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Crash 3

James P Thompson, Jamie R R Mackenzie, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock, Simon J Raftery, John Wall
In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Claudio Gariazzo, Massimo Stafoggia, Silvia Bruzzone, Armando Pelliccioni, Francesco Forastiere
Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mathieu Boutonnet, Paer Abback, Frédéric Le Saché, Anatole Harrois, Arnaud Follin, Nicolas Imbert, Andrew P Cap, Julie Trichereau, Sylvain Ausset
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) use in severe trauma remains controversial notably because of concerns of the applicability of the CRASH-2 study findings in mature trauma systems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of TXA administration in severely injured trauma patients managed in a mature trauma care system. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of data prospectively collected in the TraumaBase registry (a regional registry collecting the prehospital and hospital data of trauma patients admitted in 6 Level One Trauma Centers in Paris Area, France)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Tanja Laukkala, Alpo Vuorio, Robert Bor, Bruce Budowle, Pooshan Navathe, Eero Pukkala, Antti Sajantila
Aircraft-assisted pilot suicide is a rare but serious phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pilot aircraft-assisted suicide risks, i.e., a copycat effect, in the U.S. and Germany after the Germanwings 2015 incident in the French Alps. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides were searched in the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation database and in the German Bundestelle für Flugunfalluntersuchung (BFU) Reports of Investigation database five years before and two years after the deliberate crash of the Germanwings flight into the French Alps in 2015...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anne-Marie Laslett, Heng Jiang, Tanya Chikritzhs
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to quantify the population-level associations between child injury deaths and adult (aged 15+ years) per capita alcohol consumption (PCC) and between child injury deaths and the impact of major alcohol and safety policy changes in Australia. METHODS: All child deaths due to external causes during 1910-2013, and child deaths due specifically to road crashes, assaults, suicide and other external causes, were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare...
January 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Vincent Di Fazio, Sarah M R Wille, Stefan W Toennes, Janelle H P van Wel, Johannes G Ramaekers, Nele Samyn
Using the Belgian Drugs and Driving procedure, 36% of the cocaine positive oral fluid (OF) screening results were not confirmed in plasma. This study investigates the impact of the choice of screening devices and confirmation matrix on the detection of cocaine use. An UPLC-MS/MS method quantifying cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), and other basic drugs in OF was developed and validated. This method monitored OF samples obtained either from a roadside (n =12) or a double-blind controlled study with cocaine users (n=10) who were given either a capsule containing 300 mg of cocaine-HCl or a placebo...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Nino Andricevic, Mirko Junge, Jonas Krampe
OBJECTIVE: Construction of Injury risk functions (IRF) for front row occupants in oblique frontal crashes and a comparison to IRF of non-oblique frontal crashes from the same dataset. METHOD: Crashes of modern vehicles from the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) were used as the basis for the construction of a logistic injury risk model. Static deformation, measured via displaced voxels on the post-crash vehicles, was used to calculate the energy dissipated in the crash...
March 9, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Susan Yoong, Ravi Kothari, Adam Brooks
INTRODUCTION: Whole body computed tomography has become standard practice in many centres in the management of severely injured trauma patients, however, the evidence for it's diagnostic accuracy is limited. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of whole body CT in major trauma. METHOD: Retrospective review of all patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 15 presenting with blunt trauma to a UK Major Trauma Centre between May 2012 and April 2014...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Caleb P Roberts, Daniel R Uden, Craig R Allen, Dirac Twidwell
Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability...
2018: PloS One
Paul S Page, Zhikui Wei, Nathaniel P Brooks
OBJECTIVE Motorcycle helmets have been shown to decrease the incidence and severity of traumatic brain injury due to motorcycle crashes. Despite this proven efficacy, some previous reports and speculation suggest that helmet use is associated with a higher likelihood of cervical spine injury (CSI). In this study, the authors examine 1061 cases of motorcycle crash victims who were treated during a 5-year period at a Level 1 trauma center to investigate the association of helmet use with the incidence and severity of CSI...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Meng Zhang, Asad J Khattak, Jun Liu, David Clarke
Rail-trespassing crashes that involve various levels of injuries to pedestrians are under-researched. Rail trespassing could occur at crossings where pedestrians are present at the wrong time and at non-crossings where pedestrians are not legally allowed to be present. This paper presents a comparative study examining rail-trespassing crashes in two contexts: highway-rail grade crossings vs. non-crossings. How pre-crash trespassing behaviors and other factors (e.g., crash time, locations, and socio-demographics) differ between grade crossings and non-crossings are explored...
