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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646959/is-chickenpox-so-bad-what-do-we-know-about-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-and-what-does-it-tell-us-about-the-future
#1
Anne A Gershon
Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634356/an-outbreak-of-echovirus-18-encephalitis-meningitis-in-children-in-hebei-province-china-2015
#2
Xiangpeng Chen, Jingjie Li, Jiayun Guo, Wenbo Xu, Suzhen Sun, Zhengde Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627763/suspected-methadone-toxicity-from-hospital-to-autopsy-bed
#3
Jaber Gharehdaghi, Asieh Takalloo-Bakhtiari, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani, Mohammad-Javad Hedayatshode
High mortality rates have been reported for methadone in both adults and children. We aimed to determine the pattern of toxicity, possible underlying diseases and treatment challenges in patients referred to our center with early diagnosis of methadone toxicity and who later died. Medical files of all methadone-poisoned patients who had been admitted to a referral center of toxicology between March 2011 and March 2016, died during the hospital stay and sent for autopsy to Legal Medicine Organization were retrospectively evaluated...
June 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621671/association-study-of-inflammatory-cytokine-and-chemokine-expression-in-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#4
Wenzhong Shang, Suying Qian, Lijuan Fang, Yong Han, Cuiping Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of cytokine/chemokine expression with the clinical presentation of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). RESULTS: All cytokine/chemokine levels were higher in severe HFMD patients than in mild HFMD patients or controls (P < 0.01). RANTES, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-12 and IL-18 levels were higher in mild HFMD patients than in the controls (P < 0.05). In severe HFMD, all levels (except IL-8 and IL-4) were higher in patients with encephalitis plus pulmonary edema than in those with encephalitis alone (P < 0...
June 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617265/a-case-of-fulminant-subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-presenting-with-acute-myoclonic-astatic-epilepsy
#5
Fabio Magurano, Gian Luca Marella, Antonella Marchi, Antonietta Filia, Luigi Tonino Marsella, Saverio Potenza, Roberto Massa, Paola Bucci, Melissa Baggieri, Loredana Nicoletti
The neurologic sequelae post-measles are less common than other complications measles-related and can lead to severe disability or death: primary measles encephalitis (PME), acute post-infectious measles encephalomyelitis (APME), measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). SSPE syndrome can affect people years from the acute measles virus infection, as result of the persistence of defective viral particles in brain cells. Clinical onset typically manifests with progressive intellectual deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612538/-risk-factors-and-prognosis-of-secondary-epilepsy-in-children-with-viral-encephalitis
#6
Liang Huang, Dan Yu, Rong Luo, Min Li, Hui Zhou, Xiao-Tang Cai, Zhi-Ling Wang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical features of viral encephalitis in children at acute stage, and the relationship of these clinical features with post viral encephalitic epilepsy. METHODS: The children with viral encephalitis treated in West China Second University Hospital between January 2010 and January 2014 were enrolled. The clinical features included general conditions, clinical manifestations, video electroencephalogram (VEEG), neuroimaging, virology, prognosis and antiepileptic drugs...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606234/-efficacy-and-safety-of-cyclophosphamide-as-a-sequential-immunotherapy-drug-for-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-children
#7
Wei-Wen Zhu, Wei-Ping Liao, Yong-Hong Yi, Xing-Wang Song
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cyclophosphamide as a second-line drug in the treatment of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Six children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, who showed poor response to steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin, were given cyclophosphamide as a second-line immunotherapy. Follow-up was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cyclophosphamide. RESULTS: After first-line immunotherapy for 1-4 weeks, the six patients had reduced psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and involuntary movements; three patients had an improved level of consciousness and were able to make simple conversations...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594790/japanese-encephalitis-surveillance-and-immunization-asia-and-western-pacific-regions-2016
#8
James D Heffelfinger, Xi Li, Nyambat Batmunkh, Varja Grabovac, Sergey Diorditsa, Jayantha B Liyanage, Sirima Pattamadilok, Sunil Bahl, Kirsten S Vannice, Terri B Hyde, Susan Y Chu, Kimberley K Fox, Susan L Hills, Anthony A Marfin
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of JE vaccination into national immunization schedules in all areas where the disease is a public health priority (1). This report updates a previous summary of JE surveillance and immunization programs in Asia and the Western Pacific in 2012 (2). Since 2012, funding for JE immunization has become available through the GAVI Alliance, three JE vaccines have been WHO-prequalified,* and an updated WHO JE vaccine position paper providing guidance on JE vaccines and vaccination strategies has been published (1)...
