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T cell immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534426/the-immunological-personality-of-close-relatives-of-sle-patients
#1
M R Salaman, D A Isenberg
Immunological abnormalities seen in relatives of patients with autoimmune disorders can be useful in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease since, unlike in patients, they cannot result from the disease process or drug treatment. In this article we present a brief overview of our studies of the basic immunological status of close relatives of SLE patients. We looked at blood levels of IgG, IgM and antibodies to double-stranded DNA, as well as at NK cell numbers and cytotoxic activity and the levels of NKT, B and T cells...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533125/markers-of-immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-brains-of-young-adults-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-fatal-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-a-difference
#2
William H Hoffman, Carol M Artlett, Dallas Boodhoo, Mary G F Gilliland, Luis Ortiz, Dries Mulder, David H T Tjan, Alvaro Martin, Alexandru Tatomir, Horea Rus
Due to the limited data on diabetic ketoacidosis and brain edema (DKA/BE) in children/adolescents and the lack of recent data on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we addressed the question of whether neuroinflammation was present in the fatal DKA of adults. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies on the brains of two young adults with T1D and fatal DKA and compared them with two teenagers with poorly controlled diabetes and fatal DKA. C5b-9, the membrane attack complex (MAC) had significantly greater deposits in the grey and white matter of the teenagers than the young adults (p=0...
May 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532625/v-d-j-recombination-exploits-dna-damage-responses-to-promote-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Rahul Arya, Craig H Bassing
It has been recognized for 40 years that the variable (diversity) joining [V(D)J] recombination-mediated assembly of diverse B and T lymphocyte antigen receptor (AgR) genes is not only essential for adaptive immunity, but also a risk for autoimmunity and lymphoid malignancies. Over the past few years, several studies have revealed that recombination-activating gene (RAG) endonuclease-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) transcend hazardous intermediates during antigen receptor gene assembly. RAG cleavage within the genomes of lymphocyte progenitors and immature lymphocytes regulates the expression of ubiquitous and lymphocyte-specific gene transcripts to control the differentiation and function of both adaptive and innate immune cell lineages...
May 19, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529947/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-hematologic-malignancies-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Matthew J Pianko, Yuzhou Liu, Srishti Bagchi, Alexander M Lesokhin
Immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized the treatment of cancer, with impressive responses seen in a broad variety of tumor types. Blockade of immune checkpoints and immune signaling antibodies has shown promise in multiple types of hematologic malignancies (HMs), with dramatic single agent responses for pembrolizumab and nivolumab in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In this review, we outline the current state of immune checkpoint blockade drug development in HMs, and discuss mechanisms of activity and resistance, and highlight potential targets in the immune tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#5
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#6
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529575/japanese-kampo-medicine-ninjin-yoeito-synergistically-enhances-tumor-vaccine-effects-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells
#7
Shun Takaku, Masumi Shimizu, Hidemi Takahashi
Although Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has been widely applied to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail, particularly regarding their role in tumor immunology. The present study investigated the antitumor effects of the Japanese Kampo medicine, ninjin'yoeito (NYT; Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang in Chinese), which was orally administered with or without an irradiated tumor cell vaccine to a subcutaneous CT26 colon carcinoma tumor model...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529323/an-immunogenic-phenotype-in-paternal-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-at-embryo-implantation-elicits-later-fetal-loss-in-mice
#8
Lachlan M Moldenhauer, Kerrilyn R Diener, John D Hayball, Sarah A Robertson
Central to pregnancy success is a state of T cell tolerance to paternal antigens, which is initiated at conception. The role and regulation of specific phenotypes of CD8(+) T cells in mediating pregnancy tolerance is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the impact on pregnancy outcome of altering the cytokine environment during maternal CD8(+) T cell priming in early pregnancy. Transgenic Act-mOVA male mice were mated to C57BL/6 (B6) females to generate fetuses expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model paternal antigen...
