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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493336/de-novo-advanced-adult-onset-offending-new-evidence-from-a-population-of-federal-correctional-clients
#1
Matt DeLisi, Katherine N Tahja, Alan J Drury, Michael J Elbert, Daniel E Caropreso, Timothy Heinrichs
Adult antisocial behavior is almost always predated by delinquency during childhood or adolescence; however, there is also evidence of adult-onset criminal offending. This study examined this controversial subgroup of offenders using self-reported and official data from a total population of federal correctional clients selected from the Midwestern United States. Difference of means t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression models found that 11.7% of clients had an adult onset of offending and 2.7% of clients (n = 23) had an onset occurring at age 60 years or older...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449629/the-changing-epidemiology-of-hiv-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#2
Jacques Baillargeon, John S Pulvino, Jane E Leonardson, Lannette C Linthicum, Brie Williams, Joseph Penn, Robert S Williams, Gwen Baillargeon, Owen J Murray
Although the rate of HIV infection among US prison inmates is considerably higher than that of the general population, little is known about age-related changes in HIV-infected inmates over the last decade. This study of the nation's largest state prison system examined (1) whether the mean age of the HIV-infected inmate increased over the last decade, and (2) whether the prevalence of HIV and associated comorbidities varied according to age. The study population included all 230,103 inmates incarcerated in the Texas prison system for any duration during 2014...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445486/a-metamodel-for-mobile-forensics-investigation-domain
#3
Abdulalem Ali, Shukor Abd Razak, Siti Hajar Othman, Arafat Mohammed, Faisal Saeed
With the rapid development of technology, mobile phones have become an essential tool in terms of crime fighting and criminal investigation. However, many mobile forensics investigators face difficulties with the investigation process in their domain. These difficulties are due to the heavy reliance of the forensics field on knowledge which, although a valuable resource, is scattered and widely dispersed. The wide dispersion of mobile forensics knowledge not only makes investigation difficult for new investigators, resulting in substantial waste of time, but also leads to ambiguity in the concepts and terminologies of the mobile forensics domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435785/impact-of-a-brief-intervention-on-cervical-health-literacy-a-waitlist-control-study-with-jailed-women
#4
Megha Ramaswamy, Jaehoon Lee, Joi Wickliffe, Molly Allison, Amanda Emerson, Patricia J Kelly
Jailed women are four-five times more likely to have had cervical cancer compared to women without criminal justice histories. Previous research has shown that an important contributor to cervical cancer risk, and perhaps lack of follow-up, is incarcerated women's low health literacy about broader reproductive health issues. Little work has been done to address this disparity. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve incarcerated women's cervical health literacy and ultimately address cervical cancer disparities...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429375/patient-characteristics-and-outcomes-related-to-successful-outpatient-competency-restoration
#5
Amy J Mikolajewski, Gina M Manguno-Mire, Kelly L Coffman, Sarah M Deland, John W Thompson
Criminal defendants have a fundamental right to a fair and speedy trial. However, individuals found incompetent to stand trial are unable to move forward in the adjudication process and are often mired in protracted legal proceedings. If competency restoration is statutorily permissible and can be conducted in the outpatient setting, we propose that it should be considered based on burgeoning empirical data. We present data from an outpatient forensic clinic in which individuals are conditionally released to receive competency restoration in the community...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427371/inside-the-nation-s-largest-mental-health-institution-a-prevalence-study-in-a-state-prison-system
#6
Tala Al-Rousan, Linda Rubenstein, Bruce Sieleni, Harbans Deol, Robert B Wallace
BACKGROUND: The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389689/ambulance-attendances-resulting-from-self-harm-after-release-from-prison-a-prospective-data-linkage-study
#7
Rohan Borschmann, Jesse T Young, Paul Moran, Matthew J Spittal, Ed Heffernan, Katherine Mok, Stuart A Kinner
OBJECTIVE: Incarcerated adults are at high risk of self-harm and suicide and remain so after release into the community. The aims of this study were to estimate the number of ambulance attendances due to self-harm in adults following release from prison, and to identify factors predictive of such attendances. METHODS: Baseline surveys with 1309 adults within 6 weeks of expected release from prison between 2008 and 2010 were linked prospectively with state-wide correctional, ambulance, emergency department, hospital and death records in Queensland, Australia...
April 7, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387782/ascertainment-of-vital-status-among-people-with-criminal-justice-involvement-using-department-of-corrections-records-the-us-national-death-index-and-social-security-master-death-files
#8
Ingrid A Binswanger, Jeffrey D Morenoff, Charley A Chilcote, David J Harding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365901/a-jury-of-their-peers-a-meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-teen-court-on-criminal-recidivism
#9
Jessica Bouchard, Jennifer S Wong
Juvenile delinquency has been on the decline for a number of years, yet, juvenile courts continue to assess more than 1 million cases per year. Involvement with the juvenile justice system has been linked to a number of risk factors and consequences that may impact positive youth development; however, evidence-based correctional programs that divert juvenile offenders away from formal processing are limited. Teen Court is a specialized diversion intervention that offers an alternative to traditional court processing for juvenile offenders...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340193/addressing-structural-barriers-to-hiv-care-among-triply-diagnosed-adults-project-bridge-oakland
#10
Christina Powers, Megan Comfort, Andrea M Lopez, Alex H Kral, Owen Murdoch, Jennifer Lorvick
People who are "triply diagnosed" with HIV, mental health issues, and substance-related disorders face tremendous barriers connecting to and remaining in HIV care. Authors of this article implemented Project Bridge Oakland (PBO), an intervention based on harm reduction and trauma-informed care, to help maintain continuity of care for triply diagnosed adults through cycles of criminal justice involvement. From August 2011 to December 2014, a clinical social worker and an HIV physician provided intensive case management for 19 clients living in Oakland, California...