June 9, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592296/pigsties-near-dwellings-as-a-potential-risk-factor-for-the-prevalence-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-adult-in-shanxi-china
#9
Xiaojie Ren, Shihong Fu, Peifang Dai, Huanyu Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Xiaolong Li, Wenwen Lei, Xiaoyan Gao, Ying He, Zhi Lv, Jingxia Cheng, Guiqin Wang, Guodong Liang
BACKGROUND: The increasing trend of adult cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in China, particularly in northern China, has become an important public health issue. We conducted an epidemiological investigation in the south of Shanxi Province to examine the relationships between mosquitoes, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and adult JE cases. METHODS: Mosquito specimens were collected from the courtyards of farmers' households and pig farms in Shanxi Province...
June 8, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587430/the-role-and-mechanism-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-viral-encephalitis-of-children
#10
Dongli Zhang, Nuo Zheng, Xiaoming Liu
The aim of this study was to analyze the concentration changes of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the related inflammatory factors of pre-treatment and post-treatment in children with viral encephalitis, to examine the mechanism of NF-κB in the pathogenesis of child viral encephalitis. Twenty-two children with severe viral encephalitis, 13 children with mild viral encephalitis and 12 normal children, who were treated in our hospital, were randomly selected. Before and after treatment, the concentrations of inflammation-related factors in serum including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA and comparative analysis were performed...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574016/coverage-missed-opportunity-for-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-gorakhpur-division-uttar-pradesh-india-2015-implications-for-japanese-encephalitis-control
#11
Manoj V Murhekar, Chinmay Oak, Prashant Ranjan, K Kanagasabai, Satish Shinde, Ashok Kumar Pandey, Mahima Mittal, Milind Gore, Sanjay M Mehendale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India. Two doses of JE vaccine ( first during 9-12 months and second during 16-24 months of age) are administered under the Universal Immunization Programme. We conducted surveys to estimate the coverage of JE vaccine and magnitude of missed opportunity for vaccination (MoV) for JE in Gorakhpur division. METHODS: To estimate the JE vaccine coverage, cluster surveys were conducted in four districts of Gorakhpur division by selecting 30 clusters by probability proportional to size method in each district, seven children aged 25-36 months were selected from each cluster and their mothers were interviewed about JE vaccination...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566084/-multicenter-investigation-of-bufavirus-in-the-etiology-of-viral-central-nervous-system-infections-of-adults-and-children
#12
Aylin Altay Koçak, Murat Öcal, Meltem Polat, Saliha Kanık Yüksek, Anıl Aktaş Tapısız, Hasan Tezer, Aykut Özkul, Koray Ergünay, Gülendam Bozdayı, Kamruddin Ahmed
Bufavirus (BuV) is a newly-identified parvovirus in the family of Parvoviridae. Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from children in Burkina Faso with acute diarrhea showed a highly divergent parvovirus, which was named bufavirus (BuV). The global distribution, epidemiology and genetic characteristics of BuVs infections are obscure. It was first discovered as an agent causing gastroenteritis but the association of BuV infections with various clinical presentations mostly remain to be explored. The aims of this study were to investigate probable impact of BuV in central nervous system infections in a region where it was previously reported to cause human infections and to detect enteroviruses (EV) which are reported as a cause of central nervous system infections in our country...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560654/newer-vaccines-against-mosquito-borne-diseases
#13
Anju Aggarwal, Neha Garg
Mosquitos are responsible for a number of protozoal and viral diseases. Malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya epidemics occur commonly all over the world, leading to marked mortality and morbidity in children. Zika, Yellow fever and West Nile fever are others requiring prevention. Environmental control and mosquito bite prevention are useful in decreasing the burden of disease but vaccination has been found to be most cost-effective and is the need of the hour. RTS,S/AS01 vaccine is the first malaria vaccine being licensed for use against P...
