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S Su, K B Miska, R H Fetterer, M C Jenkins, S J Lamont, E A Wong
Fayoumi chickens are believed to be more disease resistant compared to commercial broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to compare mRNA expression of intestinal nutrient transporters, digestive enzymes, and host defense peptides (HDP) between Eimeria maxima-challenged Fayoumi and Ross broiler chickens. At 21 d of age, Ross broilers and Fayoumi lines M5.1 and M15.2 were challenged with 1,000 E. maxima oocysts. Control birds were not challenged. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled (n = 6) at 7 d post challenge...
July 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Andrew Zikic, Holger Schünemann, Teodora Wi, Ornella Lincetto, Nathalie Broutet, Nancy Santesso
Background: With the continued high prevalence of chlamydia worldwide and high risk of transfer from mothers to their infant during delivery, a need for safe and effective therapies for infants who acquire a chlamydial infection remains. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic treatments, including oral erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim, for neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from their inception to July 14, 2017...
July 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Francesca Mallamaci, Charalampos Loutradis, Robert Ekart, Claudia Torino, Antonios Karpetas, Vasileios Raptis, Athanasios Bikos, Aikaterini Papagianni, Olga Balafa, Konstantinos Siamopoulos, Giovanni Pisani, Massimo Morosetti, Antonio Del Giudice, Fillipo Aucella, Luca Di Lullo, Rocco Tripepi, Giovanni Tripepi, Kitty Jager, Friedo Dekker, Gerard London, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Population-specific consensus documents recommend that the diagnosis of hypertension in haemodialysis patients be based on 48-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. However, until now there is just one study in the USA on the prevalence of hypertension in haemodialysis patients by 44-h recordings. Since there is a knowledge gap on the problem in European countries, we reassessed the problem in the European Cardiovascular and Renal Medicine working group Registry of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association...
July 10, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Ton Kuijpers, Hanno Pijl
Background: It remains uncertain which diet is best for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective: We compared the effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with fat restriction on markers of metabolic syndrome and quality of life in people with T2D. Design: This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) compares the effects of a low-carbohydrate [≤40% of energy (%)] diet with those of a low-fat (≤30%) diet over a period of ≥4 wk in patients with T2D...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jiaqiang Liao, Huifang Yu, Wei Xia, Bin Zhang, Bin Lu, Zhongqiang Cao, Shengwen Liang, Ke Hu, Shunqing Xu, Yuanyuan Li
BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain (GWG) is increasingly reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, the effect of PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy on GWG is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between the exposure to PM2.5 and GWGs during three pregnancy trimesters based on a prospective birth cohort. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2029 pregnant women who participated in a birth cohort between January 2013 and October 2014 in Wuhan, China...
July 11, 2018: Environment International
I A Kourtzidis, C F Dolopikou, A N Tsiftsis, N V Margaritelis, A A Theodorou, I A Zervos, M P Tsantarliotou, A S Veskoukis, I S Vrabas, V Paschalis, A Kyparos, M G Nikolaidis
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? To investigate the potential metabolic and redox mechanisms that impaired exercise performance after a 21-day supplementation with 300 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide riboside in rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Nicotinamide riboside disturbed energy and redox metabolism and impaired exercise performance in heathy rats. Exogenously administered redox agents in heathy populations may lead to adverse effects...
July 14, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Wasim Ibrahim, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Can Zhang, Fangbin Cao, Shuijin Zhu, Feibo Wu
Soil salinity and drought are the two most common and frequently co-occurring abiotic stresses limiting cotton growth and productivity. However, physiological mechanisms of tolerance to such condition remain elusive. Greenhouse pot experiments were performed to study genotypic differences in response to single drought (4% soil moisture; D) and salinity (200 mM NaCl; S) stress and combined stresses (D+S) using two cotton genotypes Zhongmian 23 (salt-tolerant) and Zhongmian 41 (salt-sensitive). Our results showed that drought and salinity stresses, alone or in combination, caused significant reduction in plant growth, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in the two cotton genotypes, with the largest impact visible under combined stress...
