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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351935/an-adult-case-with-shigellosis-associated-encephalopathy
#1
Heleen Joséphine Schuster, Michelle Gompelman, Wim Ang, Albertus Jozef Kooter
A 45-year-old man was presented at the emergency department with altered neurological status and a 1-day history of diarrhoea and fever. The patient's sexual history revealed multiple male partners. As bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis was suspected, treatment was started accordingly. Cerebrospinal fluid investigations only showed a slight increase of leucocytes, and microbiological studies remained negative. Stool culture revealed Shigella flexneri, after which Shigella-associated encephalopathy was suspected...
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335082/-a-comparative-analysis-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-or-without-abnormal-findings-on-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Jian-Zhao Zhang, Qian Chen, Ping Zheng, Li-Na Xie, Xiao-Li Yi, Hai-Tao Ren, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with normal or abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings via a comparative analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The clinical features and prognosis were compared between the children with normal and abnormal cranial MRI findings. RESULTS: In the 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the most common initial symptoms were seizures (61%) and involuntary movement (61%), followed by language disorder (54%), mental and behavioral abnormalities (52%), and disturbance of consciousness (30%)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325161/five-year-antibody-persistence-following-a-japanese-encephalitis-chimeric-virus-vaccine-je-cv-booster-in-je-cv-primed-children-in-the-philippines
#3
Maria Rosario Capeding, Edison R Alberto, Alain Bouckenooghe, Thelma M Laot, Danaya Chansinghakul, Céline Monfredo, Tifany Machabert, Emmanuel Feroldi
NCT01190228.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323107/serological-survey-of-neutralizing-antibodies-to-eight-major-enteroviruses-among-healthy-population
#4
Rui Zhu, Tong Cheng, Zhichao Yin, Dongxiao Liu, Longfa Xu, Yongchao Li, Wei Wang, Jian Liu, Yuqiong Que, Xiangzhong Ye, Qiyi Tang, Qinjian Zhao, Shengxiang Ge, Shuizhen He, Ningshao Xia
Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common causative agents infecting human, causing many harmful diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), myocarditis, encephalitis, and aseptic meningitis. EV-related diseases pose a serious worldwide threat to public health. To gain comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of major prevalent EVs in humans, we firstly performed a serological survey for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6), Coxsackie virus A10 (CV-A10), Coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3), Coxsackie virus B5 (CV-B5), Echovirus 25 (ECHO25), and Echovirus 30 (ECHO30) among the healthy population in Xiamen City in 2016, using micro-neutralization assay...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310866/initial-clinical-presentation-of-young-children-with-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#5
Marion Favier, Bastien Joubert, Géraldine Picard, Véronique Rogemond, Laure Thomas, Sylvain Rheims, Marion Bailhache, Frédéric Villega, Jean-Michel Pédespan, Giulia Berzero, Dimitri Psimaras, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Virginie Desestret, Jérôme Honnorat
Autoimmune encephalitis with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoantibodies (NMDA-R-Abs) is a recently described disease affecting adult and pediatric patients. Symptoms of the disease are now perfectly described in the adult population but the clinical presentation is less known in young children. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical presentation and the specificities of symptoms presented by young children with NMDA-R-Abs encephalitis to improve diagnosis of this disease, and to compare these to a series of previously published female adult patients...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305044/functional-failure-of-tlr3-and-its-signaling-components-contribute-to-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#6
REVIEW
Matylda Barbara Mielcarska, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Felix Ngosa Toka
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe neurological disease in children and adults caused by herpes simplex virus. This review discusses recent findings on the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) deficiencies in the HSE development. Critical checkpoints in the TLR3 signaling that contribute to innate response are discussed, including the importance of TLR3 ligand recognition site and transportation in the cell. We also indicate unresolved issues in the TLR3 functioning that might lead to thorough understanding of immunity during HSE...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284418/the-aetiologies-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-hospitalised-cambodian-children
#7
Paul Turner, Kuong Suy, Le Van Tan, Pora Sar, Thyl Miliya, Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Sona Soeng, Nicholas P J Day, H Rogier van Doorn, Claudia Turner
