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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607658/syndemic-effect-of-mental-illness-and-substance-use-on-viral-suppression-among-recently-incarcerated-hiv-infected-individuals-in-the-care-corrections-study
#1
Hannah Yellin, Curt Beckwith, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, Breana Castonguay, Rudy Patrick, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Irene Kuo
Few studies on HIV-related syndemics of co-occurring and mutually reinforcing psychosocial conditions have assessed clinical outcomes in criminal justice (CJ)-involved populations. Baseline data from the CARE+ Corrections study were used to quantify co-occurring mental illness and substance use and examine syndemic effects on viral suppression among 106 CJ-involved HIV-infected individuals. Ninety-one (86%) reported a mental illness diagnosis, 30 (28%) reported hazardous alcohol use, and 61 (58%) were drug dependent...
April 1, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596582/prevalence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-prisoners
#2
Gergõ Baranyi, Megan Cassidy, Seena Fazel, Stefan Priebe, Adrian P Mundt
People involved with criminal justice frequently are exposed to violence and traumatic experiences. This may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, no review, to our knowledge, has synthetized findings in this setting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate prevalence rates of PTSD in prison populations. Original studies in which prevalence rates of PTSD in unselected samples of incarcerated people were reported were systematically searched between 1980 and June 2017...
March 27, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584521/policy-and-legal-protection-for-breastfeeding-and-incarcerated-women-in-canada
#3
Martha Jane Paynter
Most incarcerated women in Canada are mothers. Because women are the fastest growing population in carceral facilities, protecting the rights of incarcerated women to breastfeed their children is increasingly important. There is considerable evidence that incarcerated women in Canada experience poor physical and mental health, isolation, and barriers to care. Incarcerated women and their children could benefit significantly from breastfeeding. This Insight in Policy explores policy and legal protection for breastfeeding in Canada as it relates to carceral facilities, considers key cases regarding breastfeeding rights among incarcerated women, and presents recommendations for policy development and advocacy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554615/determining-the-optimal-clinical-cutoff-on-the-ces-d-for-depression-in-a-community-corrections-sample
#4
Samantha K Henry, Merida M Grant, Karen L Cropsey
BACKGROUND: Screening instruments are urgently needed to rapidly and efficiently identify those in need of mental health treatment, particularly among underserved populations. Although designed initially for use in research, the CES-D has become a widely used clinical screening tool for the presence of major depression. Despite four decades and three major revisions to the DSM since the CES-D was first introduced, the cutoff score of 16 remains the marker by which individuals are assessed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549744/messenger-rna-biomarker-signatures-for-forensic-body-fluid-identification-revealed-by-targeted-rna-sequencing
#5
E Hanson, S Ingold, C Haas, J Ballantyne
The recovery of a DNA profile from the perpetrator or victim in criminal investigations can provide valuable 'source level' information for investigators. However, a DNA profile does not reveal the circumstances by which biological material was transferred. Some contextual information can be obtained by a determination of the tissue or fluid source of origin of the biological material as it is potentially indicative of some behavioral activity on behalf of the individual that resulted in its transfer from the body...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544869/criminal-justice-continuum-for-opioid-users-at-risk-of-overdose
#6
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Nickolas Zaller, Sarah Martino, David H Cloud, Erin McCauley, Andrew Heise, David Seal
The United States (US) is in the midst of an epidemic of opioid use; however, overdose mortality disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, more than half of state prisoners and approximately two-thirds of county jail detainees report issues with substance use. Overdose is one of the leading causes of mortality among individuals released from correctional settings. Even though the criminal justice (CJ) system interacts with a disproportionately high number of individuals at risk of opioid use and overdose, few CJ agencies screen for opioid use disorder (OUD)...
