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Adam J SanMiguel, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Joseph Horwinski, Qi Zheng, Charles W Bradley, Elizabeth A Grice
Despite critical functions in cutaneous health and disease, it is unclear how resident skin microbial communities are altered by topical antimicrobial interventions commonly used in personal and clinical settings. Here we show that acute exposure to antiseptic treatments elicits rapid but short-term depletion of microbial community diversity and membership. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in a longitudinal treatment study to analyze the effects of topical treatments (ethanol, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, water) on the skin microbiome at two skin sites of disparate microenvironment: forearm and back...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Catherine A Fiala, Linda I Abbott, Cheryl D Carter, Stephen L Hillis, Jessica S Wolf, Meghan Schuster, Rachel Dulski, Elizabeth A Grice, Barbara A Rakel, Sue E Gardner
AIM: The aim of this study is to: 1) develop and evaluate a model to predict severe pain during wound care procedures so that high-risk patients can be targeted for specialised dressings and preventive pain control; and 2) identify biological factors associated with severe pain during wound care procedures so that novel pain control strategies can be developed. BACKGROUND: Wound care procedures such as dressing changes can cause moderate to severe pain in 74% of patients, with nearly half (36%) of all patients experiencing severe pain (rated as 8-10 on a 10-point numeric rating scale) during dressing change...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Martine Grice, Michelina Savino, Timo B Roettger
In order to convey pragmatic functions, a speaker has to select an intonation contour (the tune) in addition to the words that are to be spoken (the text). The tune and text are assumed to be independent of each other, such that any one intonation contour can be produced on different phrases, regardless of the number and nature of the segments they are made up of. However, if the segmental string is too short, certain tunes-especially those with a rising component-call for adjustments to the text. In Italian, for instance, loan words such as "chat" can be produced with a word final schwa when this word occurs at the end of a question...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Michelle Ann Abate, Karly Marie Grice, Christine N Stamper
Comics have been an important locus of queer female identity, community, and politics for generations. Whether taking the form of newspaper strips, comic books, or graphic novels and memoirs, the medium has a long history of featuring female same-sex attraction, relationships, and identity. This special issue explores the past place, current presence, and possible future status of lesbianism in comics. It features essays about cartoonists such as Jennifer Camper, characters such as Wonder Woman, and titles such as Lumberjanes...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Gloria R Grice, Angela R Thomason, Lisa M Meny, Nicole R Pinelli, Jay L Martello, Joseph A Zorek
The experiential component of a doctor of pharmacy curricula is an ideal, yet underutilized vehicle to advance interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives. To date, most experiential-based IPE initiatives occur in a naturally occurring, non-deliberate fashion. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Experiential Education Section formed the Task Force on Intentional Interprofessional Education in Experiential Education in academic year 2015-2016 to explore the issue. This commentary describes the work of the task force, including the following elements: defining intentional interprofessional experiential education as "the explicit effort by preceptors and practice sites to create/foster educational opportunities or activities designed specifically to achieve interprofessional educational competencies;" conducting a systematic literature review to identify examples of intentional interprofessional experiential education in the published literature; surveying faculty with oversight of experiential education programs and preceptors within those programs; and generating recommendations to stakeholders including AACP, pharmacy schools, and experiential education administrators...
April 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Ibrahim Jalloh, Adel Helmy, Duncan Howe, Richard J Shannon, Peter Grice, Andrew Mason, Clare N Gallagher, Michael Murphy, John Pickard, David Menon, Thomas Adrian Carpenter, Peter John Hutchinson, Keri Carpenter
Metabolic abnormalities occur after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Glucose is conventionally regarded as the major energy substrate, although lactate can also be an energy source. We compared 3-13C lactate metabolism in TBI with "normal" control brain and muscle, measuring 13C-glutamine enrichment to assess tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism. Microdialysis catheters in 9 severe TBI patients' brains, 5 non-TBI brain surgical patients, and 5 resting muscle (non-TBI) patients were perfused (24h in brain, 8h in muscle) with 8 mmol/L sodium 3‑13C lactate...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nathan R West, James Dorling, Alice E Thackray, Nicola C Hanson, Samantha E Decombel, David J Stensel, Stuart J Grice
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated ( FTO ) locus are associated with obesity, but lifestyle factors may modulate the obesity risk related to FTO . This study examined the physical activity and dietary patterns of 528 physically active white men and women (mean (SD): 34.9 (9.5) years, 26.6 (4.3) kg·m-2 ) carrying different risk variants of FTO SNP rs9939609. Sex, age, and anthropometric measurements (stature, body mass, and waist circumference) were self-reported using an online questionnaire, and body mass index and waist-to-height ratio were calculated...
