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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107613/variant-outcomes-of-liver-transplantation-for-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-different-age-categories-impact-of-the-meld-score
#1
Zhenhua Hu, Jie Zhou, Zhiwei Li, Jie Xiang, Qijun Zhang, Sheng Yan, Jian Wu, Min Zhang, Weilin Wang, Shusen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Whether the introduction of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) has an effect on transplant outcome for different age categories remain unclear. METHODS: We analyzed 49,762 adult hepatitis C virus (HCV) candidates through 1995-01-01 to 2012-12-31 from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Patients were divided into four age categories (18-34 yr, 35-49 yr, 60-64 yr, ≥65 yr) in the pre-MELD era and MELD era respectively. RESULTS: Waiting list dropouts have decreased in the MELD era for all categories...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107598/dropout-in-clinical-trials-of-pharmacologic-treatment-for-methamphetamine-dependence-the-role-of-initial-abstinence
#2
Ryan Cook, Brendan Quinn, Keith Heinzerling, Steve Shoptaw
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High rates of loss to follow-up represent a significant challenge to clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments for methamphetamine (MA) use disorder. We aimed to estimate and test the relationship between achieving and maintaining abstinence in the initial weeks of study participation and subsequent retention in such trials, hypothesizing that participants able to achieve early abstinence would be less likely to drop out. DESIGN: Data from four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacologic treatments for MA use disorder were pooled and analyzed using a random-effects approach...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105733/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-sickle-cell-disease
#3
REVIEW
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Nan Nitra Than, Han Ni, Jaspal Singh, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd Said, Ifeyinwa Osunkwo
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis)...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101646/pedigree-based-relationship-inference-from-complex-dna-mixtures
#4
Guro Dørum, Navreet Kaur, Mario Gysi
We present a general method for analysing DNA mixtures involving relatives that accounts for dropout and drop-in, mutations, silent alleles and population substructure. Whether the aim is to identify the contributors to a mixture who may be related, or to determine the relationship between individuals based on a DNA mixture, both types of problems can be handled by the method and software presented here. We focus on the latter scenario, motivated by non-invasive prenatal paternity testing where the profile of the child is available only in the form of a mixture with the mother's profile...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100425/safety-and-efficacy-of-adjunctive-second-generation-antidepressant-therapy-with-a-mood-stabiliser-or-an-atypical-antipsychotic-in-acute-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-placebo-controlled-trials
#5
Alexander McGirr, Paul A Vöhringer, S Nassir Ghaemi, Raymond W Lam, Lakshmi N Yatham
BACKGROUND: Although mania and hypomania define bipolar disorder, depressive episodes are more common and impairing, with few proven treatments. Adjunctive therapy with second-generation antidepressants is widely used to treat acute bipolar depression, but their efficacy and safety remain controversial. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to Jan 31, 2016, for randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of second-generation antidepressants adjunctive to a mood stabiliser or an antipsychotic in patients with acute bipolar depression...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095828/improved-genome-sequencing-using-an-engineered-transposase
#6
Amirali Kia, Christian Gloeckner, Trina Osothprarop, Niall Gormley, Erin Bomati, Michelle Stephenson, Igor Goryshin, Molly Min He
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research by reducing turnaround time and cost. However, no major breakthrough has been made in the upstream library preparation methods until the transposase-based Nextera method was invented. Nextera combines DNA fragmentation and barcoding in a single tube reaction and therefore enables a very fast workflow to sequencing-ready DNA libraries within a couple of hours. When compared to the traditional ligation-based methods, transposed-based Nextera has a slight insertion bias...
January 17, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094664/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-active-book-clubs-in-cancer-survivors-an-explorative-investigation
#7
Nanna Maria Hammer, Lisbeth Kofoed Egestad, Susanne Grøn Nielsen, Eik Bjerre, Christoffer Johansen, Ingrid Egerod, Bernardine Pinto, Julie Midtgaard
BACKGROUND: While the increasing number of people surviving cancer is promising, the long-term health effects warrant broad, innovative interventions. We investigated the feasibility and acceptability of a 24-week intervention called 'Active Book Club' comprising audio book listening, pedometer walking and supervised book club meetings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An exploratory and descriptive design was applied. Qualitative data included baseline and post-intervention focus group interviews as well as post-intervention individual interviews...
