hippocampal function during simulation, the posterior hippocampal activity was interpreted as reflecting a transient retrieval process for the episodic details necessary to construct an episode...
August 26, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733357/a-role-for-the-left-angular-gyrus-in-episodic-simulation-and-memory
#5
Preston P Thakral, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633886/remembering-and-imagining-alternative-versions-of-the-personal-past
#6
Peggy L St Jacques, Alexis C Carpenter, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although autobiographical memory and episodic simulations recruit similar core brain regions, episodic simulations engage additional neural recruitment in the frontoparietal control network due to greater demands on constructive processes. However, previous functional neuroimaging studies showing differences in remembering and episodic simulation have focused on veridical retrieval of past experiences, and thus have not fully considered how retrieving the past in different ways from how it was originally experienced may also place similar demands on constructive processes...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626776/aging-and-the-resting-state-is-cognition-obsolete
#7
Karen L Campbell, Daniel L Schacter
Recent years have seen the rise in popularity of the resting state approach to neurocognitive aging, with many studies examining age differences in functional connectivity at rest and relating these differences to cognitive performance outside the scanner. There are many advantages to the resting state that likely contribute to its popularity and indeed, many insights have been gained from this work. However, there are also several limitations of the resting state approach that restrict its ability to contribute to the study of neurocognitive aging...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603744/aging-and-the-resting-state-cognition-is-not-obsolete
#8
Karen L Campbell, Daniel L Schacter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547677/episodic-and-semantic-content-of-memory-and-imagination-a-multilevel-analysis
#9
Aleea L Devitt, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Autobiographical memories of past events and imaginations of future scenarios comprise both episodic and semantic content. Correlating the amount of "internal" (episodic) and "external" (semantic) details generated when describing autobiographical events can illuminate the relationship between the processes supporting these constructs. Yet previous studies performing such correlations were limited by aggregating data across all events generated by an individual, potentially obscuring the underlying relationship within the events themselves...
May 25, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475696/scene-construction-and-relational-processing-separable-constructs
#10
Reece P Roberts, Daniel L Schacter, Donna Rose Addis
Imagining hypothetical events often entails the construction of a detailed mental simulation. Despite recent advances, debate still surrounds the fundamental constructive process underpinning simulations supported by the hippocampus. Palombo et al. (2016) report findings that suggest that scene construction drives hippocampal engagement during imagination. However, they fail to consider the findings of a previous study using an extremely similar manipulation that generated similar hippocampal findings, but was interpreted in terms of event specificity and relational processing (Addis et al...
May 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471215/cognitive-aging-and-the-distinction-between-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#11
Paul Seli, David Maillet, Daniel Smilek, Jonathan M Oakman, Daniel L Schacter
A growing number of studies have reported age-related reductions in the frequency of mind wandering. Here, at both the trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) levels, we reexamined this association while distinguishing between intentional (deliberate) and unintentional (spontaneous) mind wandering. Based on research demonstrating age-accompanied deficits in executive functioning, we expected to observe increases in unintentional mind wandering with increasing age. Moreover, because aging is associated with increased task motivation, we reasoned that older adults might be more engaged in their tasks, and hence, show a more pronounced decline in intentional mind wandering relative to young adults...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460272/mind-wandering-and-task-stimuli-stimulus-dependent-thoughts-influence-performance-on-memory-tasks-and-are-more-often-past-versus-future-oriented
#12
David Maillet, Paul Seli, Daniel L Schacter
Although many studies have indicated that participants frequently mind-wander during experimental tasks, relatively little research has examined the extent to which such thoughts are triggered by task stimuli (stimulus-dependent thoughts; SDTs) versus internally triggered (stimulus-independent thoughts; SITs). In the current experiment, we assessed differences in the frequency and characteristics of SDTs and SITs, as well as their associations with subsequent memory in young adults. Whereas frequency of SDTs (but not SITs) increased in a task with more meaningful stimuli, frequency of SITs (but not SDTs) increased in an easier task...
July 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371688/what-did-you-have-in-mind-examining-the-content-of-intentional-and-unintentional-types-of-mind-wandering
#13
Paul Seli, Brandon C W Ralph, Mahiko Konishi, Daniel Smilek, Daniel L Schacter
It has recently been argued that researchers should distinguish between mind wandering (MW) that is engaged with and without intention. Supporting this argument, studies have found that intentional and unintentional MW have behavioral/neural differences, and that they are differentially associated with certain variables of theoretical interest. Although there have been considerable inroads made into the distinction between intentional/unintentional MW, possible differences in their content remain unexplored...
