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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929952/how-do-ed-patients-with-criminal-justice-contact-compare-with-other-ed-users-a-retrospective-analysis-of-ed-visits-in-california
#1
Shannon McConville, Alyssa C Mooney, Brie A Williams, Renee Y Hsia
OBJECTIVE: To assess the patterns of emergency department (ED) utilisation among those with and without criminal justice contact in California in 2014, comparing variation in ED use, visit frequency, diagnoses and insurance coverage. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Analyses included ED visits to all licensed hospitals in California using statewide data on all ED encounters in 2014. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants included 3 757 870 non-elderly adult ED patients who made at least one ED visit in 2014...
June 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929937/sex-determination-of-han-adults-in-northeast-china-using-cone-beam-computer-tomography
#2
Jilong Zheng, Shoutao Ni, Yunxin Wang, Biao Zhang, Yue Teng, Shuo Jiang
The purpose of this study was to obtain the morphological data of the maxillofacial region of Han nationality adults in Northeast China, and to explore the methods and appropriate variables of three-dimensional reconstruction technology for sex determination using Cone beam computer tomography (CBCT). The CBCT images of 420 adults (210 males, 210 females) aged 18-70years were reconstructed by MIMICS 17.0 software and sixteen observation indexes were measured and analyzed statistically. The results demonstrated that twelve of sixteen variables expressed significant sexual difference (p<0...
May 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911445/the-effect-of-treatment-completion-on-recidivism-among-tasc-program-clients
#3
Michael O Maume, Christina Lanier, Kristen DeVall
Despite the enormous resources spent by states in the United States on bridging the gap between criminal justice and behavioral health services, there have been relatively few statewide evaluations of drug treatment client recidivism. We present the results of an evaluation of recidivism outcomes for a sample of individuals ( n = 1,274) referred to the Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities (TASC) program in North Carolina from 2007 to 2008. The methodology accounted for both client and offense characteristics drawn from TASC, court, and corrections records...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911436/a-ptsd-screen-for-forensic-populations
#4
Kaitlin Guston, Elizabeth Combs, Albert Kopak, Alyssa Raggio, Norman Hoffmann
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been observed in a sizable proportion of the U.S. adult correctional population. Jail administrators must pay particularly close attention to inmates with PTSD symptoms, considering these facilities serve as the gateway to the criminal justice system and inmates with PTSD may pose a risk to themselves, other inmates, and staff. The reality of conducting behavioral health assessments in a jail environment is wrought with significant challenges, including limited time...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882464/the-building-bridges-project-linking-disconnected-service-networks-in-acquired-brain-injury-and-criminal-justice
#5
Glenn Kelly, Suzanne Brown, Grahame K Simpson
People with acquired brain injury (ABI) are overrepresented in prison populations across many countries. An effective service response to reduce this trend requires collaboration between the ABI and criminal justice (CJ) sectors. The Building Bridges project piloted a novel professional development model designed to increase cross-sectoral knowledge and collaboration between the ABI and CJ sectors. A total of 178 service providers from Victoria, Australia, participated in six professional development forums that included content about ABI, policing, disability and legal supports, and correctional/post-release services...
June 8, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803098/trends-and-mental-health-correlates-of-nonmedical-opioid-use-among-criminal-justice-involved-african-american-men
#6
Joi-Sheree' Knighton, Danelle Stevens-Watkins, Michele Staton, Kevin Pangburn
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has deemed nonmedical opioid use (NMOU) an epidemic. Population-based survey data indicate high rates of NMOU among Caucasians, however, these estimates exclude incarcerated samples and may underestimate use among criminal justice-involved African Americans. Despite opioid-associated risks of co-occurring mental illness and mortality, to our knowledge, this is the first study to examine NMOU and mental health among a sample of African American men receiving corrections-based substance use disorder (SUD) treatment in jail, prison, or the community...
April 30, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801947/the-big-data-potential-of-epidemiological-studies-for-criminology-and-forensics
#7
Matt DeLisi
Big data, the analysis of original datasets with large samples ranging from ∼30,000 to one million participants to mine unexplored data, has been under-utilized in criminology. However, there have been recent calls for greater synthesis between epidemiology and criminology and a small number of scholars have utilized epidemiological studies that were designed to measure alcohol and substance use to harvest behavioral and psychiatric measures that relate to the study of crime. These studies have been helpful in producing knowledge about the most serious, violent, and chronic offenders, but applications to more pathological forensic populations is lagging...