July 13, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Gláucia B Pereira-Neto, Márcio A Brunetto, Patrícia M Oba, Tatiana Champion, Cecilia Villaverde, Thiago H A Vendramini, Julio C C Balieiro, Aulus C Carciofi, Aparecido A Camacho
Canine obesity is a common medical disorder and a known risk factor for associated diseases; it can seriously influence various physiological functions, thereby limiting the longevity of the animal. In this study, we evaluated potential respiratory alterations in obese dogs before and after being subjected to caloric restriction to decrease their body weight by 20%, and compared those dogs with control dogs with ideal body condition score. The animals were divided into three experimental groups: GI (obese dogs; n = 11); GII (obese dogs after weight loss, same animals as in GI); GIII (control dogs; n = 11)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Stefan J Schaller, Michio Nagashima, Martin Schönfelder, Tomoki Sasakawa, Fabian Schulz, Mohammed A S Khan, William R Kem, Gerhard Schneider, Jürgen Schlegel, Heidrun Lewald, Manfred Blobner, J A Jeevendra Martyn
Muscle changes of critical illness are attributed to systemic inflammatory responses and disuse atrophy. GTS-21 (3-(2,4-dimethoxy-benzylidene)anabaseine), also known as DMBX-A) is a synthetic derivative of the natural product anabaseine that acts as an agonist at α7-acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs). Hypothesis tested was that modulation of inflammation by agonist GTS-21 (10 mg/kg b.i.d. intraperitoneally) will attenuate body weight (BW) and muscle changes. Systemic sham inflammation was produced in 125 rats by Cornyebacterium parvum (C...
July 13, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Zinais Kontouli, Chryssoula Staikou, Nicoletta Iacovidou, Ioannis Mamais, Evaggelia Kouskouni, Apostolos Papalois, Panagiotis Papapanagiotou, Anil Gulati, Athanasios Chalkias, Theodoros Xanthos
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the combination of centhaquin and 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES 130/0.4) in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Twenty Landrace-Large White pigs were instrumented and subjected to hemorrhagic shock. The animals were randomly allocated in two experimental groups, the control (group CO, n = 10) and the centhaquin groups (0.015 mg/kg, n = 10, group CH). Acute hemorrhage was induced by stepwise blood withdrawal (18 mL/min) from the internal jugular vein until MAP decreased to 40-45 mmHg, whereas anesthesia remained constant...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Kylie Lange, Trygve Hausken, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Protein supplements, usually drinks rich in whey protein, are used widely for weight loss purposes in overweight adults. Information comparing the effects of whey protein on appetite and energy intake in men and women is limited. The objective was to compare the acute effects of whey-protein intake on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying and gut hormones in healthy young men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0-180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180-210 min) were determined after ingestion of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) whey protein, or a flavoured-water control drink (~2 kcal) in 8 healthy young men (25 ± 2 y, 72 ± 3 kg, 23 ± 1 kg/m2 ) and 8 women (23 ± 1 y, 64 ± 2 kg, 24 ± 0...
July 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Peng Z Meng, Jing Liu, Ping S Hu, Fei Tong
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate whether DEX exerts protective mechanisms in rats with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The mortality rate of ALI is extremely high. DEX, an a2 adrenergic receptor agonist, has potent anti-inflammatory and organ-protective effects in addition to its sedative and analgesic properties. We sought to elucidate whether DEX can attenuate acute lung injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-eight Wister rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=12, per group): the normal saline control (NS) group, receiving tail-vein injection of 0...