March 14, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299972/older-and-incarcerated-policy-implications-of-aging-prison-populations
#11
Zachary Psick, Jonathan Simon, Rebecca Brown, Cyrus Ahalt
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299971/addressing-excess-risk-of-overdose-among-recently-incarcerated-people-in-the-usa-harm-reduction-interventions-in-correctional-settings
#12
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David H Cloud, Chelsea Davis, Nickolas Zaller, Ayesha Delany-Brumsey, Leah Pope, Sarah Martino, Benjamin Bouvier, Josiah Rich
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss overdose among those with criminal justice experience and recommend harm reduction strategies to lessen overdose risk among this vulnerable population. Design/methodology/approach Strategies are needed to reduce overdose deaths among those with recent incarceration. Jails and prisons are at the epicenter of the opioid epidemic but are a largely untapped setting for implementing overdose education, risk assessment, medication assisted treatment, and naloxone distribution programs...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299969/challenges-and-opportunities-for-gender-affirming-healthcare-for-transgender-women-in-prison
#13
Jae Sevelius, Valerie Jenness
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns - victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision - related to the health and welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on a growing body of research on health risks for transgender women who are detained in facilities in California and elsewhere, the authors provide recommendations for policy and practice that constitutes gender-affirming healthcare for transgender women behind bars...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299967/reducing-the-use-and-impact-of-solitary-confinement-in-corrections
#14
Cyrus Ahalt, Craig Haney, Sarah Rios, Matthew P Fox, David Farabee, Brie Williams
Purpose Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for reform in the USA that could also be applied globally. Design/methodology/approach A review of the evidence on solitary confinement policies and practices in the USA to develop recommendations for reform with global application. Findings Focusing on this evidence, the authors argue that solitary confinement is overused and recommend a multi-level approach available to correctional systems worldwide including: immediately limiting solitary confinement to only those cases in which a violent behavioral infraction has been committed for which safety cannot otherwise be achieved, ensuring the briefest terms of isolation needed to achieve legitimate and immediate correctional goals, prohibiting its use entirely for some populations, regularly reviewing all isolated prisoners for as-soon-as-possible return to general population, including the immediate return of those showing mental and physical health risk factors, assisting individuals who are transitioning out of isolation (either to the general population or to the community), and partnering with medical, public health, and criminal justice experts to develop evidence-based alternatives to solitary confinement for nearly all prisoners...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292226/outcomes-of-offenders-with-co-occurring-substance-use-disorders-and-mental-disorders
#15
Geoff Wilton, Lynn A Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Whether a diagnosis of a mental disorder contributes to the risk of poorer correctional outcomes is controversial. This study aimed to clarify the extent to which mental and substance use disorders individually and in combination contribute to correctional outcomes in order to determine optimal treatment and promote public safety. METHODS: Differences were examined between four groups of federal offenders in Canada (N=715): those with a mental disorder only, those with a substance use disorder only, those with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, and those with no disorder...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258758/defining-reasonable-force-does-it-advance-child-protection
#16
Joan E Durrant, Barbara Fallon, Rachael Lefebvre, Kate Allan
Fifty-two countries have abolished all physical punishment of children, yet Canada has retained its criminal defense to 'reasonable' corrective force. In 2004, Canada's Supreme Court attempted to set limits on punitive acts that can be considered reasonable under the law. In the present study, we examined the validity of these limits. If the court's limits provide adequate protection to children, most substantiated child maltreatment cases should exceed those limits. We operationalized each limit and applied it to a provincially representative sample of substantiated child physical maltreatment cases...
February 28, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225844/-diminished-culpability
#17
Luis Ohman, Adrián P Fantini
One of the central matters in forensic psychiatry is its culpability. Day after day we, the mental health professionals, are subpoenaed in different courts of our country to assess the mental state of a given individual in order to endorse a judge so that he can issue their view pertaining the culpability and the responsibility of accused subjects. Our current National Criminal Code, dating from 1921, in Art. 34 sub 1 holds for culpability a dichotomous model in which an individual is responsible and must be accountable for his behavior or not responsible and in such case must no be held accountable in criminal courts...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216771/filicide-in-the-united-states
#18
Phillip J Resnick
In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216766/forensic-psychiatry-in-india-past-present-and-future
#19
REVIEW
S Nambi, Siva Ilango, Lakshmi Prabha
Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry, in which scientific and clinical expertise is applied to legal issues in legal contexts embracing civil, criminal, correctional, or legislative matters. Forensic psychiatry is still in an infant stage in India and other developing countries. Law is the sanctioning discipline, and Psychiatry is the therapeutic discipline. Due to various reasons, Forensic Psychiatry is reared as Cinderella in our country; "which is much neglected, ignored, misinterpreted, and misunderstood...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205232/preliminary-study-of-testosterone-and-empathy-in-determining-recidivism-and-antisocial-behavior
#20
Samuel J House, Jacob M Laan, Raymond K Molden, James C Ritchie, Zachary N Stowe
Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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