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Withdrawal syndrome

K Saxena, J Webster, A Hallas-Potts, R Mackenzie, P A Spooner, D Thomson, P Kind, S Chatterji, R G M Morris
Social withdrawal is one phenotypic feature of the monogenic neurodevelopmental disorder fragile-X. Using a 'knockout' rat model of fragile-X, we examined whether deletion of the Fmr1 gene that causes this condition would affect the ability to form and express a social hierarchy as measured in a tube test. Male fragile-X 'knockout' rats living together could successfully form a social dominance hierarchy, but were significantly subordinate to wild-type animals in mixed group cages. Over 10 days of repeated testing, the fragile-X mutant rats gradually showed greater variance and instability of rank during their tube-test encounters...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Felipe D Pacheco, Mauricio L DA Silva, Graziela Batista, Witória Santos, Adalberto A DE Castro, Lara Canever, Alexandra I Zugno
Clozapine is an antipsychotic that produces serious withdrawal effects in schizophrenic patients. Olfactory deficits are well known as part of negative symptoms, but it is not known whether antipsychotic use and/or withdrawal are implicated. Then, we tested clozapine withdrawal in association with two widely used schizophrenia models: Neonatal immune challenge by Polycitidilic-polyinosinic acid (polyI:C) and ketamine. PolyI:C (or saline) was injected subcutaneously in neonatal period, dose of 5 mg/kg from 2 to 6 Post Natal Days, and ketamine or saline at the dose 25mg/kg intraperitoneally (i...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Osamu Kawano, Muneaki Masuda, Tsuneaki Takao, Hiroaki Sakai, Yuichiro Morishita, Tetsuo Hayashi, Takayoshi Ueta, Takeshi Maeda
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart audit. OBJECTIVE: To indicate the appropriate baclofen dosage to control severe spasticity of spinal origin and to develop the optimal administration protocol for long-term intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy. SETTING: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Spinal Injuries Center, Japan. METHODS: Thirty-four people with spasticity of various spinal origins who were consistently treated at our hospital were included...
June 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
Eric S Hall, Jennifer M McAllister, Scott L Wexelblatt
The objective was to compare diagnosis rates representing developmental outcomes and medical complications between infants with intrauterine opioid exposures who did not receive pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome at the time of birth and infants for whom no exposure to substances of abuse were detected. This retrospective, descriptive study included approximately 95% of Hamilton County, Ohio resident births in 2014 and 2015. Universal maternal drug test results, performed at the time of birth, were documented and linked to electronic health records representing pediatric primary and subspecialty follow-up care as well as urgent care, emergency care, and inpatient services provided by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center through 2017, when all children were at least 24 months old...
June 12, 2018: Population Health Management
Thimo Buchmüller, Hanna Lembcke, Julian Busch, Robert Kumsta, Birgit Leyendecker
Refugee children share a large number of pre-, peri-, and post-migration risk factors, which make them vulnerable for developing mental health concerns. Within the last few years, a large number of families with young children have sought refuge in Germany. However, children's mental health status in Germany is mostly unclear. A central aim of developmental psychopathology is to understand how risk factors lead to the emergence of mental health concerns. One approach to investigating this association is the study of specificity, which describes the idea that specific risk factors are related to specific psychological outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Herbert C Duber, Isabel A Barata, Eric Cioè-Peña, Stephen Y Liang, Eric Ketcham, Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos, Shawn A Ryan, Mark Stavros, Lauren K Whiteside