July 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Dov B Ballak, Suzhao Li, Giulio Cavalli, Jonathan L Stahl, Isak W Tengesdal, Janna A van Diepen, Viola Kluck, Benjamin Swartzwelter, Tania Azam, Cees J Track, Rinke Stienstra, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen, Douglas R Seals, Charles A Dinarello
Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation mainly originating from expanding adipose tissue and resulting in inhibition of insulin signaling and disruption of glycemic control. Transgenic mice expressing human interleukin 37 (IL-37), an anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family, are protected against metabolic syndrome when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 45% fat. Here, we examined whether treatment with recombinant IL-37 ameliorates established insulin resistance and obesity-induced inflammation...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chad D McCormick, Hang N Waters, Ludmila Bezrukov, Roxana Taginya, Viraj Parikh, Ginikanwa Onyekaba, Jordan Levine, Andrew P Demidowich, Jack A Yanovski, Paul S Blank, Joshua Zimmerberg
In adipose tissue, resistance to insulin's ability to increase glucose uptake can be induced by multiple factors including obesity. Impaired insulin action may take place at different spatial loci at the cellular or subcellular level. To begin to understand the spatial response to insulin in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (hSAT), we developed a quantitative imaging method for activation of a major signaling node in the glucoregulatory insulin signaling pathway. After treatment with insulin or control media, biopsied tissues were immunostained for Akt phosphorylation at Thr308/9 (pAkt) and then imaged by confocal fluorescence microscopy automated to collect a large grid of high resolution fields...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
David M Williams, Natasha Shrikrishnapalasuriyar, Waheeba Syed, Win L Yin, Richard Chudleigh, Stephen C Bain, David E Price, Jeffrey W Stephens
AIMS: Xultophy is the first fixed co-formulation pen containing insulin degludec and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide, authorized for type 2 diabetes patients since 2014. The aim was to review the clinical effectiveness of Xultophy across two hospitals in Wales. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients commenced on Xultophy between April 2016 and January 2018 was taken. Data related to glycemic control, weight and medication use were collected...
June 30, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Cheng Luo, Blessing Gwekwe, Phares Choto, Wenhua Miao, Meiling Chen, Changfeng Xue, Yunsheng Xu, Xiaolong Yin, Glory Magawa, Di Wu, Jamal S Akida, Likui Wang, Qingqing Li, Shanggui Deng
The large yellow croakers (Larimichthys crocea) are mainly present in the Chinese coast and near seas with high economic importance, but vulnerable to many diseases, especially in the breeding and aquaculture. The purpose of this research was to boost the innate immune system of the large yellow croaker by administering bitter peptides into their peritoneal cavity. Total 120 Juvenile of large yellow croakers in very even weight of 60 g were divided into 4 different groups in 200/300 L of water tank, respectively...
July 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ufuk Cakir, Cuneyt Tayman, Utku Serkant, Halil Ibrahim Yakut, Esra Cakir, Ufuk Ates, Ismail Koyuncu, Eyyup Karaogul
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most important gastrointestinal emergency affecting especially preterm infants and causes severe morbidities and mortality. However, there is no cure. Oxidant stress, inflammation, apoptosis, as well as prematurity are believed to responsible in the pathogenesis of the disease. Ginger and its compounds have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant properties and immunomodulatory, cytoprotective/regenerative actions...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Josiane Érica Miyamoto, Ana Carolina G Ferraz, Mariana Portovedo, Andressa Reginato, Marcella Aparecida Stahl, Leticia Martins Ignacio-Souza, Kenny L Chan, Adriana Souza Torsoni, Marcio Alberto Torsoni, Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro, Marciane Milanski
Interesterified fats have largely replaced hydrogenated vegetable fat, which is rich in trans fatty acids, in the food industry as an economically viable alternative, generating interest to study their health effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that interesterification of oils and fat has on lipid-induced metabolic dysfunction, hepatic inflammation and ER stress. Five week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups, submitted to either normocaloric and normolipidic diet containing 10% of lipids from unmodified soybean oil (SO) or from interesterified soybean oil (ISO), and one more group submitted to a high fat diet (HFD) containing 60% of fat from lard as a positive control, for 8 or 16 weeks...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Tyler A Herek, Jacob E Robinson, Tayla B Heavican, Catalina Amador, Javeed Iqbal, Christine E Cutucache
OBJECTIVE: Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is known for its role as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene, harboring a highly context-dependent role within a myriad of malignancies and cell types. In an immunological context, dysregulation of CAV1 expression has been shown to alter immunological signaling functions and suggests a pivotal role for CAV1 in the facilitation of proper immune responses. Nonetheless, it is still unknown how Cav1-deficiency and heterozygosity would impact the development and composition of lymphoid organs in mice...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Sinem Koc-Günel, Ralf Schubert, Stefan Zielen, Martin Rosewich
BACKGROUND: Sputum induction is an important noninvasive method for analyzing bronchial inflammation in patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. Most frequently, ultrasonic nebulizers are used for sputum induction, but breath-controlled nebulizers may target the small airways more efficiently. This treatment may produce a cell distribution similar to bronchoalveolar lavage (less neutrophils and more macrophages) and provide deeper insights into the underlying lung pathology...
July 13, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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