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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800763/causes-trends-and-severity-of-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-ghana
#1
Eric Lawer Torgbenu, Emmanuel K Nakua, Henry Kyei, Eric Badu, Maxwell Peprah Opoku
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal [MSK] injuries are common causes of long-term pain and physical disability which affect many people worldwide. The economic and social impacts on the individual, society and national health systems are enormous making a matter of public health concern. Therefore, this study examined the causes and extent of MSK injuries in a referral hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A prospective study design with consecutive sampling method was used to recruit patients admitted at Trauma Unit as well as those receiving orthopaedic reviews at St...
August 11, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774897/generating-a-city-s-first-report-on-bicyclist-safety-lessons-from-the-field
#2
Dahianna S Lopez, David Hemenway
BACKGROUND: For cities aiming to create a useful surveillance system for bicycle injuries, a common challenge is that city crash reporting is scattered, faulty or non-existent. We document some of the lessons we learnt in helping the city of Boston, Massachusetts, USA, do the following: (1) Create a prototype for a comprehensive police crash data set (2) Produce the city's first cyclist safety report, (3) Make crash data available to the public and (4) Generate policy recommendations for both specific roadside improvements and for sustainable changes to the police department's crash reporting database...
August 3, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771623/the-distracted-mind-on-the-wheel-overall-propensity-to-mind-wandering-is-associated-with-road-crash-responsibility
#3
Cédric Gil-Jardiné, Mélanie Née, Emmanuel Lagarde, Jonathan Schooler, Benjamin Contrand, Ludivine Orriols, Cédric Galera
The role of distractions on attentional lapses that place road users in higher risk of crash remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess the respective impact of (i) mind wandering trait (propensity to mind wander in the everyday life as measured with a set of 4 questions on the proportion of time spent mind wandering in 4 different situations) and (ii) mind wandering state (disturbing thoughts just before the crash) on road crash risk using a comparison between responsible and non-responsible drivers. 954 drivers injured in a road crash were interviewed at the adult emergency department of the Bordeaux university hospital in France (2013-2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738161/belted-driver-fatalities-time-of-death-and-risk-by-injury-severity
#4
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
PURPOSE: This study is a descriptive study of the fatality risk by injury severity and time of death for lap-shoulder belted drivers without ejection in modern vehicles. It also determined the body region for severe injuries experienced by the belted drivers using the most recent federal crash data. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was evaluated for fatally-injured lap-shoulder belted drivers without ejection in light vehicles of 1997+ model year (MY). The severity of injuries sustained by the belted drivers was assessed by MAIS and individual injuries by AIS and body region...
July 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738139/association-of-history-of-dizziness-and-long-term-adverse-outcomes-with-early-vs-later-orthostatic-hypotension-assessment-times-in-middle-aged-adults
#5
Stephen P Juraschek, Natalie Daya, Andreea M Rawlings, Lawrence J Appel, Edgar R Miller, B Gwen Windham, Michael E Griswold, Gerardo Heiss, Elizabeth Selvin
Importance: Guidelines recommend assessing orthostatic hypotension (OH) 3 minutes after rising from supine to standing positions. It is not known whether measurements performed immediately after standing predict adverse events as strongly as measurements performed closer to 3 minutes. Objective: To compare early vs later OH measurements and their association with history of dizziness and longitudinal adverse outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective cohort study of middle-aged (range, 44-66 years) participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-1989)...
July 24, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735180/cell-phone-use-while-driving-does-peer-reported-use-predict-emerging-adult-use
#6
Neha Trivedi, Denise Haynie, Joe Bible, Danping Liu, Bruce Simons-Morton
Secondary task engagement such as cell phone use while driving is a common behavior among adolescents and emerging adults. Texting and other distracting cell phone use in this population contributes to the high rate of fatal car crashes. Peer engagement in similar risky driving behaviors, such as texting, could socially influence driver phone use behavior. The present study investigates the prospective association between peer and emerging adult texting while driving the first year after high school. Surveys were conducted with a national sample of emerging adults and their nominated peers...
