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Hepatitis B management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045810/a-novel-next-generation-sequencing-assay-as-an-alternative-to-currently-available-methods-for-hepatitis-c-virus-genotyping
#1
G Dirani, E Paesini, E Mascetra, P Farabegoli, B Dalmo, B Bartolini, A R Garbuglia, M R Capobianchi, V Samri
Chronic HCV infection is one of the leading causes of liver-related death and in many countries it is a primary reason for having a liver transplant. HCV genotype identification has long been used in the clinical practice, since different genotypes have different response rates and required different doses and durations of IFN/RBV treatment; moreover both the frequency and the pattern of resistance to different Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) classes are subtype specific. Hence the necessity to make an accurate HCV subtyping becomes a fundamental tool to optimize current and future clinical management of HCV infected subjects...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044068/needle-stick-injuries-in-a-tertiary-eye-care-hospital-incidence-management-outcomes-and-recommendations
#2
Ekta Rishi, B Shantha, Abhinav Dhami, Pukhraj Rishi, Hannah C Rajapriya
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence, management, and outcomes for needle stick injuries (NSIs) in a tertiary eye-care hospital and provide appropriate recommendations for its prevention. METHODS: This was a retrospective database review of NSI recorded between 2010 and 2015 at a tertiary eye care center. All staff members who had NSI were managed with standard treatment protocol. The mode, location, health-care workers affected and/or at risk for NSI were analyzed...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033774/hemothorax-following-uncomplicated-endoscopic-variceal-sclerotherapy-and-ligation-for-esophageal-varices
#3
Tomoko Ochiai, Yukiomi Nakade, Rena Kitano, Shunsuke Kato, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Tadahisa Inoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Norimitsu Ishii, Tomohiko Ohashi, Yoshio Sumida, Kiyoaki Ito, Haruhisa Nakao, Chihiro Furuta, Motoki Yano, Masashi Yoneda
Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy and ligation are standard treatment modalities used for the management of esophageal varices. Reportedly, sclerotherapy and ligation are associated with complications such as hematuria, pulmonary thrombus formation, pleural effusion, renal dysfunction, and esophageal stenosis. However, hemothorax following sclerotherapy and ligation has not yet been reported. We treated a patient who presented with liver cirrhosis and polycythemia vera and later developed hemothorax following the above-mentioned procedures...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033575/renal-safety-of-tenofovir-and-or-entecavir-in-patients-with-chronic-hbv-monoinfection
#4
REVIEW
Young-Mo Yang, Eun Joo Choi
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are recommended as the first-line therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) due to their genetic barrier to resistance and effectiveness of virological suppression. TDF and ETV may cause renal toxicity through various mechanisms such as renal tubular injury, apoptosis, and mitochondrial toxicity. The aims of the current review were to assess the potential renal toxicity associated with the use of TDF and ETV in patients infected with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and to provide clinical perspectives on these two agents in the treatment of CHB...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031964/-the-thoracic-surgeon-and-the-management-of-the-bronchial-biliary-fistula-of-hydatid-origin
#5
S Rabiou, L Belliraj, F Z Ammor, I Issoufou, B Sylla, M Lakranbi, Y Ouadnouni, D Benajah, M Smahi
INTRODUCTION: The bronchial biliary fistula surgery is a major one, always going with a higher rate of complication especially in case of bile duct obstruction. The aim of this study is to find out the contribution of endoscopic sphincterotomy while reporting the results of surgical treatment of bronchial biliary fistulae by exclusive thoracotomy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which took place in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital Hassan II, from January 2009 to March 2016...
October 12, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027728/hepatitis-in-aids-patients
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir
The individuals with HIV infection are more susceptible to develop coinfections with infectious pathogens such as HCV and HBV. The routes of transmission of these pathogens are the same including sexual contact, injection drug use, or at birth from mother to an infant. The main reason of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals is a liver disease in the context of antiretroviral therapy, and coinfection such as HCV and HBV complicates this condition. Nucleos(t)ide analogues are used for HBV infection management, and treatment of HCV infection is done by PegIFN and ribavirin combination and protease inhibitors...
October 13, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027107/viral-factors-for-hbv-mother-to-child-transmission
#7
James S Park, Calvin Q Pan
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Because chronic hepatitis B infection is rarely eradicated, preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the most effective strategy to eliminate HBV globally. Although immunoprophylaxis strategy is widely available and effective for infants born to mothers with chronic hepatitis B infection, postnatal immunoprophylaxis fails in approximately 5-10 % of infants, and this failure rate goes up to 30 % in infants born to highly viremic mothers...
