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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910196/effect-of-alpinia-galanga-on-mental-alertness-and-sustained-attention-with-or-without-caffeine-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#1
Shalini Srivastava, Mark Mennemeier, Surekha Pimple
OBJECTIVE: Although Alpinia galanga has been reported to improve cognitive performance in animals, it has not been thoroughly studied for its potential psychostimulant effect in humans. A randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study was conducted to determine the effect of A galanga on mental alertness and sustained attention in comparison with caffeine and placebo in participants with a habitual caffeine intake. METHODS: Fifty-nine participants (18-40 years and body mass index of ≥18...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893148/comparative-analyses-of-bicyclists-and-motorcyclists-in-vehicle-collisions-focusing-on-head-impact-responses
#2
Xinghua Wang, Yong Peng, Shengen Yi
To investigate the differences of the head impact responses between bicyclists and motorcyclists in vehicle collisions. A series of vehicle-bicycle and vehicle-motorcycle lateral impact simulations on four vehicle types at seven vehicle speeds (30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 km/h) and three two-wheeler moving speeds (5, 7.5 and 10 km/h for bicycle, 10, 12.5 and 15 km/h for motorcycle) were established based on PC-Crash software. To further comprehensively explore the differences, additional impact scenes with other initial conditions, such as impact angle (0, π/3, 2π/3 and π) and impact position (left, middle and right part of vehicle front-end), also were supplemented...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885121/epilepsy-headache-and-abdominal-pain-after-shunt-surgery-for-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-the-inph-crash-study
#3
Jenny Larsson, Hanna Israelsson, Anders Eklund, Jan Malm
OBJECTIVE Adverse events related to shunt surgery are common and might have a negative effect on outcome in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). The authors' objectives were to establish the frequencies of epilepsy, headache, and abdominal pain and determine their impact on patient quality of life (QOL), in long-term follow-up after shunt surgery for INPH. METHODS One hundred seventy-six shunt-treated patients with INPH (mean age 74 years) and 368 age- and sex-matched controls from the population were included...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882272/using-interactive-virtual-presence-to-support-accurate-installation-of-child-restraints-efficacy-and-parental-perceptions
#4
David C Schwebel, M Alison Tillman, Marie Crew, Matthew Muller, Anna Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Child restraint systems (car seats) reduce injury risk for young children involved in motor-vehicle crashes, but parents experience significant difficulty installing child restraints correctly. Installation by certified child passenger safety (CPS) technicians yields more accurate installation, but is impractical for broad distribution. A potential solution is use of interactive virtual presence via smartphone application (app), which permits "hands on" teaching through simultaneous and remote joint exposure to 3-dimensional images...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877951/psychological-distress-following-a-motor-vehicle-crash-evidence-from-a-statewide-retrospective-study-examining-settlement-times-and-costs-of-compensation-claims
#5
Rebecca Guest, Yvonne Tran, Bamini Gopinath, Ian D Cameron, Ashley Craig
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether psychological distress associated with musculoskeletal injuries sustained in a motor vehicle crash (MVC), regardless of time of onset, impacts compensation outcomes such as claim settlement times and costs. Second, to identify factors routinely collected by insurance companies that contribute to psychological distress during the compensation process. DESIGN: Statewide retrospective study. DATA SOURCE: Analysis of the New South Wales statewide (Australia) injury register for MVC survivors who lodged a compensation claim from 2011 to 2013...
September 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873218/associations-between-falls-and-driving-outcomes-in-older-adults-systematic-review-and-metaanalysis
#6
Kenneth A Scott, Eli Rogers, Marian E Betz, Lilian Hoffecker, Guohua Li, Carolyn DiGuiseppi
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between falls and subsequent motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), crash-related injuries, driving performance, and driving behavior. DESIGN: Systematic review and metaanalysis. PARTICIPANTS: Observational studies including drivers aged 55 and older or with a mean age of 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Two authors independently extracted study and participant characteristics, exposures, and outcomes and assessed risk of bias...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863362/the-location-of-late-night-bars-and-alcohol-related-crashes-in-houston-texas
#7
Ned Levine
A study in the City of Houston, Texas, related the location of establishments primarily serving alcohol ("bars") after midnight to late night alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. There were three data sets for 2007-09: 1) 764bars that were open after midnight; 2) 1660 alcohol-related crashes that occurred within the City of Houston between midnight and 6 am; and 3) 4689 modeling network road segments to which bars and alcohol-related crashes were assigned. Forty-five percent of the late night alcohol-related crashes were within a quarter mile of a late night bar...