May 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324695/imagining-the-future-the-core-episodic-simulation-network-dissociates-as-a-function-of-timecourse-and-the-amount-of-simulated-information
#14
Preston P Thakral, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
Neuroimaging data indicate that episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) and episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions, often referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, lateral and medial parietal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. Evidence for a core network has been taken as support for the idea that episodic memory and episodic simulation are supported by common processes...
May 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276983/priming-not-inhibition-of-related-concepts-during-future-imagining
#15
Karen L Campbell, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
Remembering the past and imagining the future both involve the retrieval of details stored in episodic memory and rely on the same core network of brain regions. Given these parallels, one might expect similar component processes to be involved in remembering and imagining. While a strong case can be made for the role of inhibition in memory retrieval, few studies have examined whether inhibition is also necessary for future imagining and results to-date have been mixed. In the current study, we test whether related concepts are inhibited during future imagining using a modified priming approach...
October 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276977/effects-of-aging-on-the-relation-between-episodic-simulation-and-prosocial-intentions
#16
Brendan Gaesser, Haley Dodds, Daniel L Schacter
Imagining helping a person in need can facilitate prosocial intentions. Here we investigated how this effect can change with aging. We found that, similar to young adults, older adults were more willing to help a person in need when they imagined helping that person compared to a baseline condition that did not involve helping, but not compared to a conceptual helping control condition. Controlling for heightened emotional concern in older adults revealed an age-related difference in the effect of imagining on willingness to help...
October 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244016/intentionality-and-meta-awareness-of-mind-wandering-are-they-one-and-the-same-or-distinct-dimensions
#17
Paul Seli, Brandon C W Ralph, Evan F Risko, Jonathan W Schooler, Daniel L Schacter, Daniel Smilek
Researchers have recently demonstrated that mind-wandering episodes can vary on numerous dimensions, and it has been suggested that assessing these dimensions will play an important role in our understanding of mind wandering. One dimension that has received considerable attention in recent work is the intentionality of mind wandering. Although it has been claimed that indexing the intentionality of mind wandering will be necessary if researchers are to obtain a coherent understanding of the wandering mind, one concern is that this dimension might be redundant with another, longstanding, dimension: namely, meta-awareness...
February 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989780/shifting-visual-perspective-during-retrieval-shapes-autobiographical-memories
#18
Peggy L St Jacques, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
The dynamic and flexible nature of memories is evident in our ability to adopt multiple visual perspectives. Although autobiographical memories are typically encoded from the visual perspective of our own eyes they can be retrieved from the perspective of an observer looking at our self. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of shifting visual perspective during long-term memory retrieval and its influence on online and subsequent memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants generated specific autobiographical memories from the last five years and rated their visual perspective...
March 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929343/autobiographical-memory-conjunction-errors-in-younger-and-older-adults-evidence-for-a-role-of-inhibitory-ability
#19
Aleea L Devitt, Lynette Tippett, Daniel L Schacter, Donna Rose Addis
Because of its reconstructive nature, autobiographical memory (AM) is subject to a range of distortions. One distortion involves the erroneous incorporation of features from one episodic memory into another, forming what are known as memory conjunction errors. Healthy aging has been associated with an enhanced susceptibility to conjunction errors for laboratory stimuli, yet it is unclear whether these findings translate to the autobiographical domain. We investigated the impact of aging on vulnerability to AM conjunction errors, and explored potential cognitive processes underlying the formation of these errors...
December 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918169/flexible-retrieval-when-true-inferences-produce-false-memories
#20
Alexis C Carpenter, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic memory involves flexible retrieval processes that allow us to link together distinct episodes, make novel inferences across overlapping events, and recombine elements of past experiences when imagining future events. However, the same flexible retrieval and recombination processes that underpin these adaptive functions may also leave memory prone to error or distortion, such as source misattributions in which details of one event are mistakenly attributed to another related event. To determine whether the same recombination-related retrieval mechanism supports both successful inference and source memory errors, we developed a modified version of an associative inference paradigm in which participants encoded everyday scenes comprised of people, objects, and other contextual details...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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