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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344164/outbreak-of-brainstem-encephalitis-associated-with-enterovirus-a71-in-catalonia-spain-2016-a-clinical-observational-study-in-a-children-s-reference-centre-in-catalonia
#1
Dídac Casas-Alba, Mariona F de Sevilla, Ana Valero-Rello, Claudia Fortuny, Juan-José García-García, Carlos Ortez, Jordi Muchart, Thais Armangué, Iolanda Jordan, Carles Luaces, Irene Barrabeig, Rubén González-Sanz, María Cabrerizo, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Cristian Launes
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of an outbreak of brainstem encephalitis and encephalomyelitis related to enterovirus (EV) infection in Catalonia (Spain), a setting where these manifestations were uncommon. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data from patients with neurological symptoms associated with EV detection admitted to a reference paediatric hospital between April and June 2016 were analysed. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340587/lymphocytes-have-a-role-in-protection-but-not-in-pathogenesis-during-la-crosse-virus-infection-in-mice
#2
Clayton W Winkler, Lara M Myers, Tyson A Woods, Aaron B Carmody, Katherine G Taylor, Karin E Peterson
BACKGROUND: La Crosse Virus (LACV) is a primary cause of pediatric viral encephalitis in the USA and can result in severe clinical outcomes. Almost all cases of LACV encephalitis occur in children 16 years or younger, indicating an age-related susceptibility. This susceptibility is recapitulated in a mouse model where weanling (3 weeks old or younger) mice are susceptible to LACV-induced disease, and adults (greater than 6 weeks) are resistant. Disease in mice and humans is associated with infiltrating leukocytes to the CNS...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328164/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-island-children-in-new-zealand
#3
Hannah F Jones, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Peter W Reed, Paul P J Dunn, Richard H Steele, Russell C Dale, Cynthia Sharpe
AIM: To investigate the incidence and severity of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis in children from New Zealand. METHOD: A retrospective case series was undertaken of all children (≤18y) diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis from January 2008 to October 2015. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were identified with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid, three of whom had an associated teratoma...
March 22, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306571/cns-syndromes-associated-with-antibodies-against-metabotropic-receptors
#4
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoantibodies to Central nervous system (CNS) metabotropic receptors are associated with a growing family of autoimmune brain diseases, including encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Ophelia syndrome, and cerebellitis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the target receptors, the neurological autoimmune disorders, and the pathogenic mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor are associate with limbic encephalitis and severe seizures, often with small cell lung cancers...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292230/response-to-management-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-in-children
#5
J Nicholas Brenton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278415/paediatric-active-enhanced-disease-surveillance-inaugural-annual-report-2014
#6
Yvonne A Zurynski, Jocelynne E McRae, Helen E Quinn, Nicholas J Wood, Kristine K Macartney
INTRODUCTION: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child. METHODS: Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275080/impact-of-a-rapid-herpes-simplex-virus-pcr-assay-on-duration-of-acyclovir-therapy
#7
Tam T Van, Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai, Melissa Arevalo, Maryann Lustestica, Jennifer Dien Bard
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study assessed the impact of a direct HSV (dHSV) PCR assay on time to result and duration of acyclovir therapy in children with signs and symptoms of meningitis and encephalitis. A total of 363 patients with HSV PCR on CSF were included in this retrospective analysis, divided into the pre- and post-implementation groups. The pre-implementation arm included CSF testing performed using a laboratory-developed real-time PCR assay and the post-implementation group consisted of CSF samples tested using a direct sample-to-answer assay...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268073/vaccinations-in-early-life-are-not-associated-with-development-of-islet-autoimmunity-in-type-1-diabetes-high-risk-children-results-from-prospective-cohort-data
#8
Andreas Beyerlein, Andreas N Strobl, Christiane Winkler, Michaela Carpus, Annette Knopff, Ewan Donnachie, Donna P Ankerst, Anette-G Ziegler
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Vaccinations in early childhood potentially stimulate the immune system and may thus be relevant for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). We determined the association of vaccination burden with T1D-associated islet autoimmunity in children with high familial risk followed prospectively from birth. METHODS: A total of 20,570 certified vaccination records from 1918 children were correlated with time to onset of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity using Cox regression, considering multiple time periods up until age two years and vaccination types, and adjusting for HLA genotype, sex, delivery mode, season of birth, preterm delivery and maternal T1D status...
March 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259562/30-year-trends-in-admission-rates-for-encephalitis-in-children-in-england-and-effect-of-improved-diagnostics-and-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-a-population-based-observational-study
#9
Mildred A Iro, Manish Sadarangani, Raphael Goldacre, Alecia Nickless, Andrew J Pollard, Michael J Goldacre
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a serious neurological disorder, yet data on admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are scarce. We aimed to estimate admission rates for childhood encephalitis in England over 33 years (1979-2011), to describe trends in admission rates, and to observe how these rates have varied with the introduction of vaccines and improved diagnostics. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of hospital admission statistics for encephalitis for individuals aged 0-19 years using national data from the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE, 1979-85) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES, 1990-2011)...
