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Withdrawal syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339935/nephrotoxicity-of-anticancer-treatment
#1
Jolanta Malyszko, Klaudia Kozlowska, Leszek Kozlowski, Jacek Malyszko
Severe adverse systemic drug events occur commonly as a result of treatment of cancer patients. Nephrotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents remains a significant complication limiting the efficacy of the treatment. A variety of renal disease and electrolyte disorders can result from the drugs that are used to treat malignant disease. The kidneys are a major elimination pathway for many antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites. Tumour lysis syndrome, an emergency in haematooncology, occurs most often after the initiation of cytotoxic therapy in patients with high-grade lymphomas and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia...
October 6, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331524/the-effect-of-tong-xie-yao-fang-on-intestinal-mucosal-mast-cells-in-postinfectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats
#2
Xiangxue Ma, Xiaoge Wang, Nan Kang, Ting Chen, Haijie Ji, Lin Lv, Xiaolan Yin, Yaxin Tian, Rui Zheng, Yuanzhi Duan, Fengyun Wang, Xudong Tang
Objective. To investigate the effects of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) on intestinal mucosal mast cells in rats with postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Design. PI-IBS rat models were established using a multistimulation paradigm. Then, rats were treated with TXYF intragastrically at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) for 14 days, respectively. Intestinal sensitivity was assessed based on abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores and fecal water content (FWC). Mast cell counts and the immunofluorescence of tryptase and c-Fos in intestinal mucosa were measured; and serum IL-1β, TNF-α, and histamine levels were determined...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329417/nursing-judgement-and-decision-making-using-the-sedation-withdrawal-score-sws-in-children
#3
Jennie Craske, Bernie Carter, Ian H Jarman, Lyvonne N Tume
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate registered children's nurses' approaches to the assessment and management of withdrawal syndrome in children. BACKGROUND: Assessment of withdrawal syndrome is undertaken following critical illness when the child's condition may be unstable with competing differential diagnoses. Assessment tools aim to standardise and improve recognition of withdrawal syndrome. Making the right decisions in complex clinical situations requires a degree of mental effort and it is not known how nurses make decisions when undertaking withdrawal assessments...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325515/-a-new-case-of-rowell-s-syndrome
#4
C Schissler, S Banea, M-C Tortel, A Mahé
INTRODUCTION: This article introduces a new case of Rowell's syndrome, a controversial entity defined by the association of lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme. OBSERVATION: A 43-year-old woman was diagnosed with lupus erythematosus induced by esomeprazole. Because her eruption did not improve after withdrawal of the drug, hydroxychloroquine was administered. Two weeks later, the patient described new annular lesions on her chest and arms, both erosive and crusted, and some had a target-like appearance...
March 18, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322465/opioid-substitution-therapy-or-hidden-opioids-are-a-minefield-for-nalmefene-an-atypical-case-series-of-11-patients-in-lorraine
#5
Melissa Yéléhé-Okouma, Hervé Martini, Jérémie Lemarié, Pierre Labroca, Nadine Petitpain, Valérie Gibaja, François Paille, Pierre Gillet
Opioid antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene are used in drug therapy for alcoholism. Nalmefene, approved in Europe in February 2013 for the reduction of alcohol consumption is used in patients with alcohol dependence. We report 11 cases of opioid withdrawal syndrome after a single dose of nalmefene in patients usually treated with methadone, buprenorphine, but also with fentanyl or loperamide. Nalmefene is both a partial agonist and an antagonist of opioid receptors. Regarding to its opioid antagonist activity, nalmefene is contraindicated in patients with an opioid treatment...
March 21, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314744/randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-ofatumumab-to-rituximab-in-children-with-steroid-dependent-and-calcineurin-inhibitor-dependent-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-study-protocol
#6
Pietro Ravani, Alice Bonanni, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
INTRODUCTION: Oral steroids induce remission in about 90% of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), which is characterised by severe proteinuria and hypoalbuminaemia. Some children become steroid-dependent (SD) and require addition of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) to maintain remission. Since these oral agents are toxic, alternative interventions are needed for long-term treatment. The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has shown promising steroid-sparing properties in clinical trials, but benefits are less convincing in complicated forms of SD-INS...
