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Hepatitis B management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525625/characteristics-of-us-born-versus-foreign-born-americans-of-african-descent-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Mohamed A Hassan, W Ray Kim, Ruosha Li, Coleman I Smith, Michael W Fried, Richard K Sterling, Marc G Ghany, Abdus S Wahed, Lilia M Ganova-Raeva, Lewis R Roberts, Anna S F Lok
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is more common in African Americans than in white Americans. We compared the epidemiologic, clinical, and virological characteristics of US-born African Americans (USAAs) to those of foreign-born African Americans (FBAAs) with chronic hepatitis B. The adult cohort study of the Hepatitis B Research Network enrolls patients with HBV infection from 21 clinical sites in the United States and Canada. A total of 237 (15%) of the adult participants with chronic HBV infection that were enrolled from January 20, 2011, to October 2, 2013, were of African descent, including 57 USAAs and 180 FBAAs (76%)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515345/genetic-factors-associated-with-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Ranran Tang, Heng Liu, Yingdi Yuan, Kaipeng Xie, Pengfei Xu, Xiaoyun Liu, Juan Wen
Although the metabolic syndrome is a commonplace topic, its potential threats to public health is a problem that cannot be neglected. As the living conditions improved significantly over the past few years, the morbidity of metabolic syndrome has also steadily risen, and the onset age is becoming younger. The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is one of the most prevalent life-threatening human cancers worldwide, incidence of which is also on the rise, gradually occupied the top of the list associated with metabolic syndrome related complication...
March 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511068/biotechnology-and-the-transformation-of-vaccine-innovation-the-case-of-the-hepatitis-b-vaccines-1968-2000
#3
Farah Huzair, Steve Sturdy
The approval, from 1986, of a series of recombinant hepatitis B vaccines was a landmark both in the growth of biotechnology and in the development of the vaccine innovation system. In this paper, we show how the early development of the hepatitis B vaccines was shaped by a political and economic context that newly favoured commercialisation of academic research, including the appropriation and management of intellectual property; we elucidate the contingent interests and motivations that led new biotechnology companies and established pharmaceutical businesses to invest in developing recombinant vaccines specifically against hepatitis B; and we show how these and other factors combined to make those vaccines an unexpected commercial success...
May 13, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507921/sofosbuvir-based-regimens-with-task-shifting-is-cost-effective-in-expanding-hepatitis-c-treatment-access-in-the-united-states
#4
Channa R Jayasekera, Rachel Beckerman, Nathaniel Smith, Ryan B Perumpail, Robert J Wong, Zobair M Younossi, Aijaz Ahmed
Background and Aims: The current paradigm of specialist physician-managed treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is inefficient in absorbing the approximately 3 million patients awaiting treatment in the United States. Task shifting-whereby specialist physicians screen patients for treatment eligibility but on-treatment monitoring is devolved to more abundant non-physician clinicians-achieves non-inferior treatment outcomes with second generation direct-acting antivirals (2(nd) Gen DAAs), may increase treatment capacity, and may facilitate greater treatment access...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494793/real-time-pcr-assays-for-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-quantification-may-require-two-different-targets
#5
Chao Liu, Le Chang, Tingting Jia, Fei Guo, Lu Zhang, Huimin Ji, Junpeng Zhao, Lunan Wang
BACKGROUND: Quantification Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA plays a critical role in the management of chronic HBV infections. However, HBV is a DNA virus with high levels of genetic variation, and drug-resistant mutations have emerged with the use of antiviral drugs. If a mutation caused a sequence mismatched in the primer or probe of a commercial DNA quantification kit, this would lead to an underestimation of the viral load of the sample. The aim of this study was to determine whether commercial kits, which use only one pair of primers and a single probe, accurately quantify the HBV DNA levels and to develop an improved duplex real-time PCR assay...
May 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494542/-management-algorithm-for-interrupting-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493307/hepatitis-b-virus-screening-and-reactivation-and-management-of-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-large-scale-big-data-intelligence-platform-based-analysis-from-an-endemic-area
#7
Jia-Wei Lv, Yu-Pei Chen, Xiao-Dan Huang, Guan-Qun Zhou, Lei Chen, Wen-Fei Li, Ling-Long Tang, Yan-Ping Mao, Ying Guo, Rui-Hua Xu, Jun Ma, Ying Sun
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy, target therapy, and immunotherapy are increasingly being used in the systematic treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), during which the occurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation might increase. However, data regarding HBV screening and reactivation and the clinical management of NPC patients with HBV infections are lacking. This study was aimed at clarifying the risk of reactivation for NPC patients on different regimens while providing evidence concerning HBV screening and management in an endemic area...
