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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458225/-indication-quality-concepts-and-ethical-implications
#1
Andrea Dörries
BACKGROUND: In recent times - also due to new laws - a good "indication quality" has been called for. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate about "indication quality" by looking into the meaning of the term "indication" as well as the meaning of an adequate understanding of quality. METHODS: Initially, a conceptual analysis is made of how indication is an integral part of the therapeutic decision-making process between physician and patient, in which, next to evidence-based elements, also normative elements are included (step 1)...
February 19, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457868/exploring-acceptability-of-oral-prep-prior-to-implementation-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-africa
#2
Robyn Eakle, Adam Bourne, Judie Mbogua, Nyaradzo Mutanha, Helen Rees
INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high-risk for HIV acquisition in South Africa, where the advent of new HIV prevention and treatment interventions represent the potential to significantly impact the epidemic. This paper focuses on aspects of PrEP acceptability as a new intervention within the context of a larger service delivery programme including the simultaneous rollout of early ART. This paper explores PrEP acceptability among the FGD participants as future potential users...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457753/bone-strength-and-exercise-during-youth-the-year-that-was-2017
#3
Kathleen F Janz, Fatima Baptista
The positive effects of physical activity on bone strength are certain. However, researchers have yet to precisely quantify the contribution of specific characteristics of physical activity that affect bone strength in children and adolescents. This commentary highlights 2 noteworthy 2017 publications that addressed osteogenic physical activity dose-response issues. Both papers moved the field forward by providing new insights on physical activity exposures beyond high-impact loading. Koedijk et al's paper was selected because, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first systematic review to solely examine associations between sedentary behavior and indicators of bone strength...
February 19, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457624/-coordinated-heart-failure-care-in-poland-towards-optimal-organisation-of-the-health-care-system
#4
Jadwiga Nessler, Adam Kozierkiewicz, Andrzej Gackowski, Piotr Ponikowski, Ewa Straburzynska-Migaj, Izabella Uchmanowicz, Piotr Hoffman, Krzysztof Chlebus, Grzegorz Gielerak, Mariusz Gąsior, Tomasz Grodzicki, Jakub Gierczyński, Piotr Jankowski, Jarosław Kaźmierczak, Jacek Legutko, Przemysław Leszek, Maciej Miłkowski, Grzegorz Opolski, Piotr Rozentryt, Adam Windak, Adam Witkowski, Mirosław J Wysocki, Andrzej Zapaśnik, Tomasz Zdrojewski
Heart failure has becoming an increasing medical, economic, and social problem globally. The prevalence of this syndrome is rising, and despite unequivocal positive effects of modern therapy, reduction of mortality has been achieved at the cost of more frequent hospitalisations. Unlike in many European countries, in Poland heart failure is usually recognised later, at a more advanced stage of the disease, leaving less time for ambulatory treatment and resulting in a high number of hospitalisations. The current paper presents the most important data regarding morbidity and mortality due to heart failure in Poland...
2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456858/enhanced-biostability-and-cellular-uptake-of-zinc-oxide-nanocrystals-shielded-with-a-phospholipid-bilayer
#5
B Dumontel, M Canta, H Engelke, A Chiodoni, L Racca, A Ancona, T Limongi, G Canavese, V Cauda
The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455752/imagining-class-a-study-into-material-social-class-position-subjective-identification-and-voting-behavior-across-europe
#6
Lorenzo D'Hooge, Peter Achterberg, Tim Reeskens
The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455708/developing-public-health-initiatives-through-understanding-motivations-of-the-audience-at-mass-gathering-events
#7
Alison Hutton, Jamie Ranse, Matthew Brendan Munn
This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455119/developing-a-safety-heatmap-of-uncontrolled-intersections-using-both-conflict-probability-and-severity
#8
Yingying Ma, Xiaoran Qin, Offer Grembek, Zhiwei Chen
This paper presents a method to assess the safety of uncontrolled intersections considering two major properties of traffic conflicts-conflict probability and severity. This method assesses both the safety level of the entire intersection in addition to the distribution of safety within it. Intersections are modeled by a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system and the internal space of intersections is divided into cells. First, the vehicle movement characteristics of an uncontrolled intersection are modeled...