January 17, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094151/comparison-of-the-bd-max-mrsa-xt-to-the-cepheid%C3%A2-xpert%C3%A2-mrsa-assay-for-the-molecular-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-nasal-swabs
#8
Sanjay R Mehta, Jasmine Estrada, Juan Ybarra, Joshua Fierer
INTRODUCTION: Variation in MRSA genotypes may affect the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect this organism. METHODS: We compared 2 commonly used screening assays, the Cepheid™ Xpert® MRSA and the BD MAX™ MRSA XT on consecutively obtained nasal swabs from 479 subjects. Specimens giving discordant results were subjected to additional microbiologic and molecular testing. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-two (97.6%) of the 658 test results were concordant...
December 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090340/recruitment-and-retention-for-a-weight-loss-maintenance-trial-involving-weight-loss-prior-to-randomization
#9
C I Voils, J M Grubber, M A McVay, M K Olsen, J Bolton, J M Gierisch, S S Taylor, M L Maciejewski, W S Yancy
OBJECTIVE: A weight loss maintenance trial involving weight loss prior to randomization is challenging to implement due to the potential for dropout and insufficient weight loss. We examined rates and correlates of non-initiation, dropout, and insufficient weight loss during a weight loss maintenance trial. METHODS: The MAINTAIN trial involved a 16-week weight loss program followed by randomization among participants losing at least 4 kg. Psychosocial measures were administered during a screening visit...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090299/tadalafil-therapy-for-sarcoidosis-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
H J Ford, R P Baughman, R Aris, P Engel, J F Donohue
Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) is estimated to occur in at least 5% or more of sarcoidosis patients, and it contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. Optimal therapy for SAPH is not well established. We performed a 24-week open-label trial of tadalafil for SAPH at 2 academic medical centers. Subjects were required to have confirmed sarcoidosis plus a right heart catheterization within 12 months of enrollment showing a mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mmHg, a pulmonary artery wedge pressure ≤ 15 mmHg, and a calculated pulmonary vascular resistance ≥ 3 Wood units...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088310/performance-limitations-of-networked-control-systems-with-quantization-and-packet-dropouts
#11
Xiao-Wei Jiang, Xian-He Zhang, Zhi-Hong Guan, Li Yu, Huai-Cheng Yan
This paper investigates the problem of optimal tracking performance of networked control systems (NCSs) with quantization and packet-dropouts. The system under consideration is linear time-invariant (LTI), multi-input multi-output (MIMO), where an H2 norm of error signal between the reference input and the system output is used as the tracking performance index. The impacts of packet-dropouts in the communication channel and the quantized input and output are studied. The goal is to obtain the minimal error in tracking a random signal, by searching through all possible stabilizing two-parameter controllers...
January 11, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#12
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087569/exercise-as-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorders-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Mats Hallgren, Davy Vancampfort, Esther S Giesen, Andreas Lundin, Brendon Stubbs
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating effects of exercise for people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) across multiple health outcomes. We also investigated the prevalence and predictors of dropout from exercise studies in AUDs. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis with meta-regression analyses. DATA SOURCES: 3 major electronic databases were searched from inception until April 2016 for exercise intervention studies in adults with AUDs...
