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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340317/opportunities-for-crash-and-injury-reduction-a-multi-harm-approach-for-crash-data-analysis
#1
Ann Mallory, Allison Kender, Kevin Moorhouse
OBJECTIVE: A multi-harm approach for analyzing crash and injury data was developed for the ultimate purpose of getting a richer picture of motor vehicle crash outcomes identifying research opportunities in crash safety. METHODS: Methods were illustrated using a retrospective analysis of 69,597 occupant cases from NASS CDS (National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System) from 2005 to 2015. Occupant cases were analyzed by frequency and severity of outcome: fatality, injury by AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale), number of cases, attributable fatality, disability, and injury costs...
March 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332867/age-related-changes-in-thoracic-skeletal-geometry-of-elderly-females
#2
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
OBJECTIVE: Both females and the elderly have been identified as vulnerable populations with increased injury and mortality risk in multiple crash scenarios. Particularly in frontal impacts, older females show higher risk to the chest and thorax than their younger or male counterparts. Thoracic geometry plays a role in this increase, and this study aims to quantify key parts of that geometry in a way that can directly inform human body models that incorporate the concept of person age...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332855/occupant-to-occupant-contact-injury-in-motor-vehicle-crashes
#3
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
OBJECTIVE: This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk of occupant-to-occupant contact injury by crash type and occupant age. It focused on rear impacts because of a recent Senate inquiry. METHODS: 1994-2013 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the effects of occupant-to-occupant contact on the risk of serious-to-fatal injury (AIS 3+) by crash type and age group. NASS-CDS in-depth cases were analyzed to identify crash circumstances for AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury in rear crashes...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323447/injury-mitigation-estimates-for-an-intersection-driver-assistance-system-in-straight-crossing-path-crashes-in-the-u-s
#4
John M Scanlon, Rini Sherony, Hampton C Gabler
OBJECTIVE: Accounting for one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the U.S., intersection crashes are among the most frequent and fatal crash modes. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of crashes and number of vehicles with a seriously injured driver (MAIS3+) that could be prevented or reduced if, for every straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crash, one of the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317507/effects-of-a-hybrid-online-and-in-person-training-program-designed-to-reduce-alcohol-sales-to-obviously-intoxicated-patrons
#5
Traci L Toomey, Kathleen M Lenk, Darin J Erickson, Keith J Horvath, Alexandra M Ecklund, Dawn M Nederhoff, Shanda L Hunt, Toben F Nelson
OBJECTIVE: Overservice of alcohol (i.e., selling alcohol to intoxicated patrons) continues to be a problem at bars and restaurants, contributing to serious consequences such as traffic crashes and violence. We developed a training program for managers of bars and restaurants, eARM™, focusing on preventing overservice of alcohol. The program included online and face-to-face components to help create and implement establishment-specific policies. METHOD: We conducted a large, randomized controlled trial in bars and restaurants in one metropolitan area in the midwestern United States to evaluate effects of the eARM program on the likelihood of selling alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301451/traumatic-brain-injury-related-emergency-department-visits-hospitalizations-and-deaths-united-states-2007-and-2013
#6
Christopher A Taylor, Jeneita M Bell, Matthew J Breiding, Likang Xu
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, including death and disability. TBI can be caused by a number of principal mechanisms, including motor-vehicle crashes, falls, and assaults. This report describes the estimated incidence of TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths during 2013 and makes comparisons to similar estimates from 2007. REPORTING PERIOD: 2007 and 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: State-based administrative health care data were used to calculate estimates of TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations by principal mechanism of injury, age group, sex, and injury intent...
March 17, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296466/road-accident-fatality-risks-for-vulnerable-versus-protected-road-users-in-northern-ghana
#7
James Damsere-Derry, Gavan Palk, Mark King
Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic which claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low and middle income countries. The unfavourable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in Northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users...
March 15, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296431/does-unbelted-safety-requirement-affect-protection-for-belted-occupants
#8
Jingwen Hu, Kathleen D Klinich, Miriam A Manary, Carol A C Flannagan, Prabha Narayanaswamy, Matthew P Reed, Margaret Andreen, Mark Neal, Chin-Hsu Lin
OBJECTIVE: Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seatbelt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses...
March 15, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286817/epidemiological-pattern-of-injuries-in-iran-a-nationwide-review-of-seven-million-emergency-department-admissions
#9
Mohammad Haji Aghajani, Mashyaneh Haddadi, Soheil Saadat
INTRODUCTION: Globally, it is estimated that around 5.8 million people die annually as result of injuries, which causes 10% of all deaths and 16% of disability adjusted life years lost worldwide. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of injuries in emergency departments in Iran. METHOD: This cross sectional study was carried out using national injury surveillance data registry from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2014. RESULTS: 7,176,344 patients with the mean age of 27...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282580/examining-the-influence-of-link-function-misspecification-in-conventional-regression-models-for-developing-crash-modification-factors
#10
Lingtao Wu, Dominique Lord
This study further examined the use of regression models for developing crash modification factors (CMFs), specifically focusing on the misspecification in the link function. The primary objectives were to validate the accuracy of CMFs derived from the commonly used regression models (i.e., generalized linear models or GLMs with additive linear link functions) when some of the variables have nonlinear relationships and quantify the amount of bias as a function of the nonlinearity. Using the concept of artificial realistic data, various linear and nonlinear crash modification functions (CM-Functions) were assumed for three variables...
