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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103303/driving-with-intuition-a-preregistered-study-about-the-eeg-anticipation-of-simulated-random-car-accidents
#1
Gian Marco Duma, Giovanni Mento, Tommaso Manari, Massimiliano Martinelli, Patrizio Tressoldi
The study of neural pre-stimulus or "anticipatory" activity opened a new window for understanding how the brain actively constructs the forthcoming reality. Usually, experimental paradigms designed to study anticipatory activity make use of stimuli. The purpose of the present study is to expand the study of neural anticipatory activity upon the temporal occurrence of dichotomic, statistically unpredictable (random) stimuli within an ecological experimental paradigm. To this purpose, we used a simplified driving simulation including two possible, randomly-presented trial types: a car crash end trial and a no car crash end trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102701/the-effect-of-pre-crash-velocity-reduction-on-occupant-response-using-a-human-body-finite-element-model
#2
B Guleyupoglu, J Schap, K D Kusano, F S Gayzik
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an ATD to evaluate the effect of simulated pre-crash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads and computed injury criteria in four commonly-injured body regions. METHODS: The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid-III 50(th) percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced three point belt and driver airbag...
January 19, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099505/evaluation-of-6-and-10-year-old-child-human-body-models-in-emergency-events
#3
Laure-Lise Gras, Isabelle Stockman, Karin Brolin
Emergency events can influence a child's kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs-MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models-were evaluated and compared with child volunteers' data during emergency events-braking and steering-with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095031/the-role-of-drug-and-alcohol-use-and-the-risk-of-motor-vehicle-crashes-in-shiraz-iran-2014-a-case-crossover-study
#4
Narges Khanjani, Masoomeh Mousavi, Amirreza Dehghanian, Yunes Jahani, Hamid Souri
BACKGROUND: Traffic accidents and traffic-related injuries and mortality have become a major public health concern over the current years in Iran. This study aimed to examine the role of drug and alcohol use in motor vehicle accidents in Iran. METHODS: This case-crossover study was conducted on 441 drivers who survived from a road traffic crash and were taken to the emergency department of Shahid Rajaee trauma hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran. Data were collected using checklists which included demographic characteristics and drug and alcohol use prior to driving...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095025/the-influence-of-personal-protection-equipment-occupant-body-size-and-restraint-system-on-the-frontal-impact-responses-of-hybrid-iii-atds-in-tactical-vehicles
#5
Lauren Wood Zaseck, Nichole Ritchie Orton, Rebekah Gruber, Jonathan Rupp, Risa Scherer, Matthew Reed, Jingwen Hu
OBJECTIVE: Although advanced restraint systems, such as seatbelt pretensioners, and load limiters, can provide improved occupant protection in crashes, such technologies are currently not utilized in military vehicles. The design and use of military vehicles presents unique challenges to occupant safety - including differences in compartment geometry and occupant clothing and gear - that make direct application of optimal civilian restraint systems to military vehicles inappropriate. For military vehicle environments, finite element (FE) modeling can be used to assess various configurations of restraint systems and determine the optimal configuration that minimizes injury risk to the occupant...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079676/multiple-conditions-increase-preventable-crash-risks-among-truck-drivers-in-a-cohort-study
#6
Matthew S Thiese, Richard J Hanowski, Stefanos N Kales, Richard J Porter, Gary Moffitt, Nan Hu, Kurt T Hegmann
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to quantify the crash risk for truck drivers with multiple comorbid medical conditions, after adjusting for confounders. METHODS: This retrospective cohort of 38,184 drivers evaluated concomitant medical conditions and subsequent crash data between January 1, 2005, and October 31, 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for any cause and preventable crashes of varying severity. RESULTS: Drivers with three or more medical conditions had a significantly increased risk of preventable Department of Transportation (DOT) reportable crashes (HR = 2...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070214/youth-traffic-related-injuries-a-prospective-study
#7
Michal Grivna, Hani O Eid, Fikri M Abu-Zidan
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related injuries are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality of the youth. Our aim was to study epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of hospitalized youth patients injured in road traffic collisions in order to give recommendations for prevention. METHODS: We prospectively studied all youth (15-24 years) patients having traffic-related injuries who were admitted to Al Ain or Tawam Hospitals, Al Ain City, or who died after arrival to these hospitals during an 18 months period...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064100/evaluating-the-effects-of-supplemental-rest-areas-on-freeway-crashes-caused-by-drowsy-driving
#8
Soyoung Jung, Shinhye Joo, Cheol Oh
To prevent crashes caused by drowsy driving, supplemental rest areas have been installed in the South Korean freeway system to allow road users to rest. These supplemental rest areas are very small-sized resting facilities located between the larger regular rest areas, which is a unique design. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the supplemental rest areas on reducing crashes caused by drowsy driving. Between 2011 and 2012, supplemental rest areas were first installed in the Gyeongbu Freeway, which was selected as the study area for this study...