February 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544376/acceptability-of-hiv-testing-among-jail-inmates-when-combined-with-a-blood-test-for-tuberculosis
#7
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Esmaeil Porsa
Incarcerated individuals are at high risk of HIV and tuberculosis (TB), though combined screening in the criminal justice system is limited. Newer blood tests for TB provide a unique opportunity to combine HIV and TB testing in corrections. Entering jail inmates were offered routine opt-out HIV testing along with TB screening, both via blood draw. Of the 529 individuals enrolled, 524 (99%) agreed to HIV testing. Testing identified 13 (2.5%) previously diagnosed HIV infections and one new positive. One quarter (138, 26%) of participants had never been tested for HIV and were more likely to be young, Hispanic, born outside of the United States, and incarcerated for the first time...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514649/study-protocol-a-hybrid-effectiveness-implementation-trial-of-moral-reconation-therapy-in-the-us-veterans-health-administration
#8
Daniel M Blonigen, Michael A Cucciare, Christine Timko, Jennifer S Smith, Autumn Harnish, Lakiesha Kemp, Joel Rosenthal, David Smelson
BACKGROUND: Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) is a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at reducing risk for criminal recidivism by restructuring antisocial attitudes and cognitions (i.e., "criminogenic thinking"). MRT has empirical support for reducing risk for criminal recidivism among civilian offenders. Recently, a version of MRT was developed for military veterans; however, no randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been conducted with the veteran-specific protocol, and the effectiveness and implementation potential of MRT outside of correctional settings has not been established...
March 7, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490481/drawing-the-answers-sketching-to-support-free-and-probed-recall-by-child-witnesses-and-victims-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Michelle Mattison, Coral J Dando, Thomas C Ormerod
The success of witness interviews in the criminal justice system depends on the accuracy of information obtained, which is a function of both amount and quality of information. Attempts to enhance witness retrieval such as mental reinstatement of context have been designed with typically developed adults in mind. In this article, the relative benefits of mental and sketch reinstatement mnemonics are explored with both typically developing children and children with autism. Children watched a crime event video, and their retrieval of event information was examined in free and probed recall phases of a cognitive interview...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455436/older-adults-in-jail-high-rates-and-early-onset-of-geriatric-conditions
#10
Meredith Greene, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Lia Metzger, Brie Williams
BACKGROUND: The number of older adults in the criminal justice system is rapidly increasing. While this population is thought to experience an early onset of aging-related health conditions ("accelerated aging"), studies have not directly compared rates of geriatric conditions in this population to those found in the general population. The aims of this study were to compare the burden of geriatric conditions among older adults in jail to rates found in an age-matched nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults...
February 17, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453006/illicit-and-prescription-drug-misuse-as-reported-to-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#11
Brian J Piper, Michael J Suarez, John P Piserchio, Dipam T Shah, Olapeju M Simoyan, Kenneth L McCall, Clare E Desrosiers, Stephanie D Nichols
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is rapidly evolving and new tools are needed to combat drug abuse. The Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) is an informational resource that facilitates communication about drug arrests between the criminal justice and healthcare fields. The objectives of this report were to: (1) describe the illegal and prescription pharmaceuticals reported to the DAP; (2) determine if the drugs implicated in arrests changed from the first to latter half of 2016; (3) identify the demographic and other characteristics of arrestees; and (4) outline the strengths and limitations of the DAP for other areas considering implementing similar programs...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428813/gaging-the-impact-of-multiple-substance-use-on-community-corrections-involvement
#12
C Brendan Clark, Jeffrey A Swails, Karen A Akao, Heidi M Pontinen, Karen L Cropsey
Historically, research has demonstrated that multiple substance use, compared to single substance use, poses additional challenges for treatment throughout the continuum of care including referrals, interventions, and relapse prevention. However, it appears that this pattern cannot be easily generalized to all criminal justice settings as evidenced by mixed findings across criminal justice samples. The purpose of the current study is to investigate possible differences in legal and substance-related outcomes between multiple substance users and single substance users within a community corrections sample...