March 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272853/acute-extradural-haematomas-in-children-a-single-neurosurgery-unit-s-12-year-experience
#11
B Enicker, H Louw, T Madiba
BACKGROUND: Acute extradural haematomas (AEDHs) occur infrequently in children. This study was undertaken to review our experience with management and outcomes of this condition in children treated in the Neurosurgery Unit at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital. METHOD: A retrospective review of medical records of all children (age less than or equal to (≤) 12 years) with a diagnosis of AEDH admitted from January 2003 to December 2014 was performed. Records were analyzed for demographics, mechanisms of injury, clinical presentation, neuroradiology findings, management and outcomes at discharge...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272181/family-presence-during-resuscitation-after-trauma
#12
Jane S Leske, Natalie S McAndrew, Karen J Brasel, Suzanne Feetham
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) in patients who survived trauma from motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and gunshot wounds (GSW). A convenience sample of family members participated within three days of admission to critical care. Family members of 140 trauma patients (MVC n = 110, 79%; GSW n = 30, 21%) participated. Family members ranged in age from 20-84 years (M = 46, SD = 15, Mdn = 47). The majority were female (n = 112, 80%) and related to the patient as spouse (n = 46, 33%)...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245995/examination-of-adult-and-child-bicyclist-safety-relevant-events-using-naturalistic-bicycling-methodology
#13
Cara J Hamann, Corinne Peek-Asa
Among roadway users, bicyclists are considered vulnerable due to their high risk for injury when involved in a crash. Little is known about the circumstances leading to near crashes, crashes, and related injuries or how these vary by age and gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates and characteristics of safety-relevant events (crashes, near crashes, errors, and traffic violations) among adult and child bicyclists. Bicyclist trips were captured using Pedal Portal, a data acquisition and coding system which includes a GPS-enabled video camera and graphical user interface...
February 25, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242770/effectiveness-of-the-gold-standard-programme-compared-with-other-smoking-cessation-interventions-in-denmark-a-cohort-study
#14
Mette Rasmussen, Esteve Fernández, Hanne Tønnesen
OBJECTIVES: We compared the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme (a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention commonly used in Denmark) with other face-to-face smoking cessation programmes in Denmark after implementation in real life, and we identified factors associated with successful quitting. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A total of 423 smoking cessation clinics from different settings reported data from 2001 to 2013...
February 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242065/the-impact-of-helmet-use-on-outcomes-after-a-motorcycle-crash
#15
Desmond Khor, Kenji Inaba, Alberto Aiolfi, Samantha Delapena, Elizabeth Benjamin, Kazuhide Matsushima, Aaron M Strumwasser, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Helmet use in a motorcycle collision has been shown to reduce head injury and death. Its protective effect on the cervical spine (C-spine), however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between helmet use and C-spine injuries. METHOD: Retrospective National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) study. All motorcycle collisions between 2007 and 2014 involving either a driver or passenger were included. Data collected included demographics, vital signs, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS) and specific injuries...
February 20, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240501/role-of-focused-assessment-with-sonography-for-trauma-as-a-screening-tool-for-blunt-abdominal-trauma-in-young-children-after-high-energy-trauma
#16
W Tummers, J van Schuppen, H Langeveld, J Wilde, E Banderker, A van As
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to review the utility of focused assessement with sonography for trauma (FAST) as a screening tool for blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) in children involved in high energy trauma (HET), and to determine whether a FAST could replace computed tomography (CT) in clinical decision-making regarding paediatric BAT. METHOD: Children presented at the Trauma Unit of the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, after HET, and underwent both a physical examination and a FAST...
June 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239638/brain-amyloid-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with%C3%A2-increased-driving-risk
#17
Brian R Ott, Richard N Jones, Richard B Noto, Don C Yoo, Peter J Snyder, Justine N Bernier, David B Carr, Catherine M Roe
INTRODUCTION: Postmortem studies suggest that fibrillar brain amyloid places people at higher risk for hazardous driving in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We administered driving questionnaires to 104 older drivers (19 AD, 24 mild cognitive impairment, and 61 cognitive normal) who had a recent (18)F-florbetapir positron emission tomography scan. We examined associations of amyloid standardized uptake value ratios with driving behaviors: traffic violations or accidents in the past 3 years...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226254/the-effect-of-performance-feedback-on-drivers-hazard-perception-ability-and-self-ratings
#18
Mark S Horswill, Megan Garth, Andrew Hill, Marcus O Watson
Drivers' hazard perception ability has been found to predict crash risk, and novice drivers appear to be particularly poor at this skill. This competency appears to develop only slowly with experience, and this could partially be a result of poor quality performance feedback. We report an experiment in which we provided high-quality artificial feedback on individual drivers' performance in a validated video-based hazard perception test via either: (1) a graph-based comparison of hazard perception response times between the test-taker, the average driver, and an expert driver; (2) a video-based comparison between the same groups; or (3) both...
February 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223249/predicted-unfavorable-neurological-outcome-is-overestimated-by-the-marshall-ct-score-crash-and-impact-models-in-severe-tbi-patients-management-with-early-decompressive-craniectomy
#19
Jose D Charry, Jorman H Tejada, Miguel A Pinzon, Wilson A Tejada, Juan D Ochoa, Manuel Falla, Jesus H Tovar, Ana M Cuellar-Bahamón, Juan P Solano
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is of public health interest and produces significant mortality and disability in Colombia. Calculators and prognostic models have been developed in order to establish neurologic outcome. We tested prognostic models (the Marshall CT score, IMPACT, and CRASH) for 14-day mortality, 6-month mortality, and 6-month outcome in TBI patients in a university Hospital in Colombia. METHODS: A 127 patients' cohort with TBI was treated in a regional trauma center in Colombia over 2 years and Bivariate and Multivariate analyses were used...
February 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222151/bayesian-stock-assessment-of-pacific-herring-in-prince-william-sound-alaska
#20
Melissa L Muradian, Trevor A Branch, Steven D Moffitt, Peter-John F Hulson
The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150-31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound...
2017: PloS One
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