May 22, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527652/uveitis-induced-by-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-inhibitor-therapy-with-nivolumab-in-metastatic-melanoma-patient
#9
Hiroaki Kanno, Kyoko Ishida, Wataru Yamada, Takashi Nishida, Nobumichi Takahashi, Kiyofumi Mochizuki, Yuki Mizuno, Kanako Matsuyama, Tomoko Takahashi, Mariko Seishima
Nivolumab, a new immune checkpoint inhibitor, binds to programmed cell death-protein 1 receptors on T cell, blockades binding of its ligands, and augments the immunologic reaction against tumor cells. Augmented immune response, however, may lead to immune-related adverse events. Herein we describe a rare case of bilateral anterior uveitis induced by nivolumab treatment for metastatic melanoma. A 54-year-old woman presented with mild conjunctival redness and blurred vision two months after initiating nivolumab treatment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526573/transcriptomic-variation-of-locally-infected-skin-of-epinephelus-coioides-reveals-the-mucosal-immune-mechanism-against-cryptocaryon-irritans
#10
Yazhou Hu, Anxing Li, Yang Xu, Biao Jiang, Geling Lu, Xiaochun Luo
Fish skin is the largest immunologically active mucosal organ, providing first-line defense against external pathogens. However, the skin-associated immune mechanisms of fish are still unclear. Cryptocaryon irritans is an obligate ectoparasitic ciliated protozoan that infects almost all marine fish, and is believed to be an excellent pathogen model to study fish mucosal immunity. In this study, a de novo transcriptome assembly of Epinephelus coioides skin post C. irritans tail-infection was performed for the first time using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 system...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523920/expression-of-bovine-rotavirus-vp8-and-preparation-of-igy-antibodies-against-recombinant-vp8
#11
H S Kim, B Lee, S Y Han, Y T Jung
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in cattle and swine. Although, vaccination against this virus is an effective strategy for prevention, additional strategy to control disease is necessary. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY)-based passive immunization could be a better option in preventing this disease. Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is group A rotavirus and possesses a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The outer layer of capsid is composed of two proteins (VP7 and VP4), which induce virus neutralizing antibodies...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521800/immunogenicity-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-the-human-chondrocytes-hchonj
#12
Chae-Lyul Lim, Yeon-Ju Lee, Jong-Ho Cho, Heonsik Choi, Bumsup Lee, Myung Chul Lee, Sujeong Kim
BACKGROUND: Invossa™ (TissueGene-C) is a cell and gene therapy for osteoarthritis. It is composed of primary human chondrocytes (hChonJ cells) and irradiated human chondrocytes modified to express TGF-β1 (hChonJb#7 cells). The hChonJ cells were isolated from a polydactyly donor, and TGF-β1 cDNA was delivered to the cells, generating hChonJb#7 cells. Since the cells are allogeneic, the concern of immune response against cells has been raised. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity of allogenic human chondrocyte, hChonJ cells...
May 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521429/b-cells-inhibit-the-antitumor-immunity-against-an-established-murine-fibrosarcoma
#13
Andrea Maglioco, Damián G Machuca, María Noel Badano, Paula Nannini, Gabriela V Camerano, Héctor Costa, Roberto Meiss, Raúl A Ruggiero, Mirta Giordano, Graciela I Dran
Despite the classic role of B cells in favoring the immune response, an inhibitory action of B lymphocytes in tumor immunity has emerged in certain studies. In methylcolanthrene-induced murine fibrosarcoma (MCC), the loss of immunogenicity and the establishment of tolerance are paralleled by systemic immune suppression and the appearance of B(+)IL-10(+) cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. The present study aimed to assess the role of the B(+)IL-10(+) cell population in the immune evasion and tolerance induced by MCC through the depletion of B cells in mice at various times of tumor progression: Prior to or subsequent to tumor implantation...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520183/infected-malnourished-children-displayed-changes-in-early-activation-and-lymphocyte-subpopulations
#14
Oralia Nájera-Medina, Fernando Valencia-Chavarría, Consuelo Cortés-Bejar, Monika Palacios-Martínez, C Paulina Rodríguez-López, María Cristina González-Torres
AIM: Malnutrition and infections cause immunological changes in lymphocyte subpopulations and their functionality. We evaluated the activation capacity of lymphocytes and memory cells in 10 well nourished, seven well nourished infected and eight malnourished infected children before and after treatment. METHODS: All the children were patients in Mexico City and were less than three years of age. The expression of various cluster of differentiation (CD) cells were assessed by flow cytometry: CD45RA (naïve) and CD45RO (memory) antigens on CD4 lymphocytes and CD69 in all lymphocytes...