February 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Samuel Patrick Klein, Bart Depreitere
INTRODUCTION:  Episodes of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are responsible for the majority of secondary brain injury events and thereby strongly affect long-term outcome. However, not all patients with major episodes of raised ICP suffer a poor outcome. The aim of the current analysis was to identify variables contributing to good outcome in patients suffering episodes of high ICP. METHODS:  Retrospective analysis of 20 severe TBI patients admitted to the University Hospitals Leuven between 2010 and 2014...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Raquel Siqueira Barcelos, Iná da Silva Dos Santos, Alicia Matijasevich, Luciana Anselmi, Fernando Celso Barros
INTRODUCTION: Injuries during childhood, which mostly consist of falls, burns, drowning, poisonings and car crashes, are among the main causes of death among children and young adults in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal depression and the incidence of injuries during childhood. METHODS: In 2004, children who were born in the municipality of Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled in a population-based birth cohort, with evaluations at birth and at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age...
February 26, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Carol A C Flannagan, András Bálint, Kathleen D Klinich, Ulrich Sander, Miriam A Manary, Sophie Cuny, Michael McCarthy, Vuthy Phan, Caroline Wallbank, Paul E Green, Bo Sui, Åsa Forsman, Helen Fagerlind
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the hypotheses that passenger vehicles meeting European Union (EU) safety standards have similar crashworthiness to United States (US) -regulated vehicles in the US driving environment, and vice versa. METHODS: The first step involved identifying appropriate databases of US and EU crashes that include in-depth crash information, such as estimation of crash severity using Delta-V and injury outcome based on medical records. The next step was to harmonize variable definitions and sampling criteria so that the EU data could be combined and compared to the US data using the same or equivalent parameters...
February 23, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Katia M'bailara, Thierry Atzeni, Benjamin Contrand, Cyrielle Derguy, Manuel-Pierre Bouvard, Emmanuel Lagarde, Cédric Galéra
BACKGROUND: Reducing risk attributable to traffic accidents is a public health challenge. Research into risk factors in the area is now moving towards identification of the psychological factors involved, particularly emotional states. The aim of this study was to evaluate the link between emotional reactivity and responsibility in road traffic accidents. We hypothesized that the more one's emotional reactivity is disturbed, the greater the likelihood of being responsible for a traffic accident...
December 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Victor S Alvarez, Svein Kleiven
Finite element (FE) models are a powerful tool that can be used to understand injury mechanisms and develop better safety systems. This study aims to extend the understanding of pediatric spine biomechanics, where there is a paucity of studies available. A newly developed and continuously scalable FE model was validated and scaled to 1.5-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 14- and 18-year-old using a non-linear scaling technique, accounting for local topological changes. The oldest and youngest ages were also scaled using homogeneous geometric scaling...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Donald A Redelmeier, Robert J Tibshirani
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate analytic approaches for matched studies where two controls are linked to each case and events are accumulating counts rather than binary outcomes. A secondary intent is to clarify the distinction between total risk and excess risk (unmatched vs matched perspectives). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We review past research testing whether elections can lead to increased traffic risks. The results are reinterpreted by analyzing both the total count of individuals in fatal crashes and the excess count of individuals in fatal crashes, each time accounting for the matched double controls...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Sanghee Moon, Maud Ranchet, Abiodun Emmanuel Akinwuntan, Mark Tant, David Brian Carr, Mukaila Ajiboye Raji, Hannes Devos
BACKGROUND: Adults aged 85 and older, often referred to as the oldest-old, are the fastest-growing segment of the population. The rapidly increasing number of older adults with chronic and multiple medical conditions poses challenges regarding their driving safety. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of advanced age on driving safety in drivers with medical conditions. METHODS: We categorized 3,425 drivers with preexisting medical conditions into four age groups: middle-aged (55-64 years, n = 1,386), young-old (65-74 years, n = 1,013), old-old (75-84 years, n = 803), or oldest-old (85 years and older, n = 223)...
February 14, 2018: Gerontology
Benjamin T Miller, Andrew H Lin, Susan C Clark, Andrew P Cap, Joseph J Dubose
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Navy's casualty-receiving ships provide remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR) platforms to treat injured combatants deployed afloat and ashore. We report a significant mass casualty incident aboard the USS Bataan, and the most warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) transfused at sea for traumatic hemorrhagic shock since the Vietnam War. METHODS: Casualty-receiving ships have robust medical capabilities, including a frozen blood bank with packed red blood cells (pRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Francesca L Beaudoin, Roee Gutman, Wanting Zhai, Roland C Merchant, Melissa A Clark, Kenneth A Bollen, Phyllis Hendry, Michael C Kurz, Christopher Lewandowski, Claire Pearson, Brian O'Neil, Elizabeth Datner, Patricia Mitchell, Robert Domeier, Samuel A McLean
African-Americans experience a greater burden of acute pain than non-Hispanic white individuals across of variety of acute medical conditions, but it is unknown if this is the case following trauma. We evaluated pain, pain-related characteristics (e.g. peri-traumatic distress), and analgesic treatment in two cohorts of individuals (African-American (n=931) and non-Hispanic white (n=948)) presenting to the emergency department after a motor-vehicle crash (MVC). We performed a propensity-matched analysis (n=796 in each group) to assess racial differences in acute pain in the ED...
February 9, 2018: Pain
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