February 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455111/deepmitosis-mitosis-detection-via-deep-detection-verification-and-segmentation-networks
#9
Chao Li, Xinggang Wang, Wenyu Liu, Longin Jan Latecki
Mitotic count is a critical predictor of tumor aggressiveness in the breast cancer diagnosis. Nowadays mitosis counting is mainly performed by pathologists manually, which is extremely arduous and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose an accurate method for detecting the mitotic cells from histopathological slides using a novel multi-stage deep learning framework. Our method consists of a deep segmentation network for generating mitosis region when only a weak label is given (i.e., only the centroid pixel of mitosis is annotated), an elaborately designed deep detection network for localizing mitosis by using contextual region information, and a deep verification network for improving detection accuracy by removing false positives...
January 31, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454988/effect-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-nta-apg-on-pyrene-dissipation-in-phytoremediation-of-nickel-co-contaminated-wetlands-by-scirpus-triqueter
#10
Xiaoyan Liu, Xiaoxin Hu, Xinying Zhang, Xueping Chen, Jing Chen, Xiaoyu Yuan
A complex mix of organic pollutants and heavy metal made the remediation of contaminated wetlands more difficult. Few research focus on the remediation for pyrene enhanced by chemical reagents and pyrene degrading bacteria in the nickel co-contaminated soil. In this paper, the effect of chemical reagents (nitrilotriacetic acid and alkyl polyglucoside) and Bacillus subtilis on pyrene dissipation in phytoremediation of nickel co-contaminated soil by Scirpus triqueter was investigated. Similar seedlings of Scirpus triqueter were moved to uncontaminated soil and pyrene-nickel co-contaminated soil...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454838/analysis-of-cocaine-adulterants-in-human-brain-in-cases-of-drug-related-death
#11
Marianne Knuth, Oliver Temme, Thomas Daldrup, Evelyn Pawlik
For different reasons, street cocaine is often diluted with pharmacologically active substances, the so-called adulterants such as levamisole or hydroxyzine. A controversial debate exists currently on the uptake of adulterants from cocaine preparations and drug-related death. Previous research convincingly argues that serious adverse side effects that affect the central nervous and cardiovascular systems can be a consequence of adulterated cocaine. AIMS: Having identified the presence of adulterants in lung tissue and blood, the concentrations of these substances in brain, an important target location, was of interest...
February 10, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454710/experiences-of-guilt-shame-and-blame-in-those-affected-by-burns-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Rachel Kornhaber, Charmaine Childs, Michelle Cleary
BACKGROUND: A significant burn can severely impact the lives of survivors and their carers. This systematic review sought to incorporate the experiences of guilt, blame and shame across the lifespan for burn survivors, their families as well as the experiences of the parents of burned children. METHODS: A systematic review of qualitative studies on the experiences and perspectives of guilt, blame and shame by those affected by burn trauma across the lifespan. The databases, Pubmed, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO were systematically searched...
February 14, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454530/system-dynamics-model-of-taxi-management-in-metropolises-economic-and-environmental-implications-for-beijing
#13
Hao Wang, Kai Zhang, Junhua Chen, Zhifeng Wang, Guijun Li, Yuqi Yang
Taxis are an important component of urban passenger transport. Research on the daily dispatching of taxis and the utility of governmental management is important for the improvement of passenger travel, taxi driver income and environmental impacts. However, urban taxi management is a complex and dynamic system that is affected by many factors, and positive/negative feedback relationships and nonlinear interactions exist between each subsystem and variable. Therefore, conventional research methods can hardly depict its characteristics comprehensively...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453509/critical-thresholds-for-eventual-extinction-in-randomly-disturbed-population-growth-models
#14
Scott D Peckham, Edward C Waymire, Patrick De Leenheer
This paper considers several single species growth models featuring a carrying capacity, which are subject to random disturbances that lead to instantaneous population reduction at the disturbance times. This is motivated in part by growing concerns about the impacts of climate change. Our main goal is to understand whether or not the species can persist in the long run. We consider the discrete-time stochastic process obtained by sampling the system immediately after the disturbances, and find various thresholds for several modes of convergence of this discrete process, including thresholds for the absence or existence of a positively supported invariant distribution...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452204/antiviral-therapy-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-children-with-immune-tolerant-characters-a-pilot-open-lable-randomized-study
