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Hepatitis B management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820730/knowledge-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-its-control-practices-among-dental-students-in-an-indian-city
#1
Vishal Khandelwal, Sushma Khandelwal, Neetu Gupta, Ullal Anand Nayak, Namrata Kulshreshtha, Sudhindra Baliga
Background Hepatitis B virus infection is a general cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma worldwide. It is highly contagious. It is an important reason for morbidity and mortality in the Indian population. Oral health professionals are at the highest risk. Vaccination for hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. Methods The present study was designed to evaluate the degree of awareness, knowledge of hepatitis B infection and status of hepatitis B vaccination among dental students...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817863/prevention-detection-and-management-of-diabetes-in-south-dakota
#2
Amy L Hogue, Mark K Huntington
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence nationwide and in South Dakota, with an especially high prevalence in its American Indian population. Screening is not recommended for type 1 DM, but is for type 2 DM and pre-diabetes in certain populations. Fasting glucose, two-hour glucose tolerance test, or hemoglobin A1c are appropriate screening options. Treatment can include diabetic self-management education programs and medications. In addition to glycemic control, other cardiovascular risk factors must be reduced in these patients and specific testing and consultations should be performed to detect complications such as nephropathy or retinopathy...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816860/management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#3
Jie Li, Matthew S Chang, Tram T Tran, Mindie H Nguyen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period remains an important global health problem. Despite standard passive-active immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine in neonates, up to 8.5% of newborns still acquire HBV infection. Thus, management of chronic HBV during pregnancy and strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission are important steps in eradicating or reducing the global burden of chronic HBV infection...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797498/interventions-to-enhance-testing-linkage-to-care-and-treatment-uptake-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#4
Sahar Bajis, Gregory J Dore, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Lisa Maher, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is escalating among people who inject drugs (PWID), yet testing and treatment remains suboptimal. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to enhance HCV testing, linkage to care, and treatment uptake among PWID. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Medline (Ovid 1946 - present), Embase, Global Health, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Clinical Trials Registry, and Web of Science was conducted covering interventional studies published before 20 July 2016...
August 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797080/physician-perspectives-on-the-management-of-viral-hepatitis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-myanmar
#5
Yoona A Kim, Sam Trinh, Si Thura, Khin Pyone Kyi, Thomas Lee, Stan Sze, Adam Richards, Andrew Aronsohn, Grace L H Wong, Yasuhito Tanaka, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: In Myanmar, over five million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis has been a recent focus with the development of a National Strategic Plan on Hepatitis and plans to subsidize HCV treatment. METHODS: During a two-day national liver disease symposium covering HCV, HBV, hepatocellular (HCC), and end-stage liver disease (ESLD), physician surveys were administered using the automated response system (ARS) to assess physician knowledge, perceptions of barriers to screening and treatment, and proposed solutions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795238/efficacy-and-safety-of-sofosbuvir-based-interferon-free-therapy-the-management-of-rheumatologic-extrahepatic-manifestations-associated-with-chronic-hepatitis-c%C3%A2-virus-infection
#6
A A Shahin, H S Zayed, M Said, S A Amer
BACKGROUND: The use of pegylated interferon alpha (IFN) has been of concern in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with rheumatologic extrahepatic manifestations (EHM) due to the immunostimulatory effects of IFN. AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based, IFN-free antiviral therapy in chronic HCV patients with rheumatologic EHM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Group A included 24 patients with arthropathy (arthralgia or arthritis, n = 15) or vasculitis (n = 9) who received sofosbuvir and ribavirin (n = 17) or sofosbuvir and simeprevir (n = 7)...
August 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794069/phase-i-study-of-the-anti-cd22-immunotoxin-moxetumomab-pasudotox-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#7
Alan S Wayne, Nirali N Shah, Deepa Bhojwani, Lewis B Silverman, James A Whitlock, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson, Weili Sun, Meina Liang, Jie Yang, Robert J Kreitman, Mark C Lanasa, Ira Pastan
Novel therapies are needed to overcome chemotherapy resistance for children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Moxetumomab pasudotox is a recombinant anti-CD22 immunotoxin. A multicenter, phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated cumulative dose (MTCD) and evaluate safety, activity, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of moxetumomab pasudotox in children, adolescents, and young adults with ALL (n=55). Moxetumomab pasudotox was administered as a 30-minute intravenous infusion at doses of 5 to 50 µg/kg every other day (QOD) for six (Cohorts A and B) or 10 (Cohort C) doses, on 21-day cycles...