October 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020844/nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#8
Soheil Tavakolpour, Mohammad Darvishi, Hajar Sadat Mirsafaei, Mojtaba Ghasemiadl
BACKGROUND: Women of childbearing age who have developed chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, especially HBeAg-positive highly viraemic pregnant women, are largely responsible for the familial transmission of the infection. Therefore, choosing the most effective and safest antiviral medications to manage pregnant CHB patients is of crucial importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched through September 2017, for all the journal articles possessing original results regarding treatment of CHB pregnant women with any nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapies, including lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), and tenofovir (TDF)...
October 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016448/brief-report-hiv-hbv-coinfection-is-a-significant-risk-factor-for-liver-fibrosis-in-tanzanian-hiv-infected-adults
#9
Claudia Hawkins, Beatrice Christian, Emanuel Fabian, Irene Macha, Cecilia Gawile, Shida Mpangala, Nzovu Ulenga, Chloe L Thio, Lauren R Ammerman, Ferdinand Mugusi, Wafaie Fawzi, Richard Green, Robert Murphy
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of liver disease associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV is unknown. We characterized liver disease using aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 in patients with HIV, HBV, and HIV/HBV coinfection in Tanzania. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we compared the prevalence of liver fibrosis in treatment-naive HIV monoinfected, HBV monoinfected, and HIV/HBV-coinfected adults enrolled at Management and Development for Health (MDH)-supported HIV treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986117/screening-prophylaxis-and-counselling-before-the-start-of-biological-therapies-a-practical-approach-focused-on-ibd-patients
#10
REVIEW
Cândida Abreu, António Sarmento, Fernando Magro
The standard of care in the management of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions relies on immunomodulators, glucocorticoids, and biologicals (including anti-tumour necrosis factor -α and other monoclonal antibodies). These agents have an overall favourable benefit/risk ratio; however, they modulate the immune response as part of their mechanisms of action, and therefore they may increase the risk of developing infections, particularly in older patients or in patients with concomitant corticosteroids. Some of these infections may be preventable by immunization, chemoprophylaxis or counselling...
September 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984383/evaluation-of-the-highly-sensitive-chemiluminescent-enzyme-immunoassay-lumipulse-hbsag-hq-for-hepatitis-b-virus-screening
#11
Matsuo Deguchi, Masanori Kagita, Nori Yoshioka, Hiroko Tsukamoto, Miyuki Takao, Kazuko Tahara, Ikuhiro Maeda, Yoh Hidaka, Satoshi Yamauchi, Atsushi Kaneko, Hideo Miyakoshi, Mitsuo Isomura
BACKGROUND: Ongoing efforts in the development of HBsAg detection kits are focused on improving sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an improved, highly sensitive quantitative assay, "Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ", a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay designed for a fully automated instrument, the "Lumipulse G1200". METHODS: Serum samples for reproducibility, dilution, correlation, sensitivity, and specificity studies were obtained from patients at the Osaka University Hospital...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983111/ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-base-excision-repair-pathway-correlates-with-antiviral-response-against-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#12
Yong Li, Yuchen Xia, Meifang Han, Guang Chen, Dake Zhang, Wolfgang E Thasler, Ulrike Protzer, Qin Ning
Previous studies identified APOBEC deaminases as enzymes targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the nucleus thus affecting its persistence. Interferon (IFN)-α treated chimpanzees and hepatitis C patients showed elevated APOBEC expression. We thus hypothesized that the responses to IFN-α treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is influenced by IFN-induced base excision repair (BER). CHB-treatment naïve patients, patients treated with PEGylated IFN-α, and patients with sequential treatment of Entecavior and PEGylated IFN-α were recruited...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983018/phase-1-study-of-the-anti-cd22-immunotoxin-moxetumomab-pasudotox-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Alan S Wayne, Nirali N Shah, Deepa Bhojwani, Lewis B Silverman, James A Whitlock, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson, Weili Sun, Meina Liang, Jie Yang, Robert J Kreitman, Mark C Lanasa, Ira Pastan
Novel therapies are needed to overcome chemotherapy resistance for children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Moxetumomab pasudotox is a recombinant anti-CD22 immunotoxin. A multicenter phase 1 study was conducted to determine the maximum-tolerated cumulative dose (MTCD) and evaluate safety, activity, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of moxetumomab pasudotox in children, adolescents, and young adults with ALL (N = 55). Moxetumomab pasudotox was administered as a 30-minute IV infusion at doses of 5 to 50 µg/kg every other day for 6 (cohorts A and B) or 10 (cohort C) doses in 21-day cycles...
