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Crash 3

Lynn Babcock, Cody S Olsen, David M Jaffe, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179)...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Jagnoor Jagnoor, Annelies De Wolf, Michael Nicholas, Chris G Maher, Petrina Casey, Fiona Blyth, Ian A Harris, Ian D Cameron
BACKGROUND: We sought to identify the role of pre-injury socio-demographic and health characteristics, and injury severity in determining health-related quality-of-life outcomes for mild to moderate injuries 2 months after a motor vehicle crash in a compensable setting. METHODS: People aged 17 years and older, injured with a New Injury Severity Score of 8 or less, in a motor vehicle crash in New South Wales and who had registered a claim with the Compulsory Third Party Insurance scheme from March to December 2010 were contacted to participate in the study...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Eli Raneses, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: Recent efforts to pass rear seat belt laws for adults have been hampered by large gaps in the scientific literature. This study examines driver, vehicle, crash, and passenger characteristics associated with mortality in rear-seated adult passengers. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) 2010 to 2011 was used to examine motor vehicle occupant mortality in rear-seated adult passengers 18 years and older. Side crash vehicle safety ratings were assessed in a subset analysis of vehicles struck on the same side as the rear-seated passenger...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Chang Liu, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: Most studies of rear-seated occupants have focused on or included pediatric occupants which may not translate to adults. This study examines passenger, driver, vehicle and crash characteristics for rear-seated adult occupants involved in side crashes. METHODS: The National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS/GES) for calendar years 2011-2014 was used with accompanying weights to examine the occupant, vehicle and crash characteristics associated with injury in rear-seated adults (n = 395,504) involved in a side crash...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Chang Liu, Yanlan Huang, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008-2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs (n = 79,932)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Allison E Curry, Melissa R Pfeiffer, Michael R Elliott
INTRODUCTION: Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is the most effective strategy to reduce the burden of young driver crashes, but the extent to which young intermediate (newly licensed) drivers comply with, and police enforce, important GDL passenger and night-time restrictions is largely unknown. Population-level rates of intermediate drivers' compliance were estimated as well as police enforcement among crash-involved drivers who were noncompliant. METHODS: New Jersey's statewide driver licensing and crash databases were individually linked...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Charlotte C Gupta, Jill Dorrian, Crystal L Grant, Maja Pajcin, Alison M Coates, David J Kennaway, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn, Chris B Della Vedova, Siobhan Banks
Shiftworkers have impaired performance when driving at night and they also alter their eating patterns during nightshifts. However, it is unknown whether driving at night is influenced by the timing of eating. This study aims to explore the effects of timing of eating on simulated driving performance across four simulated nightshifts. Healthy, non-shiftworking males aged 18-35 years (n = 10) were allocated to either an eating at night (n = 5) or no eating at night (n = 5) condition. During the simulated nightshifts at 1730, 2030 and 0300 h, participants performed a 40-min driving simulation, 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), and recorded their ratings of sleepiness on a subjective scale...
October 13, 2016: Chronobiology International
Bamini Gopinath, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Ian A Harris, Michael Nicholas, Petrina Casey, Fiona Blyth, Christopher G Maher, Ian D Cameron
OBJECTIVES: A better understanding of the long-term factors that independently predict poorer quality of life following mild to moderate musculoskeletal injuries is needed. We aimed to establish the predictors of quality of life (including, socio-demographic, health, psychosocial and pre-injury factors), 24 months after a non-catastrophic road-traffic injury. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 252 participants with mild/ moderate injury sustained in a road traffic crash, had quality of life measured 24 months following baseline survey...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Meike J Wittmann, Hanna Stuis, Dirk Metzler
1.It is now widely accepted that genetic processes such as inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variation can increase the extinction risk of small populations. However, it is generally unclear whether extinction risk from genetic causes gradually increases with decreasing population size or whether there is a sharp transition around a specific threshold population size. In the ecological literature, such threshold phenomena are called "strong Allee effects" and they can arise for example from mate limitation in small populations...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Michelle A Schafman, Yun-Seok Kang, Kevin Moorhouse, Susan E White, John H Bolte, Amanda M Agnew
Thoracic injuries from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are common in children and the elderly and are associated with a high rate of mortality for both groups. Rib fractures, in particular, are linked to high mortality rates which increase with the number of fractures sustained. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and computational models have been developed to improve vehicle safety, however these tools are constructed based on limited physical datasets. To-date, no study has explored variation of rib structural properties across the entire age spectrum with data obtained using the same experimental methodology to allow for comparison...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Ali Khorshidi, Elaheh Ainy, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Hamid Soori
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran...