August 29, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859696/a-systematic-review-of-evidence-for-fitness-to-drive-among-people-with-the-mental-health-conditions-of-schizophrenia-stress-anxiety-disorder-depression-personality-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Carolyn A Unsworth, Anne M Baker, Man H So, Priscilla Harries, Desmond O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists regarding fitness-to-drive for people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (herein simply referred to as 'mental health conditions'). The aim of this paper was to systematically search and classify all published studies regarding driving for this population, and then critically appraise papers addressing assessment of fitness-to-drive where the focus was not on the impact of medication on driving...
August 31, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858774/comparison-of-older-and-younger-novice-driver-crash-rates-informing-the-need-for-extended-graduated-driver-licensing-restrictions
#9
Allison E Curry, Kristina B Metzger, Allan F Williams, Brian C Tefft
BACKGROUND: Few previous studies have directly compared crash rates of older and younger novice drivers. To inform discussion about whether Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) policies that are applied in the US for younger novice drivers should be applied to older novice drivers, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine overall, nighttime, and multiple passenger crash rates over the initial four years of licensure differ for novice drivers licensed at different ages. METHODS: Using data from the New Jersey Traffic Safety Outcomes (NJ-TSO) data warehouse, we selected all NJ drivers who obtained their initial intermediate driver's license from 2006 through 2014 and had at least one month of follow-up from the date of licensure to study end or death (n=1,034,835)...
August 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853326/which-set-of-factors-contribute-to-increase-the-likelihood-of-pedestrian-fatality-in-road-crashes
#10
Mohammad Mehdi Besharati, Ali Tavakoli Kashani
This study aimed to explore the combination of factors and circumstances that could increase the likelihood of a pedestrian crash to be fatal. Six pedestrian crash clusters identified in our previous study on 34,178 crashes occurred in Iran, were employed in the current work and the association rules technique was used as the analysis tool. Based on the results, jaywalking or waiting beside the road on poorly illuminated locations of those segments of rural roads that pass through residential/agricultural districts substantially increased the fatality risk of pedestrian (Lift = 3...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841409/cannabis-and-crash-responsibility-while-driving-below-the-alcohol-per-se-legal-limit
#11
Eduardo Romano, Robert B Voas, Bayliss Camp
There is a growing interest in how extensively the use of marijuana by drivers relates to crash involvement. While cognitive, lab-based studies are consistent in showing that the use of cannabis impairs driving tasks, epidemiological, field-based studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents. There is ample evidence that the presence of cannabis among drivers with a BAC≥0.08g/dL highly increases the likelihood of a motor vehicle crash. Less clear, however, is the contribution of cannabis to crash risk when drivers have consumed very little or no alcohol...
August 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813547/an-experimental-and-numerical-study-of-hybrid-iii-dummy-response-to-simulated-underbody-blast-impacts
#12
Karthik Somasundaram, Anil Kalra, Don Sherman, Paul Begeman, King H Yang, John M Cavanaugh
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs) such as Hybrid III dummy have been widely used in automotive crash tests to evaluate the risks of injury at different body regions. In recent years, researchers have started using automotive ATDs to study the high-speed vertical loading response caused by underbelly blast (UBB) impacts. This study analyzed the Hybrid III dummy responses to short-duration large magnitude vertical acceleration in a laboratory setup. Two unique test conditions were investigated using a horizontal sled system to simulate the UBB loading conditions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800763/causes-trends-and-severity-of-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-ghana
#13
Eric Lawer Torgbenu, Emmanuel K Nakua, Henry Kyei, Eric Badu, Maxwell Peprah Opoku
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal [MSK] injuries are common causes of long-term pain and physical disability which affect many people worldwide. The economic and social impacts on the individual, society and national health systems are enormous making a matter of public health concern. Therefore, this study examined the causes and extent of MSK injuries in a referral hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A prospective study design with consecutive sampling method was used to recruit patients admitted at Trauma Unit as well as those receiving orthopaedic reviews at St...
August 11, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774897/generating-a-city-s-first-report-on-bicyclist-safety-lessons-from-the-field
#14
Dahianna S Lopez, David Hemenway
BACKGROUND: For cities aiming to create a useful surveillance system for bicycle injuries, a common challenge is that city crash reporting is scattered, faulty or non-existent. We document some of the lessons we learnt in helping the city of Boston, Massachusetts, USA, do the following: (1) Create a prototype for a comprehensive police crash data set (2) Produce the city's first cyclist safety report, (3) Make crash data available to the public and (4) Generate policy recommendations for both specific roadside improvements and for sustainable changes to the police department's crash reporting database...
