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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350536/diagnostic-accuracy-of-functional-imaging-and-biochemical-tests-for-patients-presenting-with-chest-pain-to-the-emergency-department-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Mario Iannaccone, Sebastiano Gili, Ovidio De Filippo, Salvatore D'Amico, Marco Gagliardi, Maurizio Bertaina, Silvia Mazzilli, Sara Rettegno, Federica Bongiovanni, Paolo Gatti, Fabrizio Ugo, Giacomo G Boccuzzi, Salvatore Colangelo, Silvia Prato, Claudio Moretti, Maurizio D'Amico, Patrizia Noussan, Roberto Garbo, David Hildick-Smith, Fiorenzo Gaita, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ischaemia tests and biomarkers are widely adopted to rule out acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department. Their diagnostic accuracy has yet to be precisely defined. METHODS: Medline, Cochrane Library CENTRAL, EMBASE and Biomed Central were systematically screened (start date 1 September 2016, end date 1 December 2016). Prospective studies (observational or randomised controlled trial) comparing functional/imaging or biochemical tests for patients presenting with chest pain to the emergency department were included...
January 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331491/investigating-the-relationship-between-cardiac-interoception-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-using-a-predictive-coding-framework
#3
Andrew P Owens, Karl J Friston, David A Low, Christopher J Mathias, Hugo D Critchley
Predictive coding models, such as the 'free-energy principle' (FEP), have recently been discussed in relation to how interoceptive (afferent visceral feedback) signals update predictions about the state of the body, thereby driving autonomic mediation of homeostasis. This study appealed to 'interoceptive inference', under the FEP, to seek new insights into autonomic (dys)function and brain-body integration by examining the relationship between cardiac interoception and autonomic cardiac control in healthy controls and patients with forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI); to (i) seek empirical support for interoceptive inference and (ii) delineate if this relationship was sensitive to increased interoceptive prediction error in OI patients during head-up tilt (HUT)/symptom provocation...
January 9, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328521/the-central-vein-sign-differentiates-ms-from-cns-inflammatory-vasculopathies
#4
Pietro Maggi, Martina Absinta, Matteo Grammatico, Luisa Vuolo, Giacomo Emmi, Giovanna Carlucci, Gregorio Spagni, Alessandro Barilaro, Anna Maria Repice, Lorenzo Emmi, Domenico Prisco, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Niloufar Sadeghi, Gaetano Perrotta, Pascal Sati, Bernard Dachy, Daniel S Reich, Massimo Filippi, Luca Massacesi
OBJECTIVES: In multiple sclerosis (MS), MRI is a sensitive tool for detecting white matter lesions, but its diagnostic specificity is still suboptimal; ambiguous cases are frequent in clinical practice. Detection of perivenular lesions in the brain (the "central vein sign") improves the pathological specificity of MS diagnosis, but comprehensive evaluation of this MRI biomarker in MS-mimicking inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases, such as CNS inflammatory vasculopathies, is missing...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323787/inhibition-of-uvssa-ubiquitination-suppresses-transcription-coupled-nucleotide-excision-repair-deficiency-caused-by-dissociation-from-usp7
#5
Mitsuru Higa, Kiyoji Tanaka, Masafumi Saijo
Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) is a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair that efficiently removes transcription-blocking DNA damage from the transcribed strands of active genes. UVSSA is a causative gene for UV-sensitive syndrome (UVS S), which is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to UV light and deficiency in TC-NER. UV-stimulated scaffold protein A (UVSSA), the product of UVSSA, forms a complex with ubiquitin-specific peptidase 7 (USP7) and is stabilized by interaction with USP7...