May 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515726/comparative-analysis-of-immune-checkpoint-molecules-and-their-potential-role-in-the-transmissible-tasmanian-devil-facial-tumor-disease
#15
Andrew S Flies, Nicholas B Blackburn, Alan Bruce Lyons, John D Hayball, Gregory M Woods
Immune checkpoint molecules function as a system of checks and balances that enhance or inhibit immune responses to infectious agents, foreign tissues, and cancerous cells. Immunotherapies that target immune checkpoint molecules, particularly the inhibitory molecules programmed cell death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), have revolutionized human oncology in recent years, yet little is known about these key immune signaling molecules in species other than primates and rodents. The Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease is caused by transmissible cancers that have resulted in a massive decline in the wild Tasmanian devil population...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514665/systems-analysis-reveals-high-genetic-and-antigen-driven-predetermination-of-antibody-repertoires-throughout-b-cell-development
#16
Victor Greiff, Ulrike Menzel, Enkelejda Miho, Cédric Weber, René Riedel, Skylar Cook, Atijeh Valai, Telma Lopes, Andreas Radbruch, Thomas H Winkler, Sai T Reddy
Antibody repertoire diversity and plasticity is crucial for broad protective immunity. Repertoires change in size and diversity across multiple B cell developmental stages and in response to antigen exposure. However, we still lack fundamental quantitative understanding of the extent to which repertoire diversity is predetermined. Therefore, we implemented a systems immunology framework for quantifying repertoire predetermination on three distinct levels: (1) B cell development (pre-B cell, naive B cell, plasma cell), (2) antigen exposure (three structurally different proteins), and (3) four antibody repertoire components (V-gene usage, clonal expansion, clonal diversity, repertoire size) extracted from antibody repertoire sequencing data (400 million reads)...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514363/-the-immunological-characteristics-and-enzymatic-activity-of-lymphocytes-from-the-peripheral-blood-of-the-children-presenting-with-pharyngeal-tonsillar-hypertrophy
#17
L M Kurtasova, N A Shakina, T V Lubnina, A I Nikolaeva
The objective of the present work was to study the immunological characteristics and activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases in peripheral blood lymphocytes in the young children presenting with pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy (PTH). A total of 57 children at the age from 1 to 3 years with PTH were available for the examination. The control group was comprised of 35 age-matched practically healthy children. The amount of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+/56-, and CD19+ cells in the peripheral blood was determined with the use of the cytoflowmetric technique...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513595/hiv-2-infection-is-associated-with-preserved-galt-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity-despite-ongoing-mucosal-viral-replication
#18
S M Fernandes, A R Pires, P Matoso, C Ferreira, H Nunes-Cabaço, L Correia, E Valadas, J Poças, P Pacheco, H Veiga-Fernandes, R B Foxall, A E Sousa
The mechanisms that enable preservation of gut mucosal integrity during persistent viral replication and inherent inflammation remain unclear. Here, we investigated, for the first time, gut homeostasis in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease. We found viral replication in both sigmoid and ileum of asymptomatic HIV-2+ patients (range: 240-851 circulating CD4+T-cells per μl) despite their undetectable viremia, accompanied by interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cell expansion, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513594/regionally-compartmentalized-resident-memory-t-cells-mediate-naturally-acquired-protection-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#19
N Ms Smith, G A Wasserman, F T Coleman, K L Hilliard, K Yamamoto, E Lipsitz, R Malley, H Dooms, M R Jones, L J Quinton, J P Mizgerd
As children age, they become less susceptible to the diverse microbes causing pneumonia. These microbes are pathobionts that infect the respiratory tract multiple times during childhood, generating immunological memory. To elucidate mechanisms of such naturally acquired immune protection against pneumonia, we modeled a relevant immunological history in mice by infecting their airways with mismatched serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Previous pneumococcal infections provided protection against a heterotypic, highly virulent pneumococcus, as evidenced by reduced bacterial burdens and long-term sterilizing immunity...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513593/jak3-deficiency-blocks-innate-lymphoid-cell-development
#20
M L Robinette, M Cella, J B Telliez, T K Ulland, A D Barrow, K Capuder, S Gilfillan, L-L Lin, L D Notarangelo, M Colonna
Loss-of-function mutations in the tyrosine kinase JAK3 cause autosomal recessive severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Defects in this form of SCID are restricted to the immune system, which led to the development of immunosuppressive JAK inhibitors. We find that the B6.Cg-Nr1d1(tm1Ven)/LazJ mouse line purchased from Jackson Laboratories harbors a spontaneous mutation in Jak3, generating a SCID phenotype and an inability to generate antigen-independent professional cytokine-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs)...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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