February 8, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345490/asher-r-pacht-1922-2017
#13
Barbara A Van Horne
Presents an obituary for Asher R. Pacht, who passed away on March 14, 2017. Pacht was a pioneer in bringing effective treatment to correctional clients including sex offenders. In addition to being a teacher with a clinical practice, he was a leader in numerous professional organizations, with particular commitment to the regulation and licensing of psychologists. Pacht's first professional job was with the Wisconsin Division of Corrections; he retired 24 years later as director of the Bureau of Clinical Services...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332697/acid-alteration-of-several-ignitable-liquids-of-potential-use-in-arsons
#14
Carlos Martín-Alberca, Héctor Carrascosa, Itxaso San Román, Luis Bartolomé, Carmen García-Ruiz
Ignitable liquids such as fuels, alcohols and thinners can be used in criminal activities, for instance arsons. Forensic experts require to know their chemical compositions, as well as to understand how different modification effects could impact them, in order to detect, classify and identify them properly in fire debris. The acid alteration/acidification of ignitable liquids is a modification effect that sharply alters the chemical composition, for example, of gasoline and diesel fuel, interfering in the forensic analysis and result interpretation...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313405/self-disclosure-in-criminal-justice-what-form-does-it-take-and-what-does-it-achieve
#15
Jake Phillips, Andrew Fowler, Chalen Westaby
Self-disclosure, the act of therapists revealing something about themselves in the context of a professional relationship, has been linked with higher levels of effectiveness when used by correctional workers. However, it is poorly defined in both criminal justice policy and criminological research which has resulted in a lack of understanding about the potential risks and benefits to practice and practitioners. This article uses literature from other fields (namely, social work, counselling, and psychotherapy) to lay out what forms self-disclosure might take in the field of criminal justice...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282239/prescribing-opioid-replacement-therapy-in-u-s-correctional-settings
#16
Pantea Farahmand, Vania Modesto-Lowe, Margaret M Chaplin
Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder associated with criminality, unemployment, infectious diseases, and legal problems. Such addictions are typically over-represented in correctional populations. Inmates with untreated opioid addiction often relapse shortly after release into the community, thereby increasing the risk of overdose, serious illnesses (HIV, hepatitis C) and psychosocial problems (e.g., crimes, recidivism, and reincarceration). There are three U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for the treatment of opioid use disorder: methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228966/estimating-the-prevalence-of-infectious-diseases-from-under-reported-age-dependent-compulsorily-notification-databases
#17
Marcos Amaku, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini, Eleazar Chaib, Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho, David Greenhalgh, Luis Fernandez Lopez, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: National or local laws, norms or regulations (sometimes and in some countries) require medical providers to report notifiable diseases to public health authorities. Reporting, however, is almost always incomplete. This is due to a variety of reasons, ranging from not recognizing the diseased to failures in the technical or administrative steps leading to the final official register in the disease notification system. The reported fraction varies from 9 to 99% and is strongly associated with the disease being reported...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205471/gender-and-mental-health-an-examination-of-procedural-justice-in-a-specialized-court-context
#18
Logan J Somers, Kristy Holtfreter
The procedural justice framework has been applied in the criminal justice contexts of policing, corrections, and courts. According to this perspective, fair treatment, respectful dialogue and being given a proper voice will contribute to citizens' positive views of authority figures. While this literature has grown immensely, several questions remain unanswered. Do males and females perceive similar levels of procedural justice? Does mental health status influence perceptions of fair treatment? Whether procedural justice is a general perspective that can be applied across social groupings has important implications for correctional treatment in that programs that truly "work" for all are more cost-effective...
January 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199502/adhd-among-offenders-prevalence-and-relationship-with-psychopathic-traits
#19
Ana Machado, Diana Rafaela, Tânia Silva, Tânia Veigas, Joaquim Cerejeira
OBJECTIVE: Longitudinal studies have shown a strong association between ADHD and criminal behavior. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of adult ADHD in a high-security facility and to investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and psychopathic traits in criminal offenders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants were recruited between October 2015 and January 2016 among the inmates from a high-security all-male correctional facility in Portugal...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182955/individual-human-scent-as-a-forensic-identifier-using-mantrailing
#20
Leif Woidtke, Jan Dreßler, Carsten Babian
Specially trained dogs have long been used by law enforcement agencies to help in criminal investigations and in searching for missing persons. Still, it is unclear which components of human scent released into the environment contribute to successful searches of individuals. In this study, saliva and axillary sweat samples were taken from a total of 190 people. Additionally, DNA was extracted from whole blood of seven different people and used as an odour sample as well. Overall 675 tests (trails) were performed during a period of 18 months...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
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