January 11, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306246/hyperbolic-relation-between-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-malaria-influenza-helicobacter-pylori-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-induced-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-temporary-insulin-resistance
#6
Jean Bosco Kasiam Lasi On'kin, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza, Venant Tchokonte-Nana, Augustin Nge Okwe, Nelly Kangola Kabangu
Background/aim: We calculated the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) for estimating insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in normal, healthy nondiabetics with infections (malaria, influenza, HIV, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and hepatitis C virus), type 2 diabetic black patients, and healthy controls from Kinshasa, DR Congo. Materials and methods: A case-control study was carried out between 2006 and 2007 for black Central African participants managed for HOMA.Results: In total, 219 patients and 110 healthy controls were matched for sex and age...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285568/characterization-of-migraineurs-presenting-interictal-widespread-pressure-hyperalgesia-identified-using-a-tender-point-count-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Toshihide Toriyama, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Kazuhiro Hongo
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs exhibit pain hypersensitivity throughout the body during and between migraine headaches. Migraine is classified as a central sensitivity syndrome, typified by fibromyalgia showing widespread pressure hyperalgesia determined by a tender point. This study was performed to examine whether: 1) there is a subgroup of episodic migraineurs with widespread pressure hyperalgesia during and between attacks; 2) if such a subgroup exists, what is the prevalence and what is the difference between groups with interictal widespread hyperalgesia and acute allodynia regarding the demographic and clinical characteristics of migraine...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284058/metabolically-healthy-obese-individuals-present-similar-chronic-inflammation-level-but-less-insulin-resistance-than-obese-individuals-with-metabolic-syndrome
#8
Andrea Elena Iglesias Molli, Alberto Penas Steinhardt, Ariel Pablo López, Claudio Daniel González, Jorge Vilariño, Gustavo Daniel Frechtel, Gloria Edith Cerrone
The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, usually accompanied by the presence of insulin resistance (IR) and a systemic subclinical inflammation state. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals seem to be protected against cardiometabolic complications. The aim of this work was to characterize phenotypically the low-grade inflammation and the IR in MHO individuals in comparison to obese individuals with MetS and control non obese. We studied two different populations: 940 individuals from the general population of Buenos Aires and 518 individuals from the general population of Venado Tuerto; grouped in three groups: metabolically healthy non-obese individuals (MHNO), MHO and obese individuals with MetS (MSO)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275133/inert-gas-washout-in-bronchiolitis-obliterans-following-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#9
Sylvia Nyilas, Luzia Baumeler, Michael Tamm, Jörg P Halter, Spasenija Savic, Insa Korten, Anja Meyer, Florian Singer, Jakob R Passweg, Philipp Latzin, Daiana Stolz
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) syndrome is a leading cause of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) and is associated with mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). Nitrogen multiple breath washout test (N2-MBW) measures ventilation inhomogeneity, a biomarker of central and peripheral airways obstruction. The aim of the study was to examine ventilation inhomogeneity according to cGvHD score and histologically defined BO. METHODS: This single center prospective cross-sectional study included 225 adults (mean age 52...
December 21, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274121/brain-metabolic-sensing-and-metabolic-signaling-at-the-level-of-an-astrocyte
#10
Nephtali Marina, Egor Turovsky, Isabel N Christie, Patrick S Hosford, Anna Hadjihambi, Alla Korsak, Richard Ang, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Shahriar Sheikhbahaei, Shefeeq M Theparambil, Alexander V Gourine
Astrocytes support neuronal function by providing essential structural and nutritional support, neurotransmitter trafficking and recycling and may also contribute to brain information processing. In this article we review published results and report new data suggesting that astrocytes function as versatile metabolic sensors of central nervous system (CNS) milieu and play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolic homeostasis. We discuss anatomical and functional features of astrocytes that allow them to detect and respond to changes in the brain parenchymal levels of metabolic substrates (oxygen and glucose), and metabolic waste products (carbon dioxide)...
December 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258584/lymphocyte-opioid-receptors-as-innovative-biomarkers-of-osteoarthritic-pain-for-the-assessment-and-risk-management-of-opioid-tailored-therapy-before-hip-surgery-to-prevent-chronic-pain-and-opioid-tolerance-addiction-development-opmarkart-opioids-markers-arthroprosthesis
#11
Valentina Malafoglia, Monica Celi, Carolina Muscoli, Sara Ilari, Filomena Lauro, Luigino Antonio Giancotti, Chiara Morabito, Maurizio Feola, Umberto Tarantino, William Raffaeli
BACKGROUND: The incidence of post-surgical chronic pain ranges between 20% and 40% in Europe. Osteoarthritis pain after prosthesis implantation is one of the most severe secondary syndromes, depending not only on surgery but also on organic changes before and after joints replacement. No data are available about risk factors. An excessive inflammatory response plays a central role but a best therapy is not defined yet. It is not clear whether opioid administration could influence post-surgical pain and lead to tolerance or addiction...
December 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250967/-emergency-diagnosis-of-the-acute-vestibular-syndrome
#12
T László Tamás, Tibor Garai, István Király, Andrea Mike, Csaba Nagy, Ágnes Paukovics, Péter Schmidt, Ferenc Szatmári, Tamás Tompos, Árpád Vadvári, Ágnes Szirmai
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: To diagnose acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) in a prospective study by a new bedside test (providing 1A evidence) based on oculomotor analysis and assessment of hearing loss. To assess the frequency of central and peripheral causes of acute vestibular syndrome in the emergency room. To establish the diagnostic accuracy of acute cranial computed tomography as compared to oculomotor analysis done by video oculography goggles and audiometry. METHOD: Between 1st March 2016 and 1st March 2017 we documented 125 patients (62 women, 63 men, average age 53 years) in the emergency room of the Petz Aladár County Teaching Hospital using the above bedside and instrumental testing...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249648/congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-an-overview-of-etiopathogenesis-associated-pathologies-clinical-presentation-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Saher Zaidi, Jason Gandhi, Sohrab Vatsia, Noel L Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), known colloquially as Ondine's curse, is a rare disorder characterized by impaired autonomic control of breathing during sleep from the loss of vagal input and diminished sensitivity of CO2 receptors in the medulla. CCHS correlates to the malformation of the neural crest located in the brainstem; this consequently affects the loss of sensitivity of CO2 chemoreceptors, bringing about hypoventilation during sleep. The primary cause of CCHS is the mutation of the paired-like homeobox PHO2XB gene, found in 90% of the patients...
