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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907231/use-of-autopsy-to-determine-live-or-stillbirth-new-approaches-in-decision-support-systems
#1
Riza Yilmaz, Okan Erkaymaz, Erdogan Kara, Kivanc Ergen
Fetal deaths are important cases for forensic medicine, as well as for criminal and civil law. From a legal perspective, the determination of whether a deceased infant was stillborn is a difficult process. Such a determination is generally made during autopsy; however, no standardized procedures for this determination exist. Therefore, new facilitative approaches are needed. In this study, three new support systems based on 10 autopsy parameters were tested for their ability to correctly determine whether deceased infants were alive or stillborn...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890111/sex-estimation-of-the-tibia-in-modern-turkish-a-computed-tomography-study
#2
Oguzhan Ekizoglu, Ali Er, Mustafa Bozdag, Mustafa Akcaoglu, Ismail Ozgur Can, Julieta G García-Donas, Elena F Kranioti
The utilization of computed tomography is beneficial for the analysis of skeletal remains and it has important advantages for anthropometric studies. The present study investigated morphometry of left tibia using CT images of a contemporary Turkish population. Seven parameters were measured on 203 individuals (124 males and 79 females) within the 19-92-years age group. The first objective of this study was to provide population-specific sex estimation equations for the contemporary Turkish population based on CT images...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868299/quantifying-maternal-incarceration-a-whole-population-linked-data-study-of-western-australian-children-born-1985-2011
#3
Caitlin M Dowell, David B Preen, Leonie Segal
OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of children affected by maternal incarceration in Western Australia (WA). METHODS: Using linked administrative data we identified all children born in WA between 1985 and 2011, whose biological mother was imprisoned during their childhood. Data was obtained through the WA Data Linkage Branch from the Department of Corrective Services, Midwives Notifications System and Birth Registrations data collections. Descriptive characteristics of the children (n=9,352) and their mothers (n=3,827) are reported...
November 20, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819465/elucidating-the-validity-of-the-externalizing-spectrum-of-psychopathology-in-correctional-forensic-and-community-samples
#4
Martin Sellbom
Krueger and colleagues (2007) have elaborated on a hierarchical structural model of externalizing psychopathology, with a general overarching factor and 2 residual liability factors reflecting callous-aggression and substance misuse. The current study used an independent set of symptom and behavior indicators (items derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form) to test alternative models of externalizing. In mixed-sex samples of correctional inmates (n = 42,290), forensic criminal defendants (n = 1,065), and community participants (n = 2,214), a bifactor model based on Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, and Kramer (2007) was associated with better model fit relative to a 1-factor model, 2-factor model, and a bifactor model with 2 random bifactors...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816035/predictors-of-medication-adherence-and-smoking-cessation-among-smokers-under-community-corrections-supervision
#5
Karen L Cropsey, C Brendan Clark, Erin N Stevens, Samantha Schiavon, Adrienne C Lahti, Peter S Hendricks
INTRODUCTION: Individuals in the U.S. criminal justice system now represent over 12% of all current U.S. smokers. With smoking banned in most U.S. jails and prisons, the cessation focus for this population has shifted to individuals who are under community correction supervision (e.g., probation, parole). The aim of this study was to examine predictors of successful smoking cessation among criminal justice individuals supervised in the community. METHODS: Five hundred participants under community corrections supervision were randomized to receive either four sessions of smoking cessation counseling or no counseling in conjunction with 12weeks of bupropion treatment plus brief physician advice to quit...
October 23, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809738/sexual-transmission-of-hiv-and-the-law-an-australian-medical-consensus-statement
#6
Mark Boyd, David Cooper, Elizabeth A Crock, Levinia Crooks, Michelle L Giles, Andrew Grulich, Sharon R Lewin, David Nolan, Trent Yarwood
Criminal cases involving human immunodeficiency virus transmission or exposure require that courts correctly comprehend the rapidly evolving science of HIV transmission and the impact of an HIV diagnosis. This consensus statement, written by leading HIV clinicians and scientists, provides current scientific evidence to facilitate just outcomes in Australian criminal cases involving HIV.Main recommendations: Caution should be exercised when considering charges or prosecutions regarding HIV transmission or exposure because:Scientific evidence shows that the risk of HIV transmission during sex between partners of different HIV serostatus can be low, negligible or too low to quantify, even when the HIV-positive partner is not taking effective antiretroviral therapy, depending on the nature of the sexual act, the viral load of the partner with HIV, and whether a condom or pre-exposure prophylaxis is employed to reduce risk...