May 31, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545419/mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-reversible-splenial-lesion-mers-in-adults-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Junliang Yuan, Shuna Yang, Shuangkun Wang, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Wenli Hu
BACKGROUND: Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a rare clinico-radiological entity characterized by the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding of a reversible lesion in the corpus callosum, sometimes involved the symmetrical white matters. Many cases of child-onset MERS with various causes have been reported. However, adult-onset MERS is relatively rare. The clinical characteristics and pathophysiologiccal mechanisms of adult-onset MERS are not well understood...
May 25, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536430/aetiology-of-acute-meningoencephalitis-in-cambodian-children-2010-2013
#15
Paul F Horwood, Veasna Duong, Denis Laurent, Channa Mey, Heng Sothy, Ky Santy, Beat Richner, Seiha Heng, Sopheak Hem, Justine Cheval, Christopher Gorman, Philippe Dussart, Menno D de Jong, Alexandra Kerleguer, Bertrand Guillard, Bernadette Murgue, Marc Lecuit, Xavier de Lamballerie, Jeremy J Farrar, Arnaud Tarantola, Marc Eloit, Philippe Buchy
Acute meningoencephalitis (AME) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Clinical specimens were collected from children presenting with AME at two Cambodian paediatric hospitals to determine the major aetiologies associated with AME in the country. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were screened by molecular and cell culture methods for a range of pathogens previously associated with AME in the region. CSF and serum (acute and convalescent) were screened for antibodies to arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV)...
May 24, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535637/-analysis-of-prodromal-phase-and-prodromal-events-in-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#16
Y Yao, B Peng, X H Wang, F Fang, D Xu, X L Xu, H T Ren, Y C Zhu, L Y Cui, H Z Guan
Objective: To analyze prodromal phase and prodromal events of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods: Clinical data of 179 patients hospitalized and diagnosed during 2010-2016 including adults and children in Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Beijing Children's Hospital were collected.Patients with prodromal phase or prodromal events were selected.A retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics including prodromal phase or prodromal events, course of disease, brain imaging, laboratory results and therapeutic effect was performed...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524216/-update-on-congenital-and-neonatal-herpes-infections-infection-due-to-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex
#17
F Baquero-Artigao
Newborn infants are a population which is especially susceptible to viral infections that frequently affect the central nervous system. Herpes infections can be transmitted to the foetus and to the newborn infant, and give rise to severe clinical conditions with long-term sensory and cognitive deficits. Two thirds of newborn infants with encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus and half of the children with symptomatic congenital infection by cytomegalovirus develop sequelae, which results in high community health costs in the long term...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516331/burden-of-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-in-the-united-states
#18
S Modi, Abhimanyu Mahajan, D Dharaiya, P Varelas, P Mitsias
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a disease of public health concern, but its burden on the healthcare of United States has not been adequately assessed recently. We aimed to define the incidence, complications and outcomes of HSVE in the recent decade by analyzing data from a nationally representative database. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project databases were utilized to identify patients with primary discharge diagnosis of HSVE. Annual hospitalization rate was estimated and several preselected inpatient complications were identified...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506504/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-appearing-as-a-new-onset-psychosis-disease-course-in-children-and-adolescents-within-the-california-encephalitis-project
#19
Mary Gable, Carol Glaser
BACKGROUND: Given that psychiatric symptoms are common, not only during the course of the illness but also on presentation, in children and adolescents with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, it is important that practitioners possess an adequate understanding of the clinical features and potential treatment of this disease. We describe the clinical characteristics of 24 patients who presented to the California Encephalitis Project. METHODS: Patients were referred by physicians, and standardized forms were used to gather demographic, clinical, and laboratory data...
July 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506503/extended-clinical-spectrum-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-children-a-case-series
#20
Ajay Goenka, Vivek Jain, Hiroki Nariai, Alfred Spiro, Mitchell Steinschneider
OBJECTIVE: There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in children with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody encephalitis from two different health care settings. METHODS: We describe our experience with 13 patients (median age, 7 years; range, 5 months to 19 years) presenting to tertiary referral centers in India and the United States. RESULTS: Initial manifestations were neurological (seizures or movement disorders) in eight patients, and psychiatric (e...
July 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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