August 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782502/society-for-maternal-fetal-medicine-smfm-consult-series-43-hepatitis-c-in-pregnancy-screening-treatment-and-management
#8
Brenna L Hughes, Charlotte M Page, Jeffrey A Kuller
In the United States, 1-2.5% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries an approximately 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. HCV can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period, and infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. The purpose of this document is to discuss the current evidence regarding HCV in pregnancy and to provide recommendations on screening, treatment, and management of this disease during pregnancy...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774414/hepatitis-delta-infection-current-and-new-treatment-options
#9
REVIEW
Menashe Elazar, Christopher Koh, Jeffrey S Glenn
In humans, hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection only occurs in the presence of a concomitant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and induces the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. Even though HDV is spread worldwide and is endemic in some regions, screening and treatment has been often neglected in part due to the lack of an effective therapy. Moreover, HDV prevalence rates are increasing in many countries driven by immigration from areas of high endemicity. Currently, no FDA-approved anti-HDV therapy is available, although interferon (IFN) alpha therapy has demonstrated benefit in a minority of patients...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774413/management-of-hepatitis-b-in-special-populations
#10
REVIEW
Kali Zhou, Norah Terrault
Special populations infected with chronic HBV include those with decompensated cirrhosis, coinfections (HIV, HCV, HDV), hemodialysis and renal failure, immunosuppressed including transplant patients, children and women in pregnancy. These populations differ in their natural history and risk for liver-related complications, the indications for anti-HBV therapy as well as the recommendations regarding the HBV drugs used, duration of therapy and anticipated endpoints. Reflecting the special populations with substantive changes in management in recent years, this review focuses on HBV-HIV coinfected patients, immunosuppressed patients at risk for reactivation, liver transplant recipients and pregnant women...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774412/current-treatment-guidelines-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-the-role-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-and-peginterferon
#11
REVIEW
Marc G Ghany
Chronic hepatitis B is prevalent worldwide and is a major contributor to death from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the goals of therapy are to prevent the development of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. Safe and effective therapy is available but complete cure is not yet possible. The decision to treat is complex and must be individualized. Each of the three major liver societies, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) have developed treatment guidelines to provide healthcare professionals guidance on management of chronic HBV infection...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774410/what-is-new-on-hbsag-and-other-diagnostic-markers-in-hbv-infection
#12
REVIEW
Christoph Höner Zu Siederdissen, Benjamin Maasoumy, Markus Cornberg
Challenges in the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection involve the prediction of the natural course to identify patients who require antiviral therapy and the prediction of functional cure as ultimate goal of antiviral therapy. HBV DNA as marker for viral replication is important but not sufficient for an adequate management of patients with chronic HBV infection. Data on the quantification of additional HBV marker such as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) and hepatitis B virus RNA (HBV RNA) have accumulated in recent years...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772086/highlights-of-drug-and-herb-induced-liver-injury-in-the-literature-from-2016-how-best-to-translate-new-information-into-clinical-practice
#13
Omar Shahbaz, Sandeep Mahajan, James H Lewis
INTRODUCTION: More than 1500 papers on drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury (HILI) were published in 2016, many of which have the potential to impact clinical practice. AREAS COVERED: Clinical studies and case series that lent themselves to new concepts or directions in diagnosing, preventing, and treating DILI were selected for inclusion. Epidemiology of DILI in large prospective registries was highlighted, including the US DILIN network and Spanish DILI registry...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770876/assessment-of-the-underlying-causes-of-the-immune-thrombocytopenia-ten-years-experience
#14
Mehmet Sinan Dal, Abdullah Karakus, Tuba Dal, Berrin Balik Aydin, Elif Hattapoglu, Mehmet Onder Ekmen, Turgay Ulas, Orhan Ayyildiz
OBJECTIVE: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune haematologic disorder causing platelet destruction mediated by anti-platelet antibodies. In this study we aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory variables of ITP patients in southeast of Turkey. METHODS: In this retrospective study 167 ITP patients between 2005 and 2015 were evaluated. All patients were screened for immunological parameters including ANA (antinuclear antibodies), anti dsDNA (anti-double-stranded-DNA), ACA(anti-cardiolipin) IgM and IgG, LA (lupus anticoagulants)...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766509/high-density-lipoprotein-metabolism-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport-strategies-for-raising-hdl-cholesterol
#15
Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Sonja Topuzovska
A key to effective treatment of cardiovascular disease is to understand the body's complex lipoprotein transport system. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the process of cholesterol movement from the extrahepatic tissues back to the liver. Lipoproteins containing apoA-I [highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)] are key mediators in RCT, whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. HDL particles are heterogeneous; they differ in proportion of proteins and lipids, size, shape, and charge...