2018: Journal of Obesity
Maria Teresa Junqueira Garcia, Fabia Leal Lopes Vasconcelos, Chloe Patricia Raffier, Michael Stephen Roberts, Jeffrey Ernest Grice, Heather Ann Elizabeth Benson, Vania Rodrigues Leite-Silva
It is critical to develop an effective understanding of the interaction between the drug, delivery system and skin in order to predict and assess skin penetration and permeation. Experimental models for the assessment of topical and transdermal delivery systems must permit evaluation of these complex interactions. Whilst in the past animal models were commonly used, recent regulatory guidelines, based on 3R principles (refinement, reduction, replacement), encourage the rational use of animals. Alternative methods have been proposed for use in the development of topical and transdermal delivery systems which are often used in combination...
April 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Dipesh Niraula, Corey Grice, Victor Karpov
We consider the physical effects of dimensional quantization in conductive filaments that underlie operations of some modern electronic devices. We show that, as a result of quantization, a sufficiently thin filament acquires a positive charge. Several applications of this finding include the host material polarization, the stability of filament constrictions, the equilibrium filament radius, polarity in device switching, and quantization of conductance.
April 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Peter T Grice, Nkwam Nkwam
Ureteral inguinal hernias are a well-documented cause of obstructive uropathy with ureteric involvement in the hernia sac. In this unique case, the left-sided inguinal hernia causes extrinsic compression of bilateral ureters outside of the hernia sac leading to chronic obstructive uropathy, which is demonstrated on non-contrast CT and cystogram. This patient was managed with nephrostomy and subsequently antegrade stenting with nephrostomy removal. Prior to nephrostomy removal, nephrostogram demonstrated tapering of the left ureter in the pelvis...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Hai Zhou, Junpeng Zeng, Zhaoning Song, Corey R Grice, Cong Chen, Zehao Song, Dewei Zhao, Hao Wang, Yanfa Yan
Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite micro-crystal (MC) films are attractive candidates for fabricating high-performance large-area self-powered photodetectors (PDs), because of their lower trap-state density and higher carrier mobility than their polycrystalline counterparts and more suitability of synthesizing large lateral area films than their single-crystal counterparts. Here, we report on the fabrication of self-powered all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite MC PDs with high detectivity, using a simple solution synthesis method...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tom Grice, Kat Alcock, Katrina Scior
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the incidence of lived experience of mental health problems amongst UK-based trainee clinical psychologists and factors associated with anticipated disclosure for trainees both with and without lived experience. METHODS: A web-based survey comprising the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, an adapted version of the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale, and questions about lived experience and anticipated likelihood of disclosure...