April 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259480/do-all-children-who-present-with-a-complex-febrile-seizure-need-a-lumbar-puncture
#10
Romain Guedj, Hélène Chappuy, Luigi Titomanlio, Loic De Pontual, Sandra Biscardi, Gisèle Nissack-Obiketeki, Béatrice Pellegrino, Oussama Charara, François Angoulvant, Julien Denis, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Solène Loschi, Pierre Louis Leger, Ricardo Carbajal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We assess the prevalences of bacterial meningitis and herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis (HSV-ME) in children with a complex febrile seizure and determine these prevalences in the subgroup of children with a clinical examination result not suggestive of meningitis or encephalitis. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 7 pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in the region of Paris, France. Visits of patients aged 6 months to 5 years for a complex febrile seizure from January 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251511/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-an-update
#11
REVIEW
John W Gnann, Richard J Whitley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide an update on current thinking regarding herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), emphasizing new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immune responses. Specific questions to be addressed are the following: (1) Is there a genetic predisposition to HSE? (2) What clinical approaches have the greatest impact on improving the long-term outcomes in patients with HSE? And (3) are there immune-mediated mechanisms that may account for relapsing HSE? RECENT FINDINGS: Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) plays an important role in innate immune responses, including generation of interferons...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250534/pre-exposure-rabies-prophylaxis-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Jocelyn A Kessels, Sergio Recuenco, Ana Maria Navarro-Vela, Raffy Deray, Marco Vigilato, Hildegund Ertl, David Durrheim, Helen Rees, Louis H Nel, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Deborah Briggs
OBJECTIVE: To review the safety and immunogenicity of pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis (including accelerated schedules, co-administration with other vaccines and booster doses), its cost-effectiveness and recommendations for use, particularly in high-risk settings. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for papers on pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis published between 2007 and 29 January 2016...
March 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250133/mosgctl-7-a-c-type-lectin-protein-mediates-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-mosquitoes
#13
Ke Liu, Yingjuan Qian, Yong-Sam Jung, Bin Zhou, Ruibing Cao, Ting Shen, Donghua Shao, Jianchao Wei, Zhiyong Ma, Puyan Chen, Huaimin Zhu, Yafeng Qiu
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus prevalent in Asia and the Western Pacific, and is the leading cause of viral encephalitis. JEV is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, but the molecular mechanisms by which the mosquito vector participates in transmission are unclear. We investigated the expression of all C-type lectins during JEV infection in Aedes aegypti. C-type lectin mosGCTL-7 (AAEL002524) was significantly up-regulated by JEV infection and facilitated infection in vivo and in vitro...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250116/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a6-infection-for-evaluation-of-antiviral-and-vaccine-efficacy
#14
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Qingjuan Wei, Michael J Carr, Juan Li, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global health concern. Family Picornaviridae members, particularly enterovirus 71 (EVA71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are the primary etiological agents of HFMD, however, a third enterovirus A species, CoxsackievirusA6 (CVA6), has been recently associated with epidemic outbreaks. Study of the pathogenesis of CVA6 infection and development of antivirals and vaccines are hindered due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We have developed and characterized a murine model of CVA6 infection which was employed to evaluate the antiviral activities of different drugs and the protective efficacies of CVA6-inactivated vaccines...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230787/bat-astroviruses-towards-understanding-the-transmission-dynamics-of-a-neglected-virus-family
#15
REVIEW
Kerstin Fischer, Vinícius Pinho Dos Reis, Anne Balkema-Buschmann
Bats belong to the order Chiroptera that represents the second largest order of mammals with more than 1200 species and an almost global distribution. Environmental changes and deforestation have severely influenced many ecosystems, intensifying the contact between wildlife and humans. In recent years, bats have been found to harbor a number of different viruses with zoonotic potential, as well as a great diversity of astroviruses, for which the question of zoonotic potential remains unanswered to date. Human astroviruses have been identified as the causative agent for diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients...
February 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219154/-human-enterovirus-infection-status-and-clinical-characteristics-of-274-patients-with-viral-encephalitis-in-henan-province-2011-2012
#16
H X Ma, J J Pan, Y Li, K Kang, X Y Huang, A G You, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate human enterovirus (HEV) infection and clinical characteristics of viral encephalitis patients in Pingdingshan, Henan Province. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid specimens and epidemiological information were collected from 274 viral encephalitis patients in the departments of pediatrics and neurology in hospitals in Pingdingshan, Henan Province, from April 2011 to August 2012. Patients with bacterial infections were excluded from the study. Demographic information was collected by questionnaires and clinical information was mainly obtained from hospital examinations...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218712/epidemiology-of-classic-and-novel-human-astrovirus-gastroenteritis-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Diem-Lan Vu, Albert Bosch, Rosa M Pintó, Susana Guix
Since they were identified in 1975, human astroviruses have been considered one of the most important agents of viral acute gastroenteritis in children. However, highly divergent astroviruses infecting humans have been recently discovered and associated with extra-intestinal infections. The report of cases of fatal meningitis and encephalitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals, has broadened their disease spectrum. Although zoonotic transmission among animal and human astroviruses has not been clearly recognized, the genetic similarity between some human and animal viruses makes it likely to occur...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#18
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202703/investigations-in-gabaa-receptor-antibody-associated-encephalitis
#19
Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro, Thaís Armangue, Fernanda J Castro, Maria I Barcelo Artigues, Maria R Julià Benique, Leslie Benson, Mark Gorman, Ana Felipe, Ruben L Caparó Oblitas, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features, comorbidities, receptor subunit targets, and outcome in patients with anti-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Clinical study of 26 patients, including 17 new (April 2013-January 2016) and 9 previously reported patients. Antibodies to α1, β3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAAR were determined using reported techniques. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range 48...
March 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198193/association-between-dehydration-and-fever-during-the-first-week-of-life
#20
Ariane Boutin, Ana Carceller, Marie Pier Desjardins, Marisol Sanchez, Jocelyn Gravel
BACKGROUND: Trying to differentiate serious bacterial infection (SBI) from a self-limiting illness in febrile infants seen in the pediatric emergency department (PED) is a significant challenge. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dehydration and its relationship to SBI in febrile full-term newborns under 1 week of age seen in a PED. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out on all children younger than 8 days of age with fever who presented to a single, tertiary care, PED from January 2009 to April 2014...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
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