October 5, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975836/surgical-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Daniel Zamora-Valdes, Timucin Taner, David M Nagorney
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In select patients, surgical treatment in the form of either resection or transplantation offers a curative option. The aims of this review are to (1) review the current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases/European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines on the surgical management of HCC and (2) review the proposed changes to these guidelines and analyze the strength of evidence underlying these proposals...
July 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975833/the-role-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-underlying-liver-disease-for-the-prognosis-of-primary-liver-cancer
#15
Ashok Shiani, Shreya Narayanan, Luis Pena, Mark Friedman
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Underlying chronic liver disease has been associated with an increased risk of developing HCC. This study is a review of the current literature regarding the diagnosis, prognostic significance, and role of treating underlying liver disease in patients who are at risk of primary liver cancer. Relevant peer review of the English literature between 1980 and 2017 within PubMed and the Cochrane library was conducted for scientific content on current advances in managing chronic liver diseases and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma...
July 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974899/natural-history-of-covert-hepatic-encephalopathy-an-observational-study-of-366-cirrhotic-patients
#16
An-Jiang Wang, A-Ping Peng, Bi-Min Li, Na Gan, Li Pei, Xue-Lian Zheng, Jun-Bo Hong, Hai-Ying Xiao, Jia-Wei Zhong, Xuan Zhu
AIM: To explore the natural history of covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) in absence of medication intervention. METHODS: Consecutive outpatient cirrhotic patients in a Chinese tertiary care hospital were enrolled and evaluated for CHE diagnosis. They were followed up for a mean of 11.2 ± 1.3 mo. Time to the first cirrhosis-related complications requiring hospitalization, including overt HE (OHE), resolution of CHE and death/transplantation, were compared between CHE and no-CHE patients...
September 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973196/curing-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-best-practices-from-the-u-s-department-of-veterans-affairs
#17
Pamela S Belperio, Maggie Chartier, David B Ross, Poonam Alaigh, David Shulkin
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is the nation's largest care provider for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and is uniquely suited to inform national efforts to eliminate HCV. An extensive array of delivery of services, policy guidance, outreach efforts, and funding has broadened the reach and capacity of the VA to deliver direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV therapy, supported by an infrastructure to effectively implement change and informed by extensive population health data analysis. The VA has treated more than 92 000 HCV-infected veterans since all-oral DAAs became available in January 2014, with cure rates exceeding 90%; only 51 000 veterans in VA care are known to remain potentially eligible for treatment...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967816/endovascular-treatment-of-a-high-flow-hepatic-arteriovenous-malformation-with-secondary-portal-hypertension-in-a-dog
#18
J Brad Case, Sarah E Boston, Erin P Porter, Beau B Toskich
CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-month-old neutered female Labrador Retriever with a 3- to 4-month history of abdominal distention was referred for evaluation and treatment. CLINICAL FINDINGS Evaluation of a peritoneal fluid specimen collected by the referring veterinarian indicated a pure transudate. At admission, transabdominal ultrasonography revealed microhepatica, dilation of the intrahepatic and mesenteric vasculature, peritoneal effusion, and multiple aberrant blood vessels. A large, high-flow hepatic arteriovenous malformation (HAVM) with secondary portal hypertension, peritoneal effusion, multiple acquired portosystemic shunts, and microhepatica was evident on CT angiography...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965428/tenofovir-alafenamide-as-compared-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-the-management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-recent-trends-in-patient-demographics
#19
Yao-Chun Hsu, Mike T Wei, Mindie H Nguyen
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has recently been approved for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). It is more stable than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in the plasma and can provide similar efficacy with lower circulating concentration in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Areas covered: This synopsis will review the current anti-HBV standard practice and the changing epidemiology of CHB, specifically the controversies surrounding the renal and bone safety associated with TDF use in the context of an aging CHB population...
November 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964523/expression-of-hepatic-genes-related-to-energy-metabolism-during-the-transition-period-of-holstein-and-f1-holstein-gir-cows
#20
J G Laguna, M S Cardoso, J A Lima, R B Reis, A U Carvalho, H M Saturnino, S M R Teixeira
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of genes encoding enzymes and other factors involved with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of 2 genetic groups of dairy cows during the transition period. We analyzed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT), β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase-2 (BDH2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 (CPT2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), glucose transporter-2 (SLC2A2), and the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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