May 10, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490478/mixed-cryoglobulinemia-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#8
Maria Túlio, Liliana Carvalho, Tiago Bana E Costa, Cristina Chagas
Mixed cryoglobulinemia is frequently secondary to hepatitis C virus infection. Diagnosis and therapeutic management are challenging, depending on the spectrum and severity of manifestations, as well as on the presence of comorbidities. We describe a case of a 79-year-old woman with a non-cirrhotic hepatitis C virus infection presenting with weakness, arthralgias, purpuric rash with left leg ulcerative lesions, bilateral peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy, renal impairment and cardiac failure. The investigation was compatible with a severe type II mixed cryoglobulinemia with multisystemic involvement, including a low-grade B cell lymphoma and concomitant intestinal tuberculosis...
May 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487614/patients-with-non-viral-liver-disease-have-a-greater-tumor-burden-and-less-curative-treatment-options-when-diagnosed-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Waled Mohsen, Marcia Rodov, Emilia Prakoso, Barbara Charlton, David G Bowen, David J Koorey, Nicholas A Shackel, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Simone I Strasser
AIM: To assess the impact of underlying liver disease etiology on the presenting features and outcomes in a large cohort of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A prospective database of all patients with HCC was established from 1998 to March 2012. One thousand and seventy-eight patients were categorized into three groups, based on the etiology of their liver disease: hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and non-viral liver disease (NVLD)...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484461/blockade-of-neutrophil-s-chemokine-receptors-cxcr1-2-abrogate-liver-damage-in-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#10
Arshi Khanam, Nirupma Trehanpati, Peggy Riese, Archana Rastogi, Carlos Alberto Guzman, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils serve as critical players in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 are required for neutrophil chemotaxis to the site of inflammation/injury and are crucial in hepatic inflammatory response. However, key mechanism of neutrophil-mediated liver injury in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) remains highly elusive; which could be targeted for the development of new therapeutic interventions. METHODS: To demonstrate the role of CXCR1/CXCR2-expressing neutrophils in hepatic injury, we investigated CXCR1/CXCR2 receptor expression in 17 hepatitis B virus-related ACLF patients in comparison to 42 chronic hepatitis B and 18 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481460/high-efficacy-of-sofosbuvir-plus-simeprevir-in-a-large-cohort-of-spanish-cirrhotic-patients-infected-with-genotypes-1-and-4
#11
Zoe Mariño, Juan Manuel Pascasio-Acevedo, Adolfo Gallego, Moisés Diago, Carme Baliellas, Rosa Morillas, Martín Prieto, José María Moreno, Gloria Sánchez-Antolín, Mercedes Vergara, Montserrat Forné, Inmaculada Fernández, Maria Ángeles Castro, Sonia Pascual, Alexandra Gómez, Lluis Castells, Jose Luis Montero, Javier Crespo, Jose Luis Calleja, Javier García-Samaniego, Jose Antonio Carrión, Ana Del Carmen Arencibia, Alejandro Blasco, Carmen López-Núñez, Juan José Sánchez-Ruano, Francisco Gea-Rodríguez, Álvaro Giráldez, Joaquín Cabezas, Vanessa Hontangas, Xavier Torras, Jose Castellote, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Juan Turnes, Tomás de Artaza, Isidoro Narváez, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Xavier Forns
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C (HCV) therapy with Sofosbuvir(SOF)/ Simeprevir(SMV) in clinical trials and real-world clinical practice, showed high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) in non-cirrhotic genotype(GT)-1 and 4 patients. These results were slightly lower in cirrhotic patients. We investigated real-life effectiveness and safety of SOF/SMV with or without ribavirin(RBV) in a large cohort of cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This collaborative multicentre study included data from 968 patients with cirrhosis infected with HCV-GT1 or 4, treated with SOF/SMV±RBV in 30 centres across Spain between January-2014 and December-2015...
May 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480063/viral-hepatitis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-etiology-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Philippe J Zamor, Andrew S deLemos, Mark W Russo
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are associated with hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There are differences and variation with the incidence of HCC worldwide. Additionally, HCC develops via different pathways with these viral hepatitides. This review outlines the various mechanisms and pathophysiology that contributes to this process. There will also be a review on the recommended screening for HCC. Treatment considerations, which are different for these viruses, will be outlined in this review...
April 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480062/locoregional-and-systemic-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Olumide B Gbolahan, Michael A Schacht, Eric W Beckley, Thomas P LaRoche, Bert H O'Neil, Maximilian Pyko
The management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains challenging due to late presentation and the presence of accompanying liver dysfunction. As such, most patients are not eligible for curative resection and liver transplant. Management in this scenario depends on a number of factors including hepatic function, tumor burden, patency of hepatic vasculature and patients' functional status. Based on these, patients can be offered catheter based intra-arterial therapy for intermediate stage disease and in more advanced disease, sorafenib...