July 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729903/tranexamic-acid-and-trauma-induced-coagulopathy
#7
REVIEW
Takeshi Nishida, Takahiro Kinoshita, Kazuma Yamakawa
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine that inhibits fibrinolysis by blocking the interaction of plasminogen with the lysine residues of fibrin. Historically, TXA is commonly used for reduction of blood loss in perioperative situations, while recently it has attracted attention for clinical use in the trauma field. In 2010, the Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Hemorrhage 2 (CRASH-2) trial demonstrated that intravenous administration of TXA improved mortality significantly in trauma patients with significant bleeding...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728061/qualifying-information-on-deaths-and-serious-injuries-caused-by-road-traffic-in-five-brazilian-capitals-using-record-linkage
#8
Polyana Maria Pimenta Mandacaru, Ana Lucia Andrade, Marli Souza Rocha, Fernanda Pinheiro Aguiar, Maria Sueli M Nogueira, Anne Marielle Girodo, Ana Amélia Galas Pedrosa, Vera Lídia Alves de Oliveira, Marta Maria Malheiros Alves, Lúcia Maria Miana M Paixão, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Marta Maria Alves Silva, Otaliba Libanio de Morais Neto
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic crashes (RTC) are an important public health problem, accounting for 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 40,000 deaths caused by RTC occur every year, with different trends in the Federal Units. However, these figures may be even greater if health databases are linked to police records. In addition, the linkage procedure would make it possible to qualify information from the health and police databases, improving the quality of the data regarding underlying cause of death, cause of injury in hospital records, and injury severity...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719606/prescription-medicine-use-by-pedestrians-and-the-risk-of-injurious-road-traffic-crashes-a-case-crossover-study
#9
Mélanie Née, Marta Avalos, Audrey Luxcey, Benjamin Contrand, Louis-Rachid Salmi, Annie Fourrier-Réglat, Blandine Gadegbeku, Emmanuel Lagarde, Ludivine Orriols
BACKGROUND: While some medicinal drugs have been found to affect driving ability, no study has investigated whether a relationship exists between these medicines and crashes involving pedestrians. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of being involved in a road traffic crash as a pedestrian. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from 3 French nationwide databases were matched. We used the case-crossover design to control for time-invariant factors by using each case as its own control...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716291/similarities-between-large-animal-related-and-motor-vehicle-crash-related-injuries
#10
Abigail M Tremelling, Robert A Marley, Mackenzie B Marley, Christina M Woofter, Courtney Docherty, Ann E Salvator, Farid F Muakkassa
OBJECTIVE: Many Americans sustain large animal-related injuries (LARIs) from blunt trauma. We compare the injuries and management of LARI in our region of the United States with those of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). METHODS: A 15-year retrospective study of trauma patients with LARI matched to MVC controls by Injury Severity Score (ISS), age, and sex was conducted. Values were statistically compared, and differences were considered statistically significant at P < ...
July 14, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716153/a-nested-mechanistic-sub-study-into-the-effect-of-tranexamic-acid-versus-placebo-on-intracranial-haemorrhage-and-cerebral-ischaemia-in-isolated-traumatic-brain-injury-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-crash-3-trial-intracranial-bleeding-mechanistic
#11
Abda Mahmood, Ian Roberts, Haleema Shakur
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid prevents blood clots from breaking down and reduces bleeding. However, it is uncertain whether tranexamic acid is effective in traumatic brain injury. The CRASH-3 trial is a randomised controlled trial that will examine the effect of tranexamic acid (versus placebo) on death and disability in 13,000 patients with traumatic brain injury. The CRASH-3 trial hypothesizes that tranexamic acid will reduce intracranial haemorrhage, which will reduce the risk of death...
July 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705513/pediatric-all-terrain-vehicle-atv-injuries-an-epidemic-of-cost-and-grief
#12
Kent A Strohecker, Christian J Gaffney, Jove Graham, Kaan Irgit, Wade R Smith, Thomas R Bowen
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate cost of care of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related injuries sustained by riders 16 years and younger in Pennsylvania. METHODS: Population-based retrospective cohort design reviewing costs of care of 78 patients (≤16 years), admitted (01/01/2007-12/31/2009) to our institution for injuries sustained during an ATV accident. RESULTS: Cost of care varied from $322 to $310,435. Mean and median costs for all patients were $25,760 and $8,066, respectively...