March 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306606/spinal-microglial-p2x4-receptor-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-regulates-nicotine-withdrawal-induced-hyperalgesia
#7
Xiaodi Zhang, Pengcheng Xu, Chengbao Li, Wenchao Zhu, Shanshan Wu, Ailan Yu, Yonghong Ding, Qinghe Wang, Zongwang Zhang
Nicotine withdrawal (NTW) has been shown to increase pain sensitivity. However, the pathogenesis of NTW-induced hyperalgesia syndrome is unknown. Microglial activation, with increased expression of the P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as important markers, is associated with hyperalgesia; therefore, these markers may represent an unprecedented target to prevent hyperalgesia. In this study, we explored the contributions of spinal microglial P2X4R-BDNF signaling in NTW-induced hyperalgesia...
March 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306133/injection-of-toll-like-receptor-4-sirna-into-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-attenuates-withdrawal-syndrome-in-morphine-dependent-rats
#8
Q F Liu, L Li, Y Q Guo, X Li, Z D Mou, X Wang, G Z Du
We assessed the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) region of morphine-dependent rats on attenuating withdrawal syndrome, and regulating glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). After siRNA-mediated downregulation of TLR4, changes were observed in withdrawal behavior and downstream signaling molecules. Rats were injected into the vlPAG with TLR4 siRNA, followed by intraperitoneal injection of morphine for 5 consecutive days, and then naloxone, and the behavioral indices of morphine withdrawal were observed...
December 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303200/atypical-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-associated-with-use-of-clozapine
#9
Quevedo-Florez Leonardo, Granada-Romero Juliana, Camargo-Arenas Juan Fernando
The Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is a medical emergency of infrequent presentation in the emergency department, which is associated with the use of psychiatric drugs, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics. Our case addresses a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia for 10 years, who had been receiving clozapine and clonazepam as part of their treatment. This patient presents the symptoms of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome without fever, which improves with treatment especially with the withdrawal of clozapine...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#10
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299795/interruption-to-antiplatelet-therapy-early-after-acute-ischaemic-stroke-a-nested-case-control-study
#11
Wardati Mazlan-Kepli, Rachael L MacIsaac, Matthew Walters, Philip Michael William Bath, Jesse Dawson
AIMS: Antiplatelet drugs are often discontinued early after ischaemic stroke, either because of poor compliance, complications or withdrawal of care. It is unclear whether this places patients at increased risk of recurrence. We explored the association between cardiovascular event rate and persistence with prescribed antiplatelet drugs. METHODS: We used a matched case-control design using the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Cases were patients who had an acute coronary syndrome, recurrent stroke or transient ischaemic attack within 90 days post-stroke and were matched for age ±10 years and sex with up to four controls...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296768/difficult-clinical-management-of-antituberculosis-dress-syndrome-complicated-by-mrsa-infection-a-case-report
#12
Li Wang, Lin-Feng Li
RATIONALE: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction characterized by skin rash, fever, blood abnormalities, and multiple organ involvement. The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is often delayed because of its variable presentation. Prompt withdrawal of the culprit drug is the definitive treatment. DRESS syndrome induced by antituberculosis drugs has rarely been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 50-year-old man admitted to our hospital with recurrent episodes of progressive rash, fever, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy, hepatic, and pulmonary involvement were experienced after repeat trials of the same antituberculosis drugs...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295483/regression-of-hepatocellular-adenomas-and-systemic-inflammatory-syndrome-after-cessation-of-estrogen-therapy
#13
Marie Sinclair, Anthony Schelleman, Daljean Sandhu, Peter W Angus
We report a case of dramatic systemic inflammatory symptoms and biochemical signs of inflammatory related to multiple hepatic adenomas that completely resolved after cessation of the oral contraceptive pill and associated adenoma regression. This represents the first case of such dramatic symptoms to resolve after estrogen withdrawal alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289647/central-pontine-myelinolysis-induced-by-alcohol-withdrawal-a-case-report
#14
Jae Ho Kim, Sae Hyun Kim, Ho Joong Jeong, Young Joo Sim, Dong Kyu Kim, Ghi Chan Kim