August 3, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771623/the-distracted-mind-on-the-wheel-overall-propensity-to-mind-wandering-is-associated-with-road-crash-responsibility
#15
Cédric Gil-Jardiné, Mélanie Née, Emmanuel Lagarde, Jonathan Schooler, Benjamin Contrand, Ludivine Orriols, Cédric Galera
The role of distractions on attentional lapses that place road users in higher risk of crash remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess the respective impact of (i) mind wandering trait (propensity to mind wander in the everyday life as measured with a set of 4 questions on the proportion of time spent mind wandering in 4 different situations) and (ii) mind wandering state (disturbing thoughts just before the crash) on road crash risk using a comparison between responsible and non-responsible drivers. 954 drivers injured in a road crash were interviewed at the adult emergency department of the Bordeaux university hospital in France (2013-2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738161/belted-driver-fatalities-time-of-death-and-risk-by-injury-severity
#16
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
PURPOSE: This study is a descriptive study of the fatality risk by injury severity and time of death for lap-shoulder belted drivers without ejection in modern vehicles. It also determined the body region for severe injuries experienced by the belted drivers using the most recent federal crash data. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was evaluated for fatally-injured lap-shoulder belted drivers without ejection in light vehicles of 1997+ model year (MY). The severity of injuries sustained by the belted drivers was assessed by MAIS and individual injuries by AIS and body region...
July 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738139/association-of-history-of-dizziness-and-long-term-adverse-outcomes-with-early-vs-later-orthostatic-hypotension-assessment-times-in-middle-aged-adults
#17
Stephen P Juraschek, Natalie Daya, Andreea M Rawlings, Lawrence J Appel, Edgar R Miller, B Gwen Windham, Michael E Griswold, Gerardo Heiss, Elizabeth Selvin
Importance: Guidelines recommend assessing orthostatic hypotension (OH) 3 minutes after rising from supine to standing positions. It is not known whether measurements performed immediately after standing predict adverse events as strongly as measurements performed closer to 3 minutes. Objective: To compare early vs later OH measurements and their association with history of dizziness and longitudinal adverse outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective cohort study of middle-aged (range, 44-66 years) participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-1989)...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735180/cell-phone-use-while-driving-prospective-association-with-emerging-adult-use
#18
Neha Trivedi, Denise Haynie, Joe Bible, Danping Liu, Bruce Simons-Morton
Secondary task engagement such as cell phone use while driving is a common behavior among adolescents and emerging adults. Texting and other distracting cell phone use in this population contributes to the high rate of fatal car crashes. Peer engagement in similar risky driving behaviors, such as texting, could socially influence driver phone use behavior. The present study investigates the prospective association between peer and emerging adult texting while driving the first year after high school. Surveys were conducted with a national sample of emerging adults and their nominated peers...
July 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729903/tranexamic-acid-and-trauma-induced-coagulopathy
#19
REVIEW
Takeshi Nishida, Takahiro Kinoshita, Kazuma Yamakawa
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine that inhibits fibrinolysis by blocking the interaction of plasminogen with the lysine residues of fibrin. Historically, TXA is commonly used for reduction of blood loss in perioperative situations, while recently it has attracted attention for clinical use in the trauma field. In 2010, the Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Hemorrhage 2 (CRASH-2) trial demonstrated that intravenous administration of TXA improved mortality significantly in trauma patients with significant bleeding...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728061/qualifying-information-on-deaths-and-serious-injuries-caused-by-road-traffic-in-five-brazilian-capitals-using-record-linkage
#20
Polyana Maria Pimenta Mandacaru, Ana Lucia Andrade, Marli Souza Rocha, Fernanda Pinheiro Aguiar, Maria Sueli M Nogueira, Anne Marielle Girodo, Ana Amélia Galas Pedrosa, Vera Lídia Alves de Oliveira, Marta Maria Malheiros Alves, Lúcia Maria Miana M Paixão, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Marta Maria Alves Silva, Otaliba Libanio de Morais Neto
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic crashes (RTC) are an important public health problem, accounting for 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 40,000 deaths caused by RTC occur every year, with different trends in the Federal Units. However, these figures may be even greater if health databases are linked to police records. In addition, the linkage procedure would make it possible to qualify information from the health and police databases, improving the quality of the data regarding underlying cause of death, cause of injury in hospital records, and injury severity...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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