November 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776722/infectious-diseases-and-the-criminal-justice-system
#7
Ank E Nijhawan
The United States leads the world in incarceration, which disproportionately affects disadvantaged individuals, including those who are mentally ill, poor, homeless and racial minorities. Incarceration is disruptive to families and communities and contributes to health disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this grand rounds is to review (1) the epidemiology of incarceration in the United States, (2) the social factors which contribute to high rates of STIs in incarcerated individuals and (3) the HIV care cascade in incarcerated and recently released individuals...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754560/ivory-species-identification-using-electrophoresis-based-techniques
#8
Thitika Kitpipit, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Chutamas Satasook, Adrian Linacre
Despite continuous conservation efforts by national and international organizations, the populations of the three extant elephant species are still dramatically declining due to the illegal trade in ivory leading to the killing of elephants. A requirement to aid investigations and prosecutions is the accurate identification of the elephant species from which the ivory was removed. We report on the development of the first fully validated multiplex PCR-electrophoresis assay for ivory DNA analysis that can be used as a screening or confirmatory test...
October 18, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670976/correctional-psychopharmacology-pitfalls-challenges-and-victories-of-prescribing-in-a-correctional-setting
#9
Tarita N Collins, Joshua B Avondoglio, Linda M Terry
Mentally ill patients are entering the criminal justice system at alarming rates, representing a significant percentage of those incarcerated. Correctional facilities are mandated to provide mental health treatment to inmates. The increasing number of inmate patients has made psychiatry an important part of institutional operations. Psychiatrists are called to provide psychopharmacological interventions to aid in the safe operation of institutions and provide effective treatment to those with mental illness...
September 27, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662886/heightened-early-attentional-stimulus-orienting-and-impulsive-action-in-men-with-antisocial-personality-disorder
#10
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609129/narrative-and-reflection-training-in-a-correctional-facility
#11
Kathleen Mary Patchan
This commentary describes the author's experience working at two separate detention centres during her fellowship. She initially describes her experience performing forensic evaluations. The terms 'competency to stand trial' and 'criminal responsibility' are defined. It then describes the author's experience working in an inner city and suburban detention centre. The two environments and patient demographics are compared to a traditional inpatient or outpatient community setting. Fictional patient encounters, based on an amalgamation of actual patients, are discussed...
September 9, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608194/the-connection-between-thwarted-belongingness-alcohol-consumption-suicidal-and-homicidal-ideation-in-a-criminal-justice-sample
#12
Matthew C Waesche, Charles Brendan Clark, Karen L Cropsey
BACKGROUND: To determine if thwarted belongingness in combination with frequent alcohol use increased suicidal and homicidal ideation when known predictors were controlled for (eg, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, drug use, race, sex, age, and employment status). METHOD: This study utilized an archival database. Participants were 574 individuals at an outpatient substance abuse treatment facility who were under community corrections supervision. The average age was 34...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605915/risk-factors-for-problematic-behaviors-among-forensic-outpatients-under-the-medical-treatment-and-supervision-act-in-japan
#13
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598849/phylogeographic-differentiation-versus-transcriptomic-adaptation-to-warm-temperatures-in-zostera-marina-a-globally-important-seagrass
#14
A Jueterbock, S U Franssen, N Bergmann, J Gu, J A Coyer, T B H Reusch, E Bornberg-Bauer, J L Olsen
Populations distributed across a broad thermal cline are instrumental in addressing adap-tation to increasing temperatures under global warming. Using a space-for-time substi-tution design, we tested for parallel adaptation to warm-temperatures along two inde-pendent thermal clines in Zostera marina, the most widely distributed seagrass in the temperate northern hemisphere. A North-South pair of populations was sampled along the European and North American coasts and exposed to a simulated heat wave in a common-garden mesocosm...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598563/gender-risk-assessment-and-sanctioning-the-cost-of-treating-women-like-men