Because of a soaring number of opioid-related deaths during the past decade, opioid use disorder has become a prominent issue in both the scientific literature and lay press. Although most of the focus within the emergency medicine community has been on opioid prescribing-specifically, on reducing the incidence of opioid prescribing and examining alternative pain treatment-interest is heightening in identifying and managing patients with opioid use disorder in an effective and evidence-based manner. In this clinical review article, we examine current strategies for identifying patients with opioid use disorder, the treatment of patients with acute opioid withdrawal syndrome, approaches to medication-assisted therapy, and the transition of patients with opioid use disorder from the emergency department to outpatient services...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Fatemeh Dolatabadi, Amir H Abdolghaffari, Mohammad H Farzaei, Maryam Baeeri, Fatemeh S Ziarani, Majid Eslami, Mohammad Abdollahi, Roja Rahimi
Background/Aims: The aim of present study is to estimate the effects of Melissa officinalis L. (MO) on visceral hypersensitivity (VH), defecation pattern and biochemical factors in 2 experimental models of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the possible role of nitric oxide. Methods: Two individual models of IBS were induced in male Wistar-albino rats. In the acetic acid model, the animals were exposed to rectal distension and abdominal withdrawal reflex, and the defecation patterns were determined...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
K Hager, T Temps, O Krause
BACKGROUND: Antidementia drugs, antidepressants and antipsychotics are among the most frequently prescribed medication in old and multimorbid patients. Due to side effects (e. g. prolonged QTc interval) in emergency medicine/intensive care unit or patients' wishes the question is often raised whether these drugs can be stopped and how this may be done. ANTIDEMENTIA DRUGS: If the cognition is stable under antidementia drugs or if the patient is in favour of the medication, it should be continued...
June 6, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Nimish Vakil
FODMAP is an acronym for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. Dietary modification of FODMAPs has been shown to have significant effects on the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract and improves symptoms of abdominal pain, distention, and bloating in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Structured withdrawal and reintroduction of FODMAPs supervised by a dietitian is the optimal practice for dietary FODMAP modification in irritable bowel syndrome. FODMAPs are present in enteral feeding formulas and may have a role in diarrhea and bloating in tube-fed patients...
June 5, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Joep H Schoemaker, Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Robin A Emsley
IntroductionDespite consistently high discontinuation rates due to withdrawal of consent (WOC) and insufficient therapeutic effect (ITE) in schizophrenia trials, insight into the underlying factors contributing to poor satisfaction with treatment and dropout is limited. A better understanding of these factors could help to improve trial design and completion rates. METHODS: Using data from 1,136 trial participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, we explored associations between predictor variables with (1) dropout due to WOC and ITE and (2) satisfaction with treatment among patients and investigators by means of hierarchic multiple regression analyses...
June 5, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Chen Zhao, Mengjuan Lin, Yasi Pan, Baoping Yu
Background: Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Chun-Bing Chen, Ming-Ying Wu, Chau Yee Ng, Chun-Wei Lu, Jennifer Wu, Pei-Han Kao, Chan-Keng Yang, Meng-Ting Peng, Chen-Yang Huang, Wen-Cheng Chang, Rosaline Chung-Yee Hui, Chih-Hsun Yang, Shun-Fa Yang, Wen-Hung Chung, Shih-Chi Su
With the increasing use of targeted anticancer drugs and immunotherapies, there have been a substantial number of reports concerning life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Although the potential risks and characteristics for targeted anticancer agent- and immunotherapy-induced SCAR were not well understood, these serious adverse reactions usually result in morbidity and sequela...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
A Lloyd-Lavery, N K Rogers, E Davies, D J C Grindlay, K S Thomas
This review forms part of a series of annual updates that summarize the evidence base for atopic eczema (AE), providing a succinct guide for clinicians and patients. It provides a summary of key findings from 26 systematic reviews that were published during 2015, and focuses on the treatment and prevention of AE. For systematic reviews on the epidemiology and methodological issues, see Part 1 of this update. Topical corticosteroid withdrawal syndrome, 'steroid addiction', has been evaluated in a high-quality systematic review, which helps better define this entity and the risk factors for it...