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pons, and is mainly caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. We report the case of a young woman who presented with gait disturbance and alcohol withdrawal, and who was eventually diagnosed with CPM. Generally, the cause and pathogenesis of CPM in chronic alcoholics remain unclear. In this cases, the CPM may be unrelated to hyponatremia or its correction. However, it is possible that the osmotic pressure changes due to refeeding syndrome after alcohol withdrawal was the likely cause in this case...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286852/acute-myocardial-infarction-following-naltrexone-consumption-a-case-report
#15
Bita Dadpour, Arash Gholoobi, Shahrad Tajoddini, Amir Habibi
Cardiovascular effects of opioid withdrawal have long been studied. It was reported that patients with underlying ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic vessels may be complicated by a sudden physical and emotional stress due to withdrawal syndrome. But some other believes sudden increase in catecholamine level as a sympathetic overflow might effect on heart with and without underlying ischemia. In the current study, a patient on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) who experienced myocardial infarction (MI) after taking naltrexone was described...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285310/incidence-and-causes-of-intentional-fetal-or-neonatal-demise-in-twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome
#16
Marjolijn S Spruijt, Ellen Tameeris, De-Peng Zhao, Johanna M Middeldorp, Monique C Haak, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and causes of intentional fetal and neonatal demise in twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All TTTS pregnancies managed at our centre between 2000 and 2014 were included. We evaluated incidence and causes of intentional fetal/neonatal demise, defined as termination of pregnancy, selective fetal reduction, or withdrawal of neonatal intensive care. RESULTS: Intentional fetal/neonatal demise occurred in 9...
March 11, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284916/infusion-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-after-deceased-liver-transplantation-a-phase-i-ii-open-label-clinical-study
#17
Olivier Detry, Morgan Vandermeulen, Marie-Hélène Delbouille, Joan Somja, Noella Bletard, Alexandra Briquet, Chantal Lechanteur, Olivier Giet, Etienne Baudoux, Muriel Hannon, Frederic Baron, Yves Beguin
BACKGROUND & AIM: Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion could be a mean to establish tolerance in solid organ recipients. The aim of this prospective, controlled, phase-1 study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and tolerability of a single infusion of MSCs in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Ten liver transplant recipients under standard immunosuppression received 1.5-3x10(6)/kg third-party unrelated MSCs on post-operative day 3±2, and were prospectively compared to a control group of 10 liver transplant recipients...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280516/evaluation-of-analgesic-activity-of-papaver-libanoticum-extract-in-mice-involvement-of-opioids-receptors
#18
Mohamad Ali Hijazi, Ahmed El-Mallah, Maha Aboul-Ela, Abdalla Ellakany
Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279667/preclinical-assessment-of-the-abuse-potential-of-the-orexin-receptor-antagonist-suvorexant
#19
Stephanie Born, David V Gauvin, Suman Mukherjee, Richard Briscoe
Suvorexant (Belsomra(®)) is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of insomnia. Because of its pharmacology within the central nervous system, intended therapeutic indication, and first-in-class status, an assessment of suvorexant abuse liability potential was required prior to marketing approval. The nonclinical abuse liability potential studies for suvorexant included: 1) rat drug-dependence model to assess physical dependence following abrupt cessation; 2) rat drug-discrimination model to examine the potential similarity of the interoceptive or subjective effects of suvorexant to those elicited by zolpidem and morphine; 3) self-administration model to assess the relative reinforcing efficacy of suvorexant in rhesus monkeys conditioned to self-administer methohexital...
March 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278146/cdc-grand-rounds-public-health-strategies-to-prevent-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#20
Jean Y Ko, Sara Wolicki, Wanda D Barfield, Stephen W Patrick, Cheryl S Broussard, Kimberly A Yonkers, Rebecca Naimon, John Iskander
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that most commonly occurs in infants after in utero exposure to opioids, although other substances have also been associated with the syndrome (1). NAS usually appears within 48-72 hours of birth with a constellation of clinical signs, including central nervous system irritability (e.g., tremors), gastrointestinal dysfunction (e.g., feeding difficulties), and temperature instability (1) (Box 1). Opioid exposure during pregnancy might result from clinician-approved use of prescription opioids for pain relief; misuse or abuse of prescription opioids; illicit use (e...
March 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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