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Criminal correction

Thitika Kitpipit, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Chutamas Satasook, Adrian Linacre
Despite continuous conservation efforts by national and international organizations, the populations of the three extant elephant species are still dramatically declining due to the illegal trade in ivory leading to the killing of elephants. A requirement to aid investigations and prosecutions is the accurate identification of the elephant species from which the ivory was removed. We report on the development of the first fully validated multiplex PCR-electrophoresis assay for ivory DNA analysis that can be used as a screening or confirmatory test...
October 18, 2016: Electrophoresis
Tarita N Collins, Joshua B Avondoglio, Linda M Terry
Mentally ill patients are entering the criminal justice system at alarming rates, representing a significant percentage of those incarcerated. Correctional facilities are mandated to provide mental health treatment to inmates. The increasing number of inmate patients has made psychiatry an important part of institutional operations. Psychiatrists are called to provide psychopharmacological interventions to aid in the safe operation of institutions and provide effective treatment to those with mental illness...
September 27, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Kathleen Mary Patchan
This commentary describes the author's experience working at two separate detention centres during her fellowship. She initially describes her experience performing forensic evaluations. The terms 'competency to stand trial' and 'criminal responsibility' are defined. It then describes the author's experience working in an inner city and suburban detention centre. The two environments and patient demographics are compared to a traditional inpatient or outpatient community setting. Fictional patient encounters, based on an amalgamation of actual patients, are discussed...
September 9, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Matthew C Waesche, Charles Brendan Clark, Karen L Cropsey
BACKGROUND: To determine if thwarted belongingness in combination with frequent alcohol use increased suicidal and homicidal ideation when known predictors were controlled for (eg, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, drug use, race, sex, age, and employment status). METHOD: This study utilized an archival database. Participants were 574 individuals at an outpatient substance abuse treatment facility who were under community corrections supervision. The average age was 34...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
A Jueterbock, S U Franssen, N Bergmann, J Gu, J A Coyer, T B H Reusch, E Bornberg-Bauer, J L Olsen
Populations distributed across a broad thermal cline are instrumental in addressing adap-tation to increasing temperatures under global warming. Using a space-for-time substi-tution design, we tested for parallel adaptation to warm-temperatures along two inde-pendent thermal clines in Zostera marina, the most widely distributed seagrass in the temperate northern hemisphere. A North-South pair of populations was sampled along the European and North American coasts and exposed to a simulated heat wave in a common-garden mesocosm...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Jennifer Skeem, John Monahan, Christopher Lowenkamp
Increasingly, jurisdictions across the United States are using risk assessment instruments to scaffold efforts to unwind mass incarceration without compromising public safety. Despite promising results, critics oppose the use of these instruments to inform sentencing and correctional decisions. One argument is that the use of instruments that include gender as a risk factor will discriminate against men in sanctioning. On the basis of a sample of 14,310 federal offenders, we empirically test the predictive fairness of an instrument that omits gender, the Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA)...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Rebekah J Savage, Vinetra L King, C Brendan Clark, Karen L Cropsey
PURPOSE: Initiation of marijuana during adolescence is associated with negative outcomes and is more common among those with criminal justice involvement. We sought to determine demographics, psychosocial factors, mental health factors, and criminal outcomes associated with earlier age at first marijuana use in a criminal justice population. METHODS: Data from structured, in-person interviews of adults in a criminal corrections program were analyzed. Participants (689 men and women ages 19 and older) were recruited for a larger smoking cessation trial (2009-2013) as a volunteer sample by flyers at a community corrections site...
August 10, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Inna Levy, Yaacov Reuven
The aim of the present study was to examine factors that affect educational instructors' attitudes toward juvenile inmates in corrective educational facilities. Educational instructors play an important role in the rehabilitation of juvenile inmates, and their attitudes may affect the adolescents' chances of rehabilitation. We adopted an ecological perspective and explored the relationship between instructors' belief in a just world (BJW) and the role of inmates in a criminal event (offender/victim). The study included 196 educational instructors...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Michael Prendergast, Wayne N Welsh, Lynda Stein, Wayne Lehman, Gerald Melnick, Umme Warda, Michael Shafer, Wendy Ulaszek, Eleni Rodis, Sami Abdel-Salam, Jamieson Duvall
Although research indicates that organizational characteristics substantially influence the adoption and use of evidence-based practices (EBPs), there has been little empirical research on organizational factors most likely to influence successful implementation of EBPs, particularly in criminal justice settings. This study examined organizational characteristics related to the success of change teams in achieving improvements in assessment and case-planning procedures for persons leaving correctional settings and receiving community services...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Ashley B Batastini, Robert D Morgan
The use of telepsychology, such as videoconferencing (VC) systems, has been rapidly increasing as a tool for the provision of mental health services to underserved clients in difficult to access settings. Inmates detained in restrictive housing appear to be at an increased risk of experiencing emotional and behavioral disturbances compared to their general population counterparts, yet they are less likely to receive appropriate treatment due to security constraints. The primary purpose of this article is to describe the process of implementing a novel telepsychology intervention specifically designed to offer group therapy to high-security, administratively segregated inmates...