May 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Manakamana Khanal, Shalini V Gohil, Emmanuel Kuyinu, Ho-Man Kan, Brittany E Knight, Kyle M Baumbauer, Kevin W-H Lo, Joseph Walker, Cato T Laurencin, Lakshmi S Nair
Musculoskeletal pain is a major health issue which results from surgical procedures (i.e. total knee and/ or hip replacements and rotator cuff repairs), as well as from non-surgical conditions (i.e. sympathetically-mediated pain syndrome and occipital neuralgia). Local anesthetics, opioids or corticosteroids are currently used for the pain management of musculoskeletal conditions. Even though local anesthetics are highly preferred, the need for multiple administration presents significant disadvantages. Development of unique delivery systems that can deliver local anesthetics at the injection site for prolonged time could significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy and patient comfort...
May 24, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Sasha A Alvarado, Diana Muñoz-Mendoza, Sami L Bahna
OBJECTIVE: Provide a brief overview of the clinical presentation, common offending agents, management, prognosis, and mortality of selected six high-risk drug rashes, namely Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), multiple drug hypersensitivity syndrome (MDH), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and drug-induced bullous pemphigoid (DIBP). DATA SOURCES: Review of published literature using PubMed, supplemented with authors' clinical experience...
May 24, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Nicolaus Kröger, Sharifah Shahnaz Syed Abd Kadir, Tatjana Zabelina, Anita Badbaran, Maximilian Christopeit, Francis Ayuk, Christine Wolschke
JAK inhibition by Ruxolitinib is approved for treatment of myelofibrosis and showed efficacy in steroid resistant acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) In twelve patients with a median age of 63 years (range 43-71) and myelofibrosis who were treated with ruxolitinib and underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) ruxolitinib was continued (2 x 5mg) daily until stable engraftment. No graft failure was observed and leukocyte engraftment was achieved after a median of 12 days (range 11 - 18) One patient developed fever of unknown origin after discontinuation of ruxolitinib, otherwise no case of withdrawal syndrome was observed...
May 22, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jason J Heavner, Kathleen M Akgün, Mojdeh S Heavner, Claire C Eng, Matthew Drew, Peter Jackson, David Pritchard, Shyoko Honiden
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders are prevalent and put patients at risk for developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Treatment of AWS with a symptom-triggered protocol standardizes management and may avoid AWS-related complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of an intensive care unit (ICU)-specific, symptom-triggered protocol for management of AWS was associated with improved clinical outcomes and, in particular, would reduce the risk of patients with AWS requiring mechanical ventilation...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Eric J Arias, Brent Bruck, Ananth K Vellimana, Charles Eby, Matthew R Reynolds, Morey A Blinder, Gregory J Zipfel
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk of intraoperative and postoperative thrombosis. Few neurosurgical studies have examined the management of these patients, though the standard of care in most other disciplines involves the use of anticoagulation therapy. However, this is associated with risks such as hemorrhage, thrombosis due to warfarin withdrawal, and is not compatible with operative intervention...
May 24, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
C Ligon, E Mohammadi, P Ge, G Hannig, C Higgins, B Greenwood-Van Meerveld
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS) are female-predominant, chronic functional pain disorders that are associated with early life stress (ELS) and therapeutic options for such patients remain limited. Linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist, relieves abdominal pain and bowel symptoms in adult patients suffering from IBS with constipation. Here, we test the hypothesis that linaclotide will reverse colon and bladder hyperalgesia in a female-specific rodent model of adverse early life experience...
May 24, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Sarah Stevens, Tyler Flaugher, Kaitlynn Hughes, Carson Terwilliger, Jessica Copley, Shekher Mohan
Objective . To assess gender differences in infants diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome at the Cabell Huntington Hospital in Huntington, West Virginia. Methods . This is a single-site retrospective chart review involving 97 infants born treated for neonatal abstinence syndrome at the Cabell Huntington Hospital between April and December 2015. Data were obtained from electronic medical records using a secure online survey tool designed using Qualtrics. Maternal demographics and drug screenings were collected...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
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