#15
Shishu Zhu, Hongfei Zhang, Yi Dong, Limin Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Weiwei Liu, Yu Gan, Hongmei Tang, Dawei Chen, Fuchuan Wang, Pan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children possesses a serious health problem worldwide. It remains unresolved how children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B should be treated, who were commonly characterized by HBeAg positivity, high viral load, normal or mildly elevated ALT and no or minimal inflammation in liver histology. This trial aims to study the benefits of antiviral therapy in children with these characters. METHODS: This is a pilot open-lable randomized controlled study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451859/harmonization-of-pcr-based-detection-of-intestinal-pathogens-experiences-from-the-dutch-external-quality-assessment-scheme-on-molecular-diagnosis-of-protozoa-in-stool-samples
#16
Theo A Schuurs, Rob Koelewijn, Eric A T Brienen, Titia Kortbeek, Theo G Mank, Bert Mulder, Foekje F Stelma, Lisette van Lieshout, Jaap J van Hellemond
BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR methods are increasingly used in routine patient care settings not only to determine the presence or absence of pathogens in patient materials, but also to obtain semiquantitative results to estimate the pathogen load. However, it is so far unknown how well these methods are harmonized among different laboratories. METHODS: Sets of stool samples were distributed three to four times per year to ca. 25-40 participating laboratories within the European Union as part of an external quality assessment scheme (EQAS) for the detection of gastrointestinal protozoa...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451521/-personalized-healthcare-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-multi-society-italian-position-paper
#17
Franco Trevisani, Francesca Garuti, Andrea Neri
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a neoplasm characterized by both clinical and biological heterogeneity. Its management requires the expertise of multiple medical specialists and is made complex by the old age of most patients, frequently showing comorbidities. Therefore, HCC management needs a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this article is to illustrate multi-society recommendations regarding the management of HCC patients, from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. In particular, in every stage, HCC treatment comprises multiple alternatives and the best option for every patient should be decided by a multidisciplinary team...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451402/frailty-and-the-management-of-patients-with-acute-cardiovascular-disease-a-position-paper-from-the-acute-cardiovascular-care-association
#18
D M Walker, C P Gale, G Lip, F J Martin-Sanchez, H F McIntyre, C Mueller, S Price, J Sanchis, M T Vidan, C Wilkinson, U Zeymer, H Bueno
Frailty is increasingly seen among patients with acute cardiovascular disease. A combination of an ageing population, improved disease survival, treatable long-term conditions as well as a greater recognition of the syndrome has accelerated the prevalence of frailty in the modern world. Yet, this has not been matched by an expansion of research. National and international bodies have identified acute cardiovascular disease in the frail as a priority area for care and an entity that requires careful clinical decisions, but there remains a paucity of guidance on treatment efficacy and safety, and how to manage this complex group...
February 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451072/social-support-for-exercise-as-a-predictor-of-weight-and-physical-activity-status-among-puerto-rican-and-mexican-men-results-from-the-latino-men-s-health-initiative
#19
Meredith R Craven, Laurie Keefer, Alfred Rademaker, Amanda Dykema-Engblade, Lisa Sanchez-Johnsen
Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican)...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450594/position-paper-for-the-organization-of-ecmo-programs-for-cardiac-failure-in-adults
#20
Darryl Abrams, A Reshad Garan, Akram Abdelbary, Matthew Bacchetta, Robert H Bartlett, James Beck, Jan Belohlavek, Yih-Sharng Chen, Eddy Fan, Niall D Ferguson, Jo-Anne Fowles, John Fraser, Michelle Gong, Ibrahim F Hassan, Carol Hodgson, Xiaotong Hou, Katarzyna Hryniewicz, Shingo Ichiba, William A Jakobleff, Roberto Lorusso, Graeme MacLaren, Shay McGuinness, Thomas Mueller, Pauline K Park, Giles Peek, Vin Pellegrino, Susanna Price, Erika B Rosenzweig, Tetsuya Sakamoto, Leonardo Salazar, Matthieu Schmidt, Arthur S Slutsky, Christian Spaulding, Hiroo Takayama, Koji Takeda, Alain Vuylsteke, Alain Combes, Daniel Brodie
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used increasingly for both respiratory and cardiac failure in adult patients. Indications for ECMO use in cardiac failure include severe refractory cardiogenic shock, refractory ventricular arrhythmia, active cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest, and acute or decompensated right heart failure. Evidence is emerging to guide the use of this therapy for some of these indications, but there remains a need for additional evidence to guide best practices...
February 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
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