January 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087268/a-review-of-effective-youth-engagement-strategies-for-mental-health-and-substance-use-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Tom Dunne, Lisa Bishop, Susan Avery, Stephen Darcy
The majority of adult mental health and substance use (MH&SU) conditions emerge in adolescence. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment programs targeting this age group have a unique opportunity to significantly impact the well-being of the future generation of adults. At the same time, youth are reluctant to seek treatment and have high rates of dropout from interventions. An emphasis on youth engagement in prevention and treatment interventions for MH&SU results in better health outcomes for those youth. This literature review was undertaken to evaluate opportunities to improve youth engagement in MH&SU programs...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080169/family-oriented-support-famos-development-and-feasibility-of-a-psychosocial-intervention-for-families-of-childhood-cancer-survivors
#15
Hanin Salem, Christoffer Johansen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Jeanette Falck Winther, Peder Skov Wehner, Henrik Hasle, Steen Rosthøj, Anne E Kazak, Pernille E Bidstrup
BACKGROUND: We developed and tested the feasibility of a manualized psychosocial intervention, FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS), a home-based psychosocial intervention for families of childhood cancer survivors. The aim of the intervention is to support families in adopting healthy strategies to cope with the psychological consequences of childhood cancer. The intervention is now being evaluated in a nationwide randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS AND DESIGN: FAMOS is based on principles of family systems therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, and is delivered in six sessions at home...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072873/association-study-with-77-snps-confirms-the-robust-role-for-the-rs10830963-g-of-mtnr1b-variant-and-identifies-two-novel-associations-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-development
#16
Klara Rosta, Zahra Al-Aissa, Orsolya Hadarits, Jürgen Harreiter, Ákos Nádasdi, Fanni Kelemen, Dagmar Bancher-Todesca, Zsolt Komlósi, László Németh, János Rigó, István Sziller, Anikó Somogyi, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Gábor Firneisz
CONTEXT: Genetic variation in human maternal DNA contributes to the susceptibility for development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). OBJECTIVE: We assessed 77 maternal single nucleotide gene polymorphisms (SNPs) for associations with GDM or plasma glucose levels at OGTT in pregnancy. METHODS: 960 pregnant women (after dropouts 820: case/control: m99'WHO: 303/517, IADPSG: 287/533) were enrolled in two countries into this case-control study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069184/sperm-aneuploidy-after-testicular-cancer-treatment-data-from-a-prospective-multicenter-study-performed-within-the-french-centre-d-%C3%A3-tude-et-de-conservation-des-oeufs-et-du-sperme-network
#17
Nathalie Rives, Marie Walschaerts, Véronique Setif, Sylvianne Hennebicq, Jacqueline Saias, Florence Brugnon, Jacques Auger, Isabelle Berthaut, Ethel Szerman, Myriam Daudin, Louis Bujan
OBJECTIVE: To study sperm aneuploidy in a population of testicular cancer (TC) patients treated with the use of either bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy or radiotherapy. DESIGN: Multicenter prospective longitudinal study of TC patients analyzed before treatment and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months (T3-T24). PATIENT(S): Fifty-four TC patients and a control group of 10 fertile sperm donors. SETTING: University hospital laboratories...
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069099/can-latino-food-trucks-loncheras-serve-healthy-meals-a-feasibility-study
#18
Deborah A Cohen, Ben Colaiaco, Mary Martinez-Wenzl, Monica Montes, Bing Han, Sandy H Berry
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study to assess the feasibility of modifying food truck meals to meet the My Plate guidelines as well as the acceptability of healthier meals among consumers. DESIGN: We recruited the owners of Latino food trucks (loncheras) in 2013-2014 and offered an incentive for participation, assistance with marketing and training by a bilingual dietitian. We surveyed customers and we audited purchases to estimate sales of the modified meals. SETTING: City of Los Angeles, CA, USA...
January 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068951/did-you-get-any-help-a-post-hoc-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-psychoeducation-for-patients-with-antisocial-personality-disorder-in-outpatient-substance-abuse-treatment-programs
#19
Birgitte Thylstrup, Sidsel Schrøder, Mats Fridell, Morten Hesse
BACKGROUND: People in treatment for substance use disorder commonly have comorbid personality disorders, including antisocial personality disorder. Little is known about treatments that specifically address comorbid antisocial personality disorder. METHODS: Self-rated help received for antisocial personality disorder was assessed during follow-ups at 3, 9 and 15 months post-randomization of a randomized trial of psychoeducation for people with comorbid substance use and antisocial personality disorder (n = 175)...
January 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068788/a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-lactobacillus-helveticus-and-bifidobacterium-longum-for-the-symptoms-of-depression
#20
Amy R Romijn, Julia J Rucklidge, Roeline G Kuijer, Chris Frampton
OBJECTIVES: This trial investigated whether probiotics improved mood, stress and anxiety in a sample selected for low mood. We also tested whether the presence or severity of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other blood markers, would predict or impact treatment response. METHOD: Seventy-nine participants (10 dropouts) not currently taking psychotropic medications with at least moderate scores on self-report mood measures were randomly allocated to receive either a probiotic preparation (containing Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum) or a matched placebo, in a double-blind trial for 8 weeks...
January 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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