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The aetiologies of these potentially vaccine-preventable infections have not been well established in Cambodia. METHODS: We did a one year prospective study of children hospitalised with suspected CNS infection at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) samples underwent culture, multiplex PCR and serological analysis to identify a range of bacterial and viral pathogens...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245105/autoimmune-encephalitis-with-gabaa-receptor-antibodies-in-a-10-year-old-girl
#8
Magdalena Figlerowicz, Paweł Kemnitz, Anna Mania, Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Emila Tomczak, Karolina Kuls, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Francesc Graus, Wojciech Służewski
Recent studies have indicated that some cases of nonparaneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis in children can be caused by a systemic autoimmune disorder that generates autoantibodies to cell membrane proteins. We describe the clinical features of a 10-year-old girl with autoimmune encephalitis with autoantibodies against the GABAA receptor in whom type 1 diabetes mellitus developed during the course of the disease. The diagnosis was based on the progressive course of disease, pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), inflammatory changes in the brain and autoantibodies against the GABAA receptor detected in serum (absent in CSF)...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242411/a-retrospective-study-of-331-deaths-in-children-with-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-guangxi-china
#9
Zhi-Yong Yang, Xiu-Qi Chen, Dan Sun, Dan Wei
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features of children with hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) who died. METHODS: 331 deaths due to HFMD were included in this retrospective study; 15 autopsies were performed. RESULTS: Most cases were seen in children aged below 3 years, and with enterovirus 71 infection (91%). The mean (SD) duration of HFMD from onset to death was 3.7(2.9) days. The mean (SD) age of fast progressors (from onset to death less than 4 days) was 17...
December 14, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233145/suppression-of-interleukin-6-increases-enterovirus-a71-lethality-in-mice
#10
Li-Chiu Wang, Hui-Wen Yao, Chuan-Fa Chang, Shainn-Wei Wang, Shih-Min Wang, Shun-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection can induce fatal encephalitis in young children. Clinical reports show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients with brainstem encephalitis are significantly elevated. We used a murine model to address the significance of endogenous IL-6 in EV-A71 infection. RESULTS: EV-A71 infection transiently increased serum and brain IL-6 protein levels in mice. Most importantly, absence of IL-6 due to gene knockout or depletion of IL-6 using neutralizing monoclonal antibody enhanced the mortality and tissue viral load of infected mice...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227177/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-inactivated-chromatographically-purified-vero-cell-derived-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-in-thai-children
#11
Pornthep Chanthavanich, Kriengsak Limkittikul, Chukiat Sirivichayakul, Watcharee Chokejindachai, Weerawan Hattasingh, Krisana Pengsaa, Surachai Surangsrirat, Termsang Srisuwannaporn, Benjawan Kaewma, Sutee Yoksan, Gao Jun, Bai Zhumu
Inactivated mouse-brain-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine has a worrisome safety profile and the live attenuated vaccine is unsuitable in immunodeficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated chromatographically purified Vero-cell-derived JE vaccine (CVI-JE, Beijing P-3 strain) in children. 152 healthy Thai children, with an average (SD) age of 14.4 (3.8) months, received 3 doses of CVI-JE on days 0, 7-28, and one year. Homologous JE neutralizing antibody titers (NT) were measured...
December 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226117/pediatric-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-review-with-pooled-analysis-and-critical-care-emphasis
#12
REVIEW
Kenneth E Remy, Jason W Custer, Joshua Cappell, Cortney B Foster, Nan A Garber, L Kyle Walker, Liliana Simon, Dayanand Bagdure
Purpose: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is being recognized with increasing frequency among children. Given the paucity of evidence to guide the critical care management of these complex patients, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature with pooled analysis of published case reports and case series. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science for relevant published studies...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224854/encephalitis-in-us-children
#13
REVIEW
Kevin Messacar, Marc Fischer, Samuel R Dominguez, Kenneth L Tyler, Mark J Abzug
Encephalitis is an uncommon but severe disease characterized by neurologic dysfunction with central nervous system inflammation. Children with encephalitis should receive supportive care and empiric therapies for common and treatable causes while prioritizing diagnostic evaluation for common, treatable, and high-risk conditions. Even with an extensive diagnostic workup, an infectious cause is identified in less than half of cases, suggesting a role for postinfectious or noninfectious processes.