August 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764768/more-than-a-virus-a-qualitative-study-of-the-social-implications-of-hepatitis-b-infection-in-china
#16
J Wallace, M Pitts, C Liu, V Lin, B Hajarizadeh, J Richmond, S Locarnini
BACKGROUND: China has the largest absolute number of people living with hepatitis B with up to 300,000 people estimated to die each year from hepatitis B related diseases. Despite advances in immunisation, clinical management, and health policy, there is still a lack of accessible and affordable health care for people with hepatitis B. Through in-depth interviews, this study identifies the personal, social and economic impact of living with hepatitis B and considers the role of stigma and discrimination as barriers to effective clinical management of the disease...
August 1, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763857/-interpretations-of-easl-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#17
P Hu, H Ren
The European Association for the Study of the Liver recently released the updated Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection at the International Liver Congress(TM) 2017 in Amsterdam. The latest clinical practice guideline integrated the latest scientific advances on diagnosis and therapy of hepatitis B, thereby providing optimize the management of patients with either acute or chronic HBV. The latest clinical practice guideline includes new definitions of disease phases, expanded indications for initiating treatment, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, new stopping rules for antiviral therapy...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763308/revascularization-strategies-and-in-hospital-management-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-complicated-by-hemophilia-a-or-hemophilia-b
#18
Matthew J Reilley, Anne Blair, William H Matthai, Rolando Vega, Meghan Buckley, Phyllis A Gimotty, Patrick F Fogarty
: Among adult patients with hemophilia A and hemophilia B the emergent management of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) is challenging, and exposure to antithrombotic agents and/or revascularization procedures may confer an enhanced risk of bleeding. We sought to identify clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes among ACS patients with hemophilia A/hemophilia B, compared with matched noncoagulopathic ACS controls. Case discharges from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (1998-2011) had International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes for hemophilia A/hemophilia B and ACS...
July 29, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759808/platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-plr-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-nlr-are-associated-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection
#19
Zhidan Zhao, Jianhua Liu, Jiaxin Wang, Tinyan Xie, Qiuhuan Zhang, Sisi Feng, Hui Deng, Baiyun Zhong
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the associations between the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and disease severity in patients with chronic HBV infection-related liver disease (CHB). METHODS: Patients with CHB were retrospectively identified. Clinical data for 172 HBV-infected patients and 40 healthy controls were collected from the electronic patient medical record system database of our hospital...
July 28, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758027/australasian-society-for-hiv-viral-hepatitis-and-sexual-health-medicine-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-clinical-guidelines
#20
EDITORIAL
Edwina Wright, Andrew Grulich, Katy Roy, Mark Boyd, Vincent Cornelisse, Darren Russell, Darryl O'Donnell, Bill Whittaker, Levinia Crooks, Iryna Zablotska
Daily use of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by populations at high risk of HIV infection is now recommended in guidelines from the United States, Europe and Australia and globally through the 2015 WHO guidelines. These 2017 Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine's (ASHM) PrEP Guidelines are an updated adaptation of the 2014 US Centers for Disease Control's PrEP guidelines and are designed to: •Support the prescription of PrEP using forms of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine that have been registered in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and other bioequivalent generic drugs that are available in Australia through self-importation, private prescription or Australian PrEP clinical trials•Assist clinicians in the evaluation of patients who are seeking PrEP•Assist clinicians in commencing and monitoring patients on PrEP including PrEP dosing schedules, management of side-effects and toxicity, use of PrEP in pregnancy and in chronic hepatitis B infection and how to cease PrEP Daily PrEP with co-formulated tenofovir and emtricitabine, used continuously or for shorter periods of time, is recommended in these guidelines as a key HIV-prevention option for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender men and women, heterosexual men and women, and people who inject drugs (PWID) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
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