January 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062721/vascular-risk-factors-in-inph-a-prospective-case-control-study-the-inph-crash-study
#9
Hanna Israelsson, Bo Carlberg, Carsten Wikkelsö, Katarina Laurell, Babar Kahlon, Göran Leijon, Anders Eklund, Jan Malm
OBJECTIVE: To assess the complete vascular risk factor (VRF) profile of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using a large sample of representative patients with INPH and population-based controls to determine the extent to which vascular disease influences INPH pathophysiology. METHODS: All patients with INPH who underwent shunting in Sweden in 2008-2010 were compared to age- and sex-matched population-based controls. Inclusion criteria were age 60-85 years and no dementia...
January 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055229/airbag-deployment-related-eye-injuries
#10
Tapio Antero Koisaari, Tiina Leivo, Ahmad Sahraravand, Anna-Kaisa Haavisto, Pekka Sulander, Timo M T Tervo
OBJECTIVE We studied the correlation between airbag deployment and eye injuries using two different data sets. METHODS The registry of the Finnish Road Accident (FRA) Investigation Teams (RAIT) was analyzed to study severe head- and eyewear-related injuries. All fatal passenger car or van accidents that occurred during the years 2009-12 (4 years) were included (n = 734). Cases in which the driver's front airbag was deployed were subjected to analysis (n = 409). To determine the proportion of minor, potentially airbag-related eye injuries, the results were compared to the data for all new eye injury patients (n = 1151) recorded at the Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH) during one year, from 1...
January 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026729/-traumatic-thrombosis-of-the-renal-artery-following-seat-belt-injury
#11
B Čertík, V Třeška, J Bierhanzlová, J Matějka, J Zeman, T Matějka
Renal artery thrombosis is a rare complication of blunt abdominal injury. It occurs most frequently in car accidents in which sudden deceleration results in multiple internal injuries. Renal artery occlusion occurs rarely as an isolated blunt trauma. This report presents a case of traumatic occlusion of the left renal artery with complete ischaemia of the left kidney in a haemodynamically stable girl who suffered multiple seat-belt injuries in a car crash. Ambiguous findings on a CT scan of the abdominal cavity indicated surgical inspection of the abdomen and, since the injury-to-surgery interval was short, an attempt at revascularisation of the left kidney was made...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018898/economic-costs-associated-with-motorbike-accidents-in-kathmandu-nepal
#12
Diksha Sapkota, Bihungum Bista, Shiva Raj Adhikari
BACKGROUND: Road traffic accidents, considered as global tragedies, are in increasing trend; however, the safety situation is very severe in developing countries incurring substantial amount of human, economic, and social costs. Motorcycle crashes, the commonest form, occur mostly in economically active population. However, there is limited number of studies on economic burden of motorcycle crashes. This study aims to estimate the total cost and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to motorbike accidents among victims of Kathmandu Valley...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984526/incident-and-long-term-opioid-therapy-among-patients-with-psychiatric-conditions-and-medications-a-national-study-of-commercial-health-care-claims
#13
Patrick D Quinn, Kwan Hur, Zheng Chang, Erin E Krebs, Matthew J Bair, Eric L Scott, Martin E Rickert, Robert D Gibbons, Kurt Kroenke, Brian M DʼOnofrio
There is growing evidence that opioid prescribing in the United States follows a pattern in which patients who are at the highest risk of adverse outcomes from opioids are more likely to receive long-term opioid therapy. These patients include, in particular, those with substance use disorders (SUDs) and other psychiatric conditions. This study examined health insurance claims among 10,311,961 patients who filled prescriptions for opioids. Specifically, we evaluated how opioid receipt differed among patients with and without a wide range of preexisting psychiatric and behavioral conditions (ie, opioid and nonopioid SUDs, suicide attempts or other self-injury, motor vehicle crashes, and depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders) and psychoactive medications (ie, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and medications used for SUD, tobacco cessation, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder)...