July 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752698/opioid-use-among-those-who-have-criminal-justice-experience-harm-reduction-strategies-to-lessen-hiv-risk
#8
REVIEW
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David Cloud, Ernest Drucker, Nickolas Zaller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the HIV and opioid literature relevant to harm reduction strategies for those with criminal justice experience. RECENT FINDINGS: Opioid use in the United States has risen at an alarming rate recently. This has led to increased numbers of people who inject drugs, placing new populations at risk for HIV, including those who have criminal justice experience. In recent years, there has been a gradual decrease in the number of individuals under the supervision of the criminal justice system...
May 11, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744995/what-difference-do-brain-images-make-in-us-criminal-trials
#9
Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Edward Lamb
One of the early concerns regarding the use of neuroscience data in criminal trials is that even if the brain images are ambiguous or inconclusive, they still might influence a jury in virtue of the fact that they appear easy to understand. By appearing visually simple, even though they are really statistically constructed maps with a host of assumptions built into them, a lay jury or a judge might take brain scans to be more reliable or relevant than they actually are. Should courts exclude brain scans for being more prejudicial than probative? Herein, we rehearse a brief history of brain scans admitted into criminal trials in the United States, then describe the results of a recent analysis of appellate court decisions that referenced 1 or more brain scans in the judicial decision...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733380/systematic-review-of-factors-influencing-smoking-following-release-from-smoke-free-prisons
#10
Cheneal Puljevic, Catherine J Segan
Introduction: Given the current proliferation of prison smoke-free policies internationally, and the multiple benefits of continued smoking abstinence for correctional populations, improved understanding of factors influencing post-release smoking abstinence is required to inform support strategies aimed at individuals exiting smoke-free prisons. Methods: We systematically searched health, social science, and criminal justice databases for studies relating to smoking behaviours among people released from smoke-free prisons...
May 4, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727340/in-a-spirit-of-restoration-a-phenomenology-of-nursing-practice-and-the-criminal-justice-system
#11
Geraldine Gorman, Rebecca M Singer, Erin Christmas, Catherine Herbstritt, Layne Miller, Mary Murphy, Cailan Shannon, Katrina Wyss
Conditions within jails and prisons are a public health crisis, necessitating critical reform measures. An innovative collaboration between a Midwestern College of Nursing and Cook County Department of Corrections provides students with the opportunity to develop health education for both those detained in the jail and the corrections officers. A phenomenological approach, recognizing the importance of intuitive and cognitive understanding, is offered as a framework for practice in complex environments. Principles of restorative justice provide a bridge between primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and the nursing practice possible within these institutions of incarceration and the communities to which people return...
April 2018: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697521/an-integrative-review-of-nurse-authored-research-to-improve-health-equity-and-human-rights-for-criminal-justice-involved-people
#12
REVIEW
Lorie S Goshin, Alison M Colbert, John F Carey
BACKGROUND: An estimated 10 million people are incarcerated internationally, including 2.1 million people in the United States. Criminal justice involvement is a social determinant of individual and family health disparities. Health care in correctional and forensic psychiatric facilities is nurse driven. The unique contributions of nurse authors to the research literature on health equity and humane conditions for this population have not been aggregated, nor have the nursing research gaps in this area been systematically identified...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685300/validation-studies-in-forensic-odontology-part-1-accuracy-of-radiographic-matching
#13
Mark Page, Russell Lain, Richard Kemp, Jane Taylor
As part of a series of studies aimed at validating techniques in forensic odontology, this study aimed to validate the accuracy of ante-mortem (AM)/postmortem (PM) radiographic matching by dentists and forensic odontologists. This study used a web-based interface with 50 pairs of AM and PM radiographs from real casework, at varying degrees of difficulty. Participants were shown both radiographs as a pair and initially asked to decide if they represented the same individual using a yes/no binary choice forced-decision...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674018/feasibility-of-a-handheld-near-infrared-device-for-the-qualitative-analysis-of-bloodstains
#14
Alvaro Varela Morillas, James Gooch, Nunzianda Frascione