April 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476244/imaging-of-hepatic-toxicity-of-systemic-therapy-in-a-tertiary-cancer-centre-chemotherapy-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-molecular-targeted-therapies-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
F Alessandrino, S H Tirumani, K M Krajewski, A B Shinagare, J P Jagannathan, N H Ramaiya, D N Di Salvo
The purpose of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the spectrum of hepatic toxicity seen in the oncology setting, in view of the different systemic therapies used in cancer patients. Drug-induced liver injury can manifest in various forms, and anti-neoplastic agents are associated with different types of hepatotoxicity. Although chemotherapy-induced liver injury can present as hepatitis, steatosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and chronic parenchymal damages, molecular targeted therapy-associated liver toxicity ranges from mild liver function test elevation to fulminant life-threatening acute liver failure...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475637/assessment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-two-adjacent-thai-provinces-with-drastically-different-seroprevalence
#15
Rujipat Wasitthankasem, Preeyaporn Vichaiwattana, Nipaporn Siripon, Nawarat Posuwan, Chompoonut Auphimai, Sirapa Klinfueng, Napha Thaneskongtong, Viboonsak Vuthitanachot, Supapith Saiyatha, Chaiwat Thongmai, Sarawut Suwanpatoomlerd, Saowakon Sochoo, Natnada Pongsuwan, Kittiyod Poovorawan, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
Improved awareness of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission has contributed to the overall decline in the HCV infection rate in some developing countries including Thailand. Chronic HCV infection in some rural Thai communities, however, presents a challenge in the efforts to treat and manage HCV-related diseases. Published and unpublished studies have suggested an unusually high incidence of HCV infection in a Thai province of Phetchabun compared to elsewhere in Thailand. To determine the magnitude of HCV infection and identify potential factors contributing to the higher rate of HCV infection in this province, we performed a population-based study in Phetchabun (n = 1667) and the neighboring Khon Kaen province (n = 1410) where HCV prevalence is much lower...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468014/hepatitis-b-reactivation-the-controversies-continue
#16
Jordan J Feld
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a serious but largely avoidable complication of immunosuppressive therapy. The consequences of reactivation range from subclinical increases in HBV DNA to fulminant liver failure, which can be prevented with the appropriate use of prophylactic antiviral therapy. However, which patients need to be screened and whether all patients who test positive for any serological test require antiviral therapy are issues that still remain unclear. Additional issues such as the choice of antiviral and the duration of treatment also need clarification...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449972/effect-of-prophylactic-or-therapeutic-administration-of-paracetamol-on-immune-response-to-dtwp-hepb-hib-combination-vaccine-in-indian-infants
#17
Arijit Sil, Mandyam D Ravi, Badri N Patnaik, Mandeep S Dhingra, Martin Dupuy, Dulari J Gandhi, Sangappa M Dhaded, Anand P Dubey, Ritabrata Kundu, Sanjay K Lalwani, Jugesh Chhatwal, Leni G Mathew, Madhu Gupta, Shiv D Sharma, Sandeep B Bavdekar, Soumya P Rout, Midde V Jayanth, Naveena A D'Cor, Somnath A Mangarule, Suresh Ravinuthala, Jagadeesh Reddy E
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is considered as the most cost effective method for preventing infectious diseases. Low grade fever is a known adverse effect of vaccination. In India, it is a common clinical practice to prescribe paracetamol either prophylactically or therapeutically to manage fever. Some studies have shown that paracetamol interferes with antibody responses following immunization. This manuscript reports the outcome of a post hoc analysis of data from a clinical trial of a pentavalent vaccine in Indian infants where paracetamol was not used or was used either as prophylaxis or for treatment of fever...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447517/hepatoprotective-potential-of-phyllanthus-muellarianus-leaf-extract-studies-on-hepatic-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#18
Taofeek O Ajiboye, Fatimah M Ahmad, Airat O Daisi, Aminat A Yahaya, Oluwayemisi B Ibitoye, Hamdalat F Muritala, Taofik O Sunmonu
CONTEXT: Leaves of Phyllanthus muellarianus (Kuntze) Exell. (Euphorbiacea) are widely used in the management of liver disorders in Nigeria. However, no there is no scientific validation to support this use. OBJECTIVE: Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract was investigated in acetaminophen-induced liver injury mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract was evaluated in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice using biomarkers of hepatocellular indices, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and lipid peroxidation...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447512/centella-asiatica-enhances-hepatic-antioxidant-status-and-regulates-hepatic-inflammatory-cytokines-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#19
Ayodeji B Oyenihi, Novel N Chegou, Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju, Bubuya Masola
CONTEXT: Neutralizing the over-activation of oxidative stress and inflammation remains an important goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae) (CA) has been used in traditional folklore in Africa and Asia to treat various ailments including diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of methanol extract of CA leaves in T2DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T2DM was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with 10% fructose in drinking water for 14 days followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg b...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442809/co-infection-of-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-with-carcinoma-penis-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-male
#20
Balaji Govindan, Kalaivani Subramanian, Maduravasagam Karunakaran
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have a high probability of co-infections with Syphilis and hepatitis B virus since they share the common routes of transmission. We report a 41-year-old HIV male (on antiretroviral therapy for the past 6 years) admitted for a complaint of penile ulcer for 2 months. Serology for syphilis and hepatitis B were positive. Skin biopsy of the penile ulcer confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. Henceforth, the patient was referred to oncology department for further management...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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