November 13, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247753/effects-of-exercise-training-on-restless-legs-syndrome-depression-sleep-quality-and-fatigue-among-hemodialysis-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Yuan-Yuan Song, Ru-Jun Hu, Yong-Shu Diao, Lin Chen, Xiao-Lian Jiang
CONTEXT: Hemodialysis patients experience a heavy symptom burden that leads to a decreased quality of life. Pharmacological treatment is effective but costly and has adverse effects. Exercise is a promising approach for symptom management, but the effect of exercise on restless legs syndrome, depression, sleep quality and fatigue in hemodialysis patients is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis was conducted to identify whether exercise training is beneficial in the treatment of the symptoms of restless legs syndrome, depression, poor sleep quality, and fatigue in patients receiving hemodialysis...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241593/rapid-differential-diagnosis-of-diabetes-insipidus-in-a-7-month-old-infant-the-copeptin-approach
#15
J Vergier, J Fromonot, A Alvares De Azevedo Macedo, A Godefroy, E Marquant, R Guieu, M Tsimaratos, R Reynaud
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes insipidus is characterized by hypoosmotic polyuria related to deficiency of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) secretion (central diabetes insipidus, CDI) or renal insensitivity to AVP (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, NDI). The water deprivation test with assessment of AVP activity is currently the gold standard for differential diagnosis in patients presenting polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. Nevertheless, it can be dangerous without proper surveillance and its interpretation may be challenging...
January 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234822/-acute-vestibular-syndrome-clinical-examination-outperforms-mri-in-the-detection-of-central-lesions
#16
REVIEW
F Thömke
A significant number of patients who seek medical treatment in an emergency department because of vertigo or dizziness, suffer from acute vestibular syndrome. This is characterized by sustained vertigo, horizontal or horizontal rotatory jerk nystagmus, and unsteady stance and gait. In the acute situation it is crucial to differentiate patients with a peripheral vestibular disorder from those with a central disease. A number of recent studies have shown that a structured clinical examination enables a reliable differential diagnosis of central or peripheral disorders...
December 12, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222886/salivary-cariogenic-bacteria-counts-are-associated-with-obesity-in-student-women-at-a-malaysian-university
#17
Wey-Zheng Yeo, Sheng-Pei Lim, Yee-How Say
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The counts of cariogenic bacteria lactobacilli and mutans streptococci have been studied and correlated with sugar intake. This study was to investigate the association between salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts with sweet food eating behavior and sweet sensitivity among 120 Malaysian women (101 ethnic Chinese, 19 ethnic Indians), while taking into account anthropometric and menstruation variables. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Demographics, anthropometric measurements and menstrual history were taken...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217450/cadm2-regulates-body-weight-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mice
#18
Xin Yan, Zhen Wang, Vanessa Schmidt, Anton Gauert, Thomas E Willnow, Matthias Heinig, Matthew N Poy
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is strongly linked to genes regulating neuronal signaling and function, implicating the central nervous system in the maintenance of body weight and energy metabolism. Genome-wide association studies identified significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and multiple loci near Cell adhesion molecule2 (CADM2), which encodes a mediator of synaptic signaling enriched in the brain. Here we sought to further understand the role of Cadm2 in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and weight gain...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216211/validation-of-the-japanese-version-of-the-central-sensitization-inventory-in-patients-with-musculoskeletal-disorders
#19
Katsuyoshi Tanaka, Tomohiko Nishigami, Akira Mibu, Masahiro Manfuku, Satoko Yono, Yoshikazu Shinohara, Akihito Tanabe, Rei Ono
BACKGROUND: Many musculoskeletal pain conditions are characterized by hypersensitivity, which is induced by central sensitization (CS). A questionnaire, the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI), was recently developed to help clinicians identify patients whose presenting symptoms may be related to central sensitivity syndrome (CSS). The aims of the present study were to examine criterion validity and construct validity of the Japanese version of the CSI (CSI-J), and to investigate prevalence rates of CS severity levels in patients with musculoskeletal disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#20
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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