June 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
Joonbum Lee, Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Kazutoshi Ebe, Joseph F Coughlin
OBJECTIVE: Research has established that long off-road glances increase crash risk, and other work has shown increased off-road glance behavior in older drivers. This study investigated the relationship between older drivers' (M = 66.3, range 61-69 years) cognitive abilities and the duration of off-road glances while engaged in secondary visual-manual activities. METHOD: Twenty-two drivers completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to driving an instrumented vehicle and completing a set of radio-tuning tasks...
October 3, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
M Kit Delgado, Kathryn J Wanner, Catherine McDonald
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16-19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially...
June 16, 2016: Media Commun
Jason D Woodfine, Deva Thiruchelvam, Donald A Redelmeier
BACKGROUND: Off-road vehicles are popular and thrilling for youth outside urban settings, yet sometimes result in a serious crash that requires emergency medical care. The relation between birthdays and the subsequent risk of an off-road vehicle crash is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a population-based before-and-after longitudinal analysis of youth who received emergency medical care in Ontario, Canada, due to an off-road vehicle crash between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2014...
2016: PloS One
Chris Smolen, Cheryl E Quenneville
The foot-ankle complex is frequently injured in a wide array of debilitating events such as car crashes. Numerical models and experimental tests have been used to assess injury risk, but most do not account for the variations in ankle posture that frequently occur during these events. In this study, the positions of the bones of the foot-ankle complex (particularly, the hindfoot) were quantified over a range of postures. Computed tomography scans were taken of a male cadaveric leg under axial loading with the ankle in five postures in which fractures are commonly reported...
September 30, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Benjamin S Elkin, James M Elliott, Gunter P Siegmund
Study Design Finite element modeling of experimental data. Background The clinical presentations of whiplash injury and concussion have considerable overlap. Both diagnoses are generally based on presenting signs and symptoms, and a history of neck or head trauma. With incomplete knowledge of the trauma, differentiating between whiplash injury and concussion can be clinically challenging. Objectives To estimate the brain strains that develop during rear-end car crashes, evaluate how these strains vary with different head kinematic parameters, and compare these strains to those generated during potentially concussive football helmet impacts...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Sebastian Decker, Dietmar Otte, Christian Walter Muller, Mohamed Omar, Christian Krettek, Carl Haasper, Stephan Brand
BACKGROUND: While cyclists and pedestrians are known to be at significant risk for severe injuries when exposed to road traffic accidents (RTA) involving trucks, little is known about RTA injury risk for truck drivers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the injury severity in truck drivers following RTAs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our local accident research unit prospectively documented 43000 RTAs involving 582 trucks between 2000 and 2011...
June 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
Marion Prigent, Sylvain Brochard, Mathias Thepaut, Christian Lefèvre, Dominique Le Nen, Thierry Cornic, Marie-Thérèse Cariou, Catherine Le Rouzic, Phlippe Le Moine, Christelle Pons, Laetitia Houx
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic lower limb amputation is rare in pediatric population, and surgeons always try limb salvage. But rarely, later amputation occurred when the traumatic limb is painful. It is a difficult and irreversible decision needed a multidisciplinary approach. We report how we managed a programmed trans-tibial amputation on 13-years-old boy, 20 months after a foot trauma. OBSERVATIONS: Our patient is an adolescent victim of a left foot crash. The first checkup showed a degloving injury, dislocation of the interphalangeal joints and of all toes...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Matej Orešič, Jussi P Posti, Maja H Kamstrup-Nielsen, Riikka S K Takala, Hester F Lingsma, Ismo Mattila, Sirkku Jäntti, Ari J Katila, Keri L H Carpenter, Henna Ala-Seppälä, Anna Kyllönen, Henna-Riikka Maanpää, Jussi Tallus, Jonathan P Coles, Iiro Heino, Janek Frantzén, Peter J Hutchinson, David K Menon, Olli Tenovuo, Tuulia Hyötyläinen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. TBI is an example of a medical condition where there are still major lacks in diagnostics and outcome prediction. Here we apply comprehensive metabolic profiling of serum samples from TBI patients and controls in two independent cohorts. The discovery study included 144 TBI patients, with the samples taken at the time of hospitalization. The patients were diagnosed as severe (sTBI; n=22), moderate (moTBI; n=14) or mild TBI (mTBI; n=108) according to Glasgow Coma Scale...
July 15, 2016: EBioMedicine
Stacy A Voils, Stephen J Lemon, Janeen Jordan, Paul Riley, Reginald Frye
: Incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult trauma patients is high despite mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis. We hypothesized that thrombin formation capacity as measured by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) is increased early in hospitalization and is associated with the development of VTE. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in adult, critically ill trauma patients. Plasma was generated from whole blood samples collected within the first 3days of hospital admission...
September 20, 2016: Thrombosis Research
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