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Withdrawal syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053578/treatment-with-synthetic-glucocorticoids-and-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#1
REVIEW
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Giampaolo Papi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Salvatore Maria Corsello
Chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment represents a widely-prescribed therapy for several diseases in consideration of both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity but, if used at high doses for prolonged periods, it can determine the systemic effects characteristic of Cushing's syndrome. In addition to signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism, patients on chronic GC therapy are at risk to develop tertiary adrenal insufficiency after the reduction or the withdrawal of corticosteroids or during acute stress...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050493/serum-bdnf-is-positively-associated-with-negative-symptoms-in-older-adults-with-schizophrenia
#2
Sasha S Binford, Erin M Hubbard, Elena Flowers, Bruce L Miller, Heather Leutwyler
OBJECTIVES: Older adults with chronic schizophrenia are at greater risk for functional disability and poorer health outcomes than those without serious mental illness. These individuals comprise 1-2% of the elderly population in the United States and are projected to number approximately 15 million by 2030. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be disabling for individuals, significantly reducing quality of life. Often, the negative symptoms (NS) are the most resistant to treatment and are considered a marker of illness severity, though they are challenging to measure objectively...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049120/a-contemporary-medicolegal-analysis-of-outpatient-medication-management-in-chronic-pain
#3
Christopher R Abrecht, Ethan Y Brovman, Penny Greenberg, Ellen Song, James P Rathmell, Richard D Urman
BACKGROUND: Opioids are frequently used in chronic pain management but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in some patient populations. An important avenue for identifying complications-including serious or rare complications-is the study of closed malpractice claims. The present study is intended to complement the existing closed claims literature by drawing on claims from a more recent timeframe through a partnership with a large malpractice carrier, the Controlled Risk Insurance Company (CRICO)...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045753/association-between-the-rs1229984-polymorphism-in-the-alcohol-dehydrogenase-b-adh1b-gene-and-risk-for-restless-legs-syndrome
#4
Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez, Javier Gómez-Tabales, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Martín Zurdo, Laura Turpín-Fenoll, Jorge Millán-Pascual, Teresa Adeva-Bartolomé, Esther Cubo, Francisco Navacerrada, Ana Rojo-Sebastián, Lluisa Rubio, Mónica Díez-Fairén, Pau Pastor, Marisol Calleja, José Francisco Plaza-Nieto, Belén Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Margarita Arroyo-Solera, Esteban García-Albea, José A G Agúndez, Elena García-Martín
Background/Objective: Several studies have raised the possibility of an association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS). Moreover, an important percentage of patients under alcohol detoxification therapy develop RLS symptoms fulfil the criteria for idiopathic RLS during alcohol withdrawal. We have aimed to establish the possible association between 2 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alcohol-dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, and the risk for RLS...
October 16, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045256/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-increase-scoring-consistency-and-accuracy-of-the-finnegan-tool-challenges-in-obtaining-reliable-assessments-of-drug-withdrawal-in-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#5
Wendy Timpson, Cheryl Killoran, Louise Maranda, Alan Picarillo, Elisabeth Bloch-Salisbury
BACKGROUND: Current practice for diagnosing neonatal abstinence syndrome and guiding pharmacological management of neonatal drug withdrawal is dependent on nursing assessments and repeated evaluation of clinical signs. PURPOSE: This single-center quality improvement initiative was designed to improve accuracy and consistency of Finnegan scores among neonatal nurses. METHODS: One-hundred seventy neonatal nurses participated in a single-session withdrawal-assessment program that incorporated education, scoring guidelines, and a restructured Finnegan scale...