July 10, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700591/trends-in-traumatic-brain-injury-mortality-in-china-2006-2013-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#13
Peixia Cheng, Peng Yin, Peishan Ning, Lijun Wang, Xunjie Cheng, Yunning Liu, David C Schwebel, Jiangmei Liu, Jinlei Qi, Guoqing Hu, Maigeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant global public health problem, but has received minimal attention from researchers and policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Epidemiological evidence of TBI morbidity and mortality is absent at the national level for most LMICs, including China. Using data from China's Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs) system, we conducted a population-based longitudinal analysis to examine TBI mortality, and mortality differences by sex, age group, location (urban/rural), and external cause of injury, from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in China...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700588/years-of-life-lost-due-to-traumatic-brain-injury-in-europe-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-16-countries
#14
Marek Majdan, Dominika Plancikova, Andrew Maas, Suzanne Polinder, Valery Feigin, Alice Theadom, Martin Rusnak, Alexandra Brazinova, Juanita Haagsma
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a major public health, medical, and societal challenge globally. They present a substantial burden to victims, their families, and the society as a whole. Although indicators such as incidence or death rates provide insight into the occurrence and outcome of TBIs in various populations, they fail to quantify the full extent of their public health and societal impact. Measures such as years of life lost (YLLs), which quantifies the number of years of life lost because the person dies prematurely due to a disease or injury, should be employed to better quantify the population impact...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696773/rail-height-effects-on-safety-performance-of-midwest-guardrail-system
#15
Mojdeh Asadollahi Pajouh, Ramen D Julin, Cody S Stolle, John D Reid, Ronald K Faller
OBJECTIVE: Guardrail heights play a crucial role in the way that errant vehicles interact with roadside barriers. Low rail heights increase the propensity of vehicle rollover and override, while excessively-tall rails promote underride. Further, rail mounting heights and post embedment depths may be altered by variations in roadside terrain. An increased guardrail height may be desirable to accommodate construction tolerances, soil erosion, frost heave, and future roadway overlays. This study aimed to investigate and identify a maximum safe installation height for the Midwest Guardrail System, which would be robust and remain crashworthy before and after pavement overlays...
July 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693353/injury-characteristics-of-low-energy-lisfranc-injuries-compared-with-high-energy-injuries
#16
Christopher H Renninger, Grant Cochran, Trevor Tompane, Joseph Bellamy, Kevin Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. METHODS: Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared...
July 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690732/maxillofacial-fractures-in-a-budding-teaching-hospital-a-study-of-pattern-of-presentation-and-care
#17
Obitade Sunday Obimakinde, Kolawole Olubunmi Ogundipe, Taopheeq Bamidele Rabiu, Victoria Nwebuni Okoje
INTRODUCTION: Previous reports indicated that there is geographic and sociodemographic variation in the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures. Audit of maxillofacial injuries managed at any institution is therefore necessary to understand the trends and proffer strategies for prevention. We therefore embarked on this study to determine the pattern of maxillofacial fractures and concomitant injuries in our institution. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of information on demography, aetiology and type of maxillofacial fracture, patients' status, type of crash, level of consciousness and concomitant injuries...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681567/a-social-media-program-to-increase-adolescent-seat-belt-use
#18
Stacy A Drake, Ni Zhang, Courtney Applewhite, Katherine Fowler, John B Holcomb
In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period...
July 6, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641683/a-review-of-general-aviation-safety-1984-2017
#19
Douglas D Boyd
General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636489/evaluation-of-countermeasures-for-red-light-running-by-traffic-simulator-based-surrogate-safety-measures
#20
Changju Lee, Jaehyun Jason So, Jiaqi Ma
OBJECTIVE: The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures by the comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis...
June 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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