One of the most common tasks in criminal investigation is to determine from which tissue source a biological fluid stain originates. As a result, there are many tests that are frequently used to determine if a stain is blood, semen or saliva by exploiting the properties of certain molecules present within the fluids themselves. These include chemical reagents such as the Kastle-Meyer or Acid Phosphatase tests, as well as other techniques like the use of alternative light sources. However, most of the tests currently available have some major drawbacks...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672095/concurrent-validity-of-the-personality-assessment-screener-in-a-large-sample-of-offenders
#15
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, Kevin S Douglas
Mental health problems are disproportionately prevalent in forensic and correctional settings, and there have been numerous attempts to develop screening tools to evaluate individuals in such contexts. This study investigates the clinical utility of the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997), a brief self-report measure of risk for emotional and behavioral dysfunction, in a large mixed-gender offender sample (N = 1,658). The PAS is a 22-item measure derived from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007), a more comprehensive self-report instrument widely used to assess for psychological disturbances among forensic and correctional populations...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607658/syndemic-effect-of-mental-illness-and-substance-use-on-viral-suppression-among-recently-incarcerated-hiv-infected-individuals-in-the-care-corrections-study
#16
Hannah Yellin, Curt Beckwith, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, Breana Castonguay, Rudy Patrick, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Irene Kuo
Few studies on HIV-related syndemics of co-occurring and mutually reinforcing psychosocial conditions have assessed clinical outcomes in criminal justice (CJ)-involved populations. Baseline data from the CARE+ Corrections study were used to quantify co-occurring mental illness and substance use and examine syndemic effects on viral suppression among 106 CJ-involved HIV-infected individuals. Ninety-one (86%) reported a mental illness diagnosis, 30 (28%) reported hazardous alcohol use, and 61 (58%) were drug dependent...
April 1, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596582/prevalence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-prisoners
#17
Gergõ Baranyi, Megan Cassidy, Seena Fazel, Stefan Priebe, Adrian P Mundt
People involved with criminal justice frequently are exposed to violence and traumatic experiences. This may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, no review, to our knowledge, has synthetized findings in this setting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate prevalence rates of PTSD in prison populations. Original studies in which prevalence rates of PTSD in unselected samples of incarcerated people were reported were systematically searched between 1980 and June 2017...
June 1, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584521/policy-and-legal-protection-for-breastfeeding-and-incarcerated-women-in-canada
#18
Martha Jane Paynter
Most incarcerated women in Canada are mothers. Because women are the fastest growing population in carceral facilities, protecting the rights of incarcerated women to breastfeed their children is increasingly important. There is considerable evidence that incarcerated women in Canada experience poor physical and mental health, isolation, and barriers to care. Incarcerated women and their children could benefit significantly from breastfeeding. This Insight in Policy explores policy and legal protection for breastfeeding in Canada as it relates to carceral facilities, considers key cases regarding breastfeeding rights among incarcerated women, and presents recommendations for policy development and advocacy...
May 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554615/determining-the-optimal-clinical-cutoff-on-the-ces-d-for-depression-in-a-community-corrections-sample
#19
Samantha K Henry, Merida M Grant, Karen L Cropsey
BACKGROUND: Screening instruments are urgently needed to rapidly and efficiently identify those in need of mental health treatment, particularly among underserved populations. Although designed initially for use in research, the CES-D has become a widely used clinical screening tool for the presence of major depression. Despite four decades and three major revisions to the DSM since the CES-D was first introduced, the cutoff score of 16 remains the marker by which individuals are assessed...
July 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549744/messenger-rna-biomarker-signatures-for-forensic-body-fluid-identification-revealed-by-targeted-rna-sequencing
#20
E Hanson, S Ingold, C Haas, J Ballantyne
The recovery of a DNA profile from the perpetrator or victim in criminal investigations can provide valuable 'source level' information for investigators. However, a DNA profile does not reveal the circumstances by which biological material was transferred. Some contextual information can be obtained by a determination of the tissue or fluid source of origin of the biological material as it is potentially indicative of some behavioral activity on behalf of the individual that resulted in its transfer from the body...
May 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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