October 17, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037335/-catatonia-and-delirium-syndromes-that-may-converge-in-the-neuropsychiatric-patient
#6
Andrés Felipe Pérez-González, Mariana Espinola-Nadurille, Jesús Ramírez-Bermúdez
INTRODUCTION: Catatonia and delirium are two different and independent syndromes. Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome associated with a variety of diseases of different medical causes and is characterised by lack of activity, induction of passive postures against gravity, opposition or absence of response to external stimuli, waxy flexibility, stereotypies, mannerisms and echophenomena. Delirium is characterised by consciousness and cognitive alterations, mainly attention and orientation and usually of acute onset, which tend to fluctuate during the day and with evidence that the alteration is a direct physiological consequence of a disease, intoxication or substance withdrawal...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033618/schizophrenia-and-sleep-disorders-links-risks-and-management-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Rachel E Kaskie, Bianca Graziano, Fabio Ferrarelli
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that has a massive, long-lasting negative impact on the patients as well as society. While positive symptoms (i.e., delusions and hallucinations), negative symptoms (i.e., anhedonia, social withdrawal), and cognitive impairments are traditionally considered the most prominent features of this disorder, the role of sleep and sleep disturbances has gained increasing prominence in clinical practice. Indeed, the vast majority of patients with schizophrenia report sleep abnormalities, which tend to precede illness onset and can predict an acute exacerbation of psychotic symptoms...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033486/topiramate-induced-acute-liver-injury-a-rare-adverse-effect
#8
Archish Khivsara, Jeffrey Pradeep Raj, Divya Hegde, Mangala Rao
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is damage to liver occurring at recommended dose of a drug in contrast to toxic or predictable DILI. Although it is common in first-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), it is rare in newer AEDs such as topiramate. Topiramate commonly causes neurological adverse effects such as psychomotor slowing and somnolence. Hepatotoxicity by topiramate is rare and has been previously reported in combination with other drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine. Here, we report a case of topiramate-induced asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes in an adult man diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome and alcohol withdrawal complicated with seizures...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031417/-skin-pigmentation-induced-by-meropenem-and-levofloxacin
#9
E Garval, V Vuiblet, A Durlach, G Perceau, D Anuset, P Bernard
BACKGROUND: Various cutaneous side-effects, including, exanthema, pruritus, urticaria and Lyell or Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been reported with meropenem (carbapenem), a rarely-prescribed antibiotic. Levofloxacin (fluoroquinolone), a more frequently prescribed antibiotic, has similar cutaneous side-effects, as well as photosensitivity. We report a case of cutaneous hyperpigmentation induced by meropenem and levofloxacin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 67-year-old male was treated with meropenem (1g×4 daily), levofloxacin (500mg twice daily) and amikacin (500mg daily) for 2 weeks, followed by meropenem, levofloxacin and rifampicin (600mg twice daily) for 4 weeks for osteitis of the fifth metatarsal...
October 11, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017379/hla-associated-drug-hypersensitivity-and-the-prediction-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#10
Simone Negrini, Laurent Becquemont
Adverse drug reactions are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and constitute the leading reason of drug withdrawal from the market. Besides classical reactions that are related to pharmacologic activity of the drug, some reactions are unpredictable, not dose dependent, and seem to occur in genetically predisposed individuals. The majority of this reaction is immunologically driven and they are referred to as hypersensitivity reactions. A growing number of studies provided evidences that specific HLA alleles increase the risk of developing hypersensitivity drug reactions...
October 11, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993765/prolonged-excretion-of-poliovirus-among-individuals-with-primary-immunodeficiency-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-world-health-organization-registry
#11
Grace Macklin, Yi Liao, Marina Takane, Kathleen Dooling, Stuart Gilmour, Ondrej Mach, Olen M Kew, Roland W Sutter
Individuals with primary immunodeficiency disorder may excrete poliovirus for extended periods and will constitute the only remaining reservoir of virus after eradication and withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine. Here, we analyzed the epidemiology of prolonged and chronic immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus cases in a registry maintained by the World Health Organization, to identify risk factors and determine the length of excretion. Between 1962 and 2016, there were 101 cases, with 94/101 (93%) prolonged excretors and 7/101 (7%) chronic excretors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988119/glucocorticoid-treatment-facilitates-development-of-a-metabolic-syndrome-in-ovariectomized-macaca-mulatta-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Linzhao Li, Guang Yang, Guangneng Liao, Jie Mei, Lan Li, Chengshi Wang, Yujia Yuan, Yujun Shi, Jingping Liu, Zhihui Zhong, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Iain J Clarke, Younan Chen
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of key features, which include abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of elevated glucocorticoid levels on the development of MetS in middle-aged female rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) after ovariectomy. Six female ovariectomized rhesus monkeys (9-13 years) were randomly assigned to either a control group (normal diet, n=3) or a group in which MetS was facilitated (n=3). The MetS group fed with HFD (15% fat) and received oral prednisone acetate treatment (50 mg/day)...
October 4, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984794/the-use-of-povidone-iodine-in-ophthalmology
#13
Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Kanclerz, William G Myers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Povidone-iodine (PVI) is a disinfectant and antiseptic agent used for preoperative preparation of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as for the treatment of contaminated wounds. Currently regimens for prophylaxis against postsurgical endophthalmitis are being modified, including a total withdrawal of antibiotics in intravitreal injections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PVI in ophthalmology. RECENT FINDINGS: As a result of its broad spectrum of microbicidal activity, PVI is routinely used in ophthalmic surgery...