#15
Jennifer Skeem, John Monahan, Christopher Lowenkamp
Increasingly, jurisdictions across the United States are using risk assessment instruments to scaffold efforts to unwind mass incarceration without compromising public safety. Despite promising results, critics oppose the use of these instruments to inform sentencing and correctional decisions. One argument is that the use of instruments that include gender as a risk factor will discriminate against men in sanctioning. On the basis of a sample of 14,310 federal offenders, we empirically test the predictive fairness of an instrument that omits gender, the Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA)...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572181/factors-associated-with-early-marijuana-initiation-in-a-criminal-justice-population
#16
Rebekah J Savage, Vinetra L King, C Brendan Clark, Karen L Cropsey
PURPOSE: Initiation of marijuana during adolescence is associated with negative outcomes and is more common among those with criminal justice involvement. We sought to determine demographics, psychosocial factors, mental health factors, and criminal outcomes associated with earlier age at first marijuana use in a criminal justice population. METHODS: Data from structured, in-person interviews of adults in a criminal corrections program were analyzed. Participants (689 men and women ages 19 and older) were recruited for a larger smoking cessation trial (2009-2013) as a volunteer sample by flyers at a community corrections site...
August 10, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565537/educational-instructors-attitudes-toward-juvenile-inmates-the-effect-of-the-inmate-s-role-in-a-criminal-event-and-the-instructors-belief-in-a-just-world
#17
Inna Levy, Yaacov Reuven
The aim of the present study was to examine factors that affect educational instructors' attitudes toward juvenile inmates in corrective educational facilities. Educational instructors play an important role in the rehabilitation of juvenile inmates, and their attitudes may affect the adolescents' chances of rehabilitation. We adopted an ecological perspective and explored the relationship between instructors' belief in a just world (BJW) and the role of inmates in a criminal event (offender/victim). The study included 196 educational instructors...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520366/influence-of-organizational-characteristics-on-success-in-implementing-process-improvement-goals-in-correctional-treatment-settings
#18
Michael Prendergast, Wayne N Welsh, Lynda Stein, Wayne Lehman, Gerald Melnick, Umme Warda, Michael Shafer, Wendy Ulaszek, Eleni Rodis, Sami Abdel-Salam, Jamieson Duvall
Although research indicates that organizational characteristics substantially influence the adoption and use of evidence-based practices (EBPs), there has been little empirical research on organizational factors most likely to influence successful implementation of EBPs, particularly in criminal justice settings. This study examined organizational characteristics related to the success of change teams in achieving improvements in assessment and case-planning procedures for persons leaving correctional settings and receiving community services...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504646/connecting-the-disconnected-preliminary-results-and-lessons-learned-from-a-telepsychology-initiative-with-special-management-inmates
#19
Ashley B Batastini, Robert D Morgan
The use of telepsychology, such as videoconferencing (VC) systems, has been rapidly increasing as a tool for the provision of mental health services to underserved clients in difficult to access settings. Inmates detained in restrictive housing appear to be at an increased risk of experiencing emotional and behavioral disturbances compared to their general population counterparts, yet they are less likely to receive appropriate treatment due to security constraints. The primary purpose of this article is to describe the process of implementing a novel telepsychology intervention specifically designed to offer group therapy to high-security, administratively segregated inmates...
August 2016: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504641/violence-risk-assessment-and-psychological-treatment-in-correctional-and-forensic-settings-advances-in-research-and-practice
#20
Philip R Magaletta, Gary R VandenBos
This article is an introduction to the special section "Correctional and Criminal Justice Psychology." The eight articles in this issue advance the goals of delivering and assessing psychological services within the legal and correctional systems and achieving lasting change in individuals, groups, and systems. (PsycINFO Database Record
August 2016: Psychological Services
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