December 7, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203057/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-revealing-autoimmune-encephalitis-due-to-gabaar-antibodies
#14
D Caputo, R Iorio, F Vigevano, L Fusco
BACKGROUND: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) has been described as an epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology affecting previously healthy children following febrile illness. Despite large investigations on autoimmune pathogenesis no membrane antibodies has been associated since now. CASE STUDY: We report a 13 years-old girl with negative history for neurological or autoimmune disease that developed at the sixth day of high fever a super-refractory status epilepticus...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198174/intracranial-complications-of-midline-nasal-dermoid-cysts
#15
Dries Opsomer, Toon Allaeys, Ann-Sofie Alderweireldt, Edward Baert, Nathalie Roche
BACKGROUND: Nasal dermoid cysts are common tumors in children. Due to anomalies in embryologic development of the nasal complex, sometimes an intracranial extension exists. When these cysts become infected they can lead to meningitis, brain abscess and death. METHODS: We report the case of a 1.5-year-old girl admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit after infection of a nasal dermoid cyst. RESULTS: The infant had a spiking fever and epileptic seizures...
December 4, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191708/neuroprotective-effect-of-tetrahydropalmatine-in-japanese-encephalitis-virus-strain-gp-78-infected-mouse-model
#16
Huang Lixia, Chen Jun, Hu Song, Yuan FaHu, Tu Jinwen
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), known to affect children, is a major cause of severe encephalopathy. Its prevalence has been percolated over wider regions of Southern Asia. JEV is associated with neurodegeneration, severe inflammation, increased oxidative stress and elevated levels of stress linked proteins. Four groups of 15 mice each (4-5 weeks old BALB/c mice of either sex) was used for the study. Mice were intravenously infected with lethal dose of 3 × 105 pfu of JEV, followed by mortality after 8 days...
November 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183842/systematic-review-of-seroepidemiologic-studies-on-japanese-encephalitis-in-the-republic-of-korea
#17
REVIEW
Young June Choe, Anne-Frieda Taurel, Joshua Nealon, Han Seok Seo, Hee Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Countries with strong vaccination programs, including the Republic of Korea, have experienced changes in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis (JE) with an increase in cases seen in adults. However, the reasons for this increase are not clearly understood. This study describes the change in age specific JE seroprevalence over time in Korea with a view to understand this transition. METHODS: A search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, Pubmed, KoreaMed, Korea Education and Research Information Service, National Library of Korea, and the Seoul National University Medical Library was conducted using the keyword 'Japanese encephalitis' combined with 'Korea', 'seroprevalence', 'seropositivity', 'seroepidemiology', 'serosurvey', 'immunity', and 'antibody'...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183618/encephalitis-associated-with-antibodies-against-the-nmda-receptor
#18
REVIEW
Mar Guasp, Josep Dalmau
The encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is characterized by the presence of antibodies against the GluN1 subunit of this receptor, resulting in symptoms that are similar to those observed in models of genetic or pharmacologic reduction of NMDARs. Patients are usually young adults, predominantly women, and children who develop, in a sequential manner, rapidly progressive symptoms including psychosis, abnormal movements, autonomic dysfunction, and coma. Epileptic seizures are variable and can occur throughout the course of the disease...
November 25, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181879/high-human-herpesvirus-6-viral-load-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-is-associated-with-detection-in-end-organs-and-high-mortality
#19
Lena E Winestone, Rajesh Punn, John S Tamaresis, Julia Buckingham, Benjamin A Pinsky, Jesse J Waggoner, Sandhya Kharbanda
Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation occurs in approximately half of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). While encephalitis and delayed engraftment are well-documented complications of HHV-6 following HSCT, the extent to which HHV-6 viremia causes disease in children is controversial. We performed a retrospective review of HHV-6 reactivation and possible manifestations in pediatric allogeneic HSCT patients at a single institution. Of 89 children and young adults who underwent allogeneic HSCT over a three-and-a-half-year period, 34 patients reactivated HHV-6 early post-transplant...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179102/electroencephalographic-findings-in-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-children-a-series-of-12-patients
#20
Mirac Yildirim, Bahadir Konuskan, Dilek Yalnizoglu, Haluk Topaloglu, Ilknur Erol, Banu Anlar
OBJECTIVE: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (a-NMDARe) is an acute or subacute encephalopathy where electroencephalogram (EEG) is frequently obtained as part of the workup. Although no diagnostic EEG finding has been described so far, the definition of specific or typical patterns might help to distinguish this group among various encephalopathies of childhood. We examined EEG recordings of our patients with a-NMDARe in order to describe the most frequent findings. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data and digital EEG recordings of 12 pediatric patients diagnosed with a-NMDARe in two major child neurology centers are evaluated...
November 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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