October 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981333/evaluation-of-the-appropriate-use-of-a-ciwa-ar-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-in-the-general-hospital-setting
#14
Amanda S Eloma, Jason M Tucciarone, Edmund M Hayes, Brian D Bronson
BACKGROUND: The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment-Alcohol, Revised (CIWA-Ar) is an assessment tool used to quantify alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) severity and inform benzodiazepine treatment for alcohol withdrawal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prescribing patterns and appropriate use of the CIWA-Ar protocol in a general hospital setting, as determined by the presence or absence of documented AWS risk factors, patients' ability to communicate, and provider awareness of the CIWA-Ar order...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975823/serotonin-syndrome-complicating-treatment-of-ifosfamide-neurotoxicity-with-methylene-blue
#15
Matthew Snyder, Suhas Gangadhara, Andrew S Brohl, Steven Ludlow, Sowmya Nanjappa
Methylene blue is a widely used treatment for ifosfamide neurotoxicity. We present a case of severe encephalopathy complicating ifosfamide-based therapy for recurrent retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma. After treatment with methylene blue, the patient experienced clinical decompensation and was diagnosed with serotonin syndrome based on a constellation of clinical findings. Withdrawal of methylene blue and other serotonergic medications led to clinical stabilization and ultimately neurological recovery. Our case highlights the challenge of diagnosing serotonin syndrome in the face of preexisting ifosfamide neurotoxicity, as there is significant clinical overlap between these 2 syndromes...
October 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974901/p2y1r-is-involved-in-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-rats-with-experimental-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Jie Wu, Yan Cheng, Rong Zhang, Dong Liu, Yu-Mei Luo, Kun-Lun Chen, Song Ren, Jun Zhang
AIM: To evaluate the role of P2Y1R in visceral hypersensitivity in rats with experimental irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: A rat model of irritable bowel syndrome was generated by intra-colonic administration of acetic acid (AA) and assessed by histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay. Then P2Y1R expression in the colonic tissue was detected by Western blot. In order to explore the regulatory role of P2Y1R in visceral hypersensitivity, an agonist (MRS2365) and an antagonist (MRS2179) of P2Y1R were intra-colonically administered and effects were tested through a colorectal distension test...
September 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974443/toxicological-aspects-of-the-interesterified-fat-from-processed-foods-influences-on-opioid-system-and-its-reward-effects-in-rats
#17
Laura H Milanesi, Karine Roversi, Caren T D Antoniazzi, Hecson J Segat, Maikel Kronbauer, Lívia F D'avila, Verônica T Dias, Marcel H M Sari, Raquel C S Barcelos, Luana H Maurer, Tatiana Emanuelli, Marilise E Burger, Fabíola Trevizol
Considering the high consumption of processed foods, interesterified fat (IF) has been used to replace trans fat, since it may harm nervous system functions. Opioids are intensely used to alleviate pain, and have a highly addictive potential. Therefore, their improper use is related to addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal syndrome. Wistar rats received soybean oil (SO) or IF during gestation, lactation and post-weaning until pups' adolescence. On post-natal day 39, animals received morphine (4 mg/kg i.p.) in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm...
September 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971898/anti-androgen-withdrawal-syndrome-aaws-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#18
Gianmarco Leone, Marcello Tucci, Consuelo Buttigliero, Clizia Zichi, Daniele Pignataro, Paolo Bironzo, Francesca Vignani, Giorgio Scagliotti, Massimo Di Maio
Antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome is an unpredictable event diagnosed in patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer treated with combined androgen blockade therapy. It is defined by Prostate-Specific Antigen value reduction, occasionally associated with a radiological response, that occurs 4 to 6 weeks after first-generation antiandrogen therapy discontinuation. New-generation hormonal therapies, such as enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate, improved overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and recent trials have also shown the efficacy of abiraterone in hormone-sensitive disease...
September 28, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962699/quantitative-prediction-of-fetal-plasma-concentration-of-fluvoxamine-during-dosage-tapering-to-the-mother
#19
Sayo Matsuoka, Satoko Hori, Hiroki Satoh, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yasufumi Sawada
INTRODUCTION: Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been used during pregnancy for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders, the fetal plasma concentration profiles of them remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model to estimate fetal plasma concentration profiles of fluvoxamine, and to clarify the differences with those of paroxetine. METHODS: Perfusion studies using human placentae obtained from full-term pregnant women were conducted to estimate transplacental pharmacokinetic parameters for fluvoxamine...
October 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959452/predicting-early-transition-from-sub-syndromal-presentations-to-major-mental-disorders
#20
Shane P M Cross, Jan Scott, Ian B Hickie
BACKGROUND: Transition from at-risk state to full syndromal mental disorders is underexplored for unipolar and bipolar disorders compared with psychosis. AIMS: Prospective, trans-diagnostic study of rates and predictors of early transition from sub-threshold to full syndromal mental disorder. METHOD: One-year outcome of 243 consenting youth aged 15-25 years with a sub-syndromal presentation of a potentially severe mental disorder. Survival analysis and odds ratio (OR) for predictors of transition identified from baseline clinical and demographic ratings...
September 2017: BJPsych Open
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