August 2016: Psychological Services
Philip R Magaletta, Gary R VandenBos
This article is an introduction to the special section "Correctional and Criminal Justice Psychology." The eight articles in this issue advance the goals of delivering and assessing psychological services within the legal and correctional systems and achieving lasting change in individuals, groups, and systems. (PsycINFO Database Record
August 2016: Psychological Services
Alison M Colbert, Lorie S Goshin, Vanessa Durand, Rick Zoucha, L Kathleen Sekula
Health priorities of women after incarceration remain poorly understood, constraining development of interventions targeted at their health during that time. We explored the experience of health and health care after incarceration in a focused ethnography of 28 women who had been released from prison or jail within the past year and were living in community corrections facilities. The women's outlook on health was rooted in a newfound core optimism, but this was constrained by their pressing health-related issues; stress and uncertainty; and the pressures of the criminal justice system...
July 27, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
June P Tangney, Johanna B Folk, David M Graham, Jeffrey B Stuewig, Daniel V Blalock, Andrew Salatino, Brandy B Blasko, Kelly E Moore
PURPOSE: To assess changes in inmates' misuse of substances from pre- to post-incarceration. METHODS: In Study 1, professionals (n = 162) and laypersons (n = 50) predicted how jail inmates' substance misuse would change from pre-incarceration to post-release. In Study 2, a longitudinal study of 305 jail inmates, we examined actual changes in substance use and dependence from pre-incarceration to the first year post-incarceration, as well as whether changes varied as a function of demographic, criminal justice, treatment, and personality factors...
September 2016: Journal of Criminal Justice
Jing Sun, Falguni Patel, Rachel Kirzner, Nijah Newton-Famous, Constance Owens, Seth L Welles, Mariana Chilton
BACKGROUND: Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships...
2016: BMC Public Health
Scott A Freeman
Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases.
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Shreemanta Kumar Dash, Shailendra Patel, Krishnadutt Chavali
Sexual violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children. Although sexual violence mostly affects women and girls, boys are also subject to child sexual abuse. Nurse is the person who attends the victim first. In order to meet the rigid and ever-changing demands of providing care to the victim and complying with our confusing system of laws, the nursing should has been forced to expand into a Forensic nursing, specialty of its own. Nursing roles in the criminal justice service known by many names worldwide-Custody nursing, Prison/Correctional nursing, Immigration centre nursing, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE), SARTs (Sexual assault response team), SARCs (Sexual assault referral centre) and FNDIs (Forensic nurse death investigator)...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
David Farabee, Maureen Hillhouse, Timothy Condon, Barbara McCrady, Kathryn McCollister, Walter Ling
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing prevalence of opioid use among offenders, pharmacotherapy remains an underused treatment approach in correctional settings. The aim of this 4-year trial is to assess the clinical utility, effectiveness, and cost implications of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol®; Alkermes Inc.) alone and in conjunction with patient navigation for jail inmates with opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS: Opioid-dependent inmates will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions before being released to the community to include: 1) XR-NTX only; 2) XR-NTX plus patient navigation (PN), and 3) enhanced treatment-as-usual (ETAU) with drug education and a community treatment referral...
July 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Julie Netherland, Helena B Hansen
The past decade in the U.S. has been marked by a media fascination with the white prescription opioid cum heroin user. In this paper, we contrast media coverage of white non-medical opioid users with that of black and brown heroin users to show how divergent representations lead to different public and policy responses. A content analysis of 100 popular press articles from 2001 and 2011 in which half describe heroin users and half describe prescription opioid users revealed a consistent contrast between criminalized urban black and Latino heroin injectors with sympathetic portrayals of suburban white prescription opioid users...
June 6, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
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