January 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978593/fetal-neurosonogaphy-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-competition
#14
S Tercanli, F Prüfer
Both in routine diagnostics and detailed, highly specialized workups, major advances have been observed in many areas of ultrasound due to an increase in expertise and improved technology in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of fetal neurosonography 1 2 3 4. Malformations of the CNS together with fetal heart defects are among the most common congenital anomalies. From the embryonic phase to the late third trimester, the CNS undergoes extensive development and maturation processes. The diagnosis of CNS anomalies is therefore primarily dependent on the time at which the examination is performed and the experience of the examiner...
December 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974043/airplane-pilot-mental-health-and-suicidal-thoughts-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study-via-anonymous-web-based-survey
#15
Alexander C Wu, Deborah Donnelly-McLay, Marc G Weisskopf, Eileen McNeely, Theresa S Betancourt, Joseph G Allen
BACKGROUND: The Germanwings Flight 9525 crash has brought the sensitive subject of airline pilot mental health to the forefront in aviation. Globally, 350 million people suffer from depression-a common mental disorder. This study provides further information on this important topic regarding mental health especially among female airline pilots. This is the first study to describe airline pilot mental health-with a focus on depression and suicidal thoughts-outside of the information derived from aircraft accident investigations, regulated health examinations, or identifiable self-reports, which are records protected by civil aviation authorities and airline companies...
December 15, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936375/putting-adolescents-at-risk-riding-with-drinking-drivers-who-are-adults-in-the-home
#16
Sion K Harris, Julie K Johnson, Lon Sherritt, Sarah Copelas, Melissa A Rappo, Celeste R Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol-related car crashes are a leading cause of adolescent death, and one in five U.S. adolescents reports recent riding in a car with a drinking driver. How often the driver is an adult in the home (e.g., parent) is unknown. Pediatric visits offer an opportunity to counsel families to reduce this risk. Our study aim was to determine the prevalence of recent riding with a drinking driver (RWDD) who was an adult in the home among adolescent primary care patients and to identify the demographic and environmental (substance use among family members) profiles of those at increased risk...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931172/biomechanical-response-of-the-infant-head-to-shaking-an-experimental-investigation
#17
Carole A Jenny, Gina Bertocci, Tsuguhiro Fukuda, Nagarajan Rangarajan, Tariq Shams
Controversy exists regarding whether violent shaking is harmful to infants in the absence of impact. In this study, our objective was to characterize the biomechanical response of the infant head during shaking through use of an instrumented anthropomorphic test device (commonly referred to as a "crash test dummy" or surrogate) representing a human infant and having improved biofidelity. A series of tests were conducted to simulate violent shaking of an infant surrogate. The Aprica 2.5 infant surrogate represented a 5th percentile Japanese newborn...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927072/natural-history-of-headache-five-years-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Arthur Stacey, Sylvia Lucas, Sureyya Dikmen, Nancy Temkin, Kathleen R Bell, Allen Brown, Robert Brunner, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Thomas K Watanabe, Alan Weintraub, Jeanne M Hoffman
Headache is one of the most frequently reported symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known about how these headaches change over time. We describe the natural history of headache in individuals with moderate to severe TBI over 5 years after injury. A total of 316 patients were prospectively enrolled and followed at 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after injury. Individuals were 72% male, 73% white, and 55% injured in motor vehicle crashes, with an average age of 42. Pre-injury headache was reported in 17% of individuals...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922270/examining-motor-vehicle-crash-involvement-and-readiness-to-change-on-drinking-and-driving-behaviors-among-injured-emergency-department-patients
#19
Janette Baird, Eunice Yang, Valerie Strezsak, Michael J Mello
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of motor vehicle crash (MVC) involvement and readiness to change drinking and driving behaviors on subsequent driving and drinking behaviors among injured emergency department (ED) patients who use alcohol at harmful levels. METHODS: A secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial of injured ED patients who screened positive for harmful alcohol use, who at recruitment reported driving in the past 12 months and received at least one of the intended intervention sessions (brief behavioral intervention versus attention placebo control [N = 407])...
December 6, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918937/methods-to-rank-traffic-rule-violations-resulting-in-crashes-for-allocation-of-funds
#20
Praveena Penmetsa, Srinivas S Pulugurtha
Education, enforcement and engineering countermeasures are implemented to make road users comply with the traffic rules. Not all the traffic rule violations can be addressed nor countermeasures be implemented at all unsafe locations, at once, due to limited funds. Therefore, this study aims at ranking the traffic rule violations resulting in crashes based on individual ranks, such as 1) frequency (expressed as a function of the number of drivers violating a traffic rule and involved in crashes), 2) crash severity, 3) total crash cost, and, 4) cost severity index, to assist transportation system managers in prioritizing the allocation of funds and improving safety on roads...
December 2, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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