March 26, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Michael Loesche, Kamyar Farahi, Kimberly Capone, Steven Fakharzadeh, Andrew Blauvelt, Kristina Callis Duffin, Samuel E DePrimo, Ernesto J Muñoz-Elías, Carrie Brodmerkel, Bidisha Dasgupta, Marc Chevrier, Kevin Smith, Joseph Horwinski, Amanda Tyldsley, Elizabeth A Grice
BACKGROUND: Plaque psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the skin, is thought to have a multifactorial etiology, including innate immune system dysregulation, environmental triggers, and genetic susceptibility. PURPOSE: We sought to further understand the role of skin microbiota in psoriasis pathogenesis, as well as their response to therapy. We systematically analyzed dynamic microbiota colonizing psoriasis lesions and adjacent nonlesional skin in 114 patients prior to and during ustekinumab treatment in a Phase 3b clinical trial...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Stuart J Grice, James N Sleigh, M Zameel Cader
Dominant mutations in GARS , encoding the ubiquitous enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS), cause peripheral nerve degeneration and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D). This genetic disorder exemplifies a recurring paradigm in neurodegeneration, in which mutations in essential genes cause selective degeneration of the nervous system. Recent evidence suggests that the mechanism underlying CMT2D involves extracellular neomorphic binding of mutant GlyRS to neuronally-expressed proteins. Consistent with this, our previous studies indicate a non-cell autonomous mechanism, whereby mutant GlyRS is secreted and interacts with the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Kyle A Grice, Graham B Griffin, Phoebus Sun Cao, Cesar Saucedo, Aeshah H Niyazi, Fatimah A Aldakheel, George E Sterbinsky, Robert J LeSuer
The solution-phase structure and electronic relaxation dynamics of zinc bis-8-hydroxyquinoline [Zn(8HQ)2 ] in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were examined using a broad array of spectroscopic techniques, complimented by ab initio calculations of molecular structure. The ground-state structure was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data collected on the Zn K-edge and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) NMR. The complex was found to be monomeric and octahedral, with two bidentate 8-hydroxyquinolate ligands and two DMSO molecules coordinated to the zinc through oxygen atoms...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Alexey S Rzhevskiy, Krishna Telaprolu, Yousuf H Mohammed, Jeffrey E Grice, Michael S Roberts, Yuri G Anissimov
The mathematical model describing drug flux through microporated skin was previously developed. Based on this model, two mathematical equations can be used to predict the microporatio-enhanced transdermal drug flux: the complex primal equation containing a variety of experimentally-determined variables, and the simplified straightforward equation. In this study, experimental transdermal fluxes of three corticosteroids through split-thickness human skin treated with a microneedle roller were measured, and the values of fluxes compared with those predicted using both the more complex and simplified equations...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Shannon D Dehghanpir, Claire H Birkenheuer, Kui Yang, Ryan P Murelli, Lynda A Morrison, Stuart F J Le Grice, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses are ubiquitous in animals and cause economic losses concomitant with many diseases. Most of the domestic animal herpesviruses are within the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, which includes human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Suppression of HSV-1 replication has been reported with α-hydroxytropolones (αHTs), aromatic ring compounds that have broad bioactivity due to potent chelating activity. It is postulated that αHTs inhibit enzymes within the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS). These enzymes require divalent cations for nucleic acid cleavage activity...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Antonina J Kruppa, Chieko Kishi-Itakura, Thomas A Masters, Joanna E Rorbach, Guinevere L Grice, John Kendrick-Jones, James A Nathan, Michal Minczuk, Folma Buss
Mitochondrial quality control is essential to maintain cellular homeostasis and is achieved by removing damaged, ubiquitinated mitochondria via Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we demonstrate that MYO6 (myosin VI), a unique myosin that moves toward the minus end of actin filaments, forms a complex with Parkin and is selectively recruited to damaged mitochondria via its ubiquitin-binding domain. This myosin motor initiates the assembly of F-actin cages to encapsulate damaged mitochondria by forming a physical barrier that prevents refusion with neighboring populations...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
Jacquelyn S Meisel, Georgia Sfyroera, Casey Bartow-McKenney, Ciara Gimblet, Julia Bugayev, Joseph Horwinski, Brian Kim, Jonathan R Brestoff, Amanda S Tyldsley, Qi Zheng, Brendan P Hodkinson, David Artis, Elizabeth A Grice
BACKGROUND: The skin harbors complex communities of resident microorganisms, yet little is known of their physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms that mediate cutaneous host-microbe interactions. Here, we profiled skin transcriptomes of mice reared in the presence and absence of microbiota to elucidate the range of pathways and functions modulated in the skin by the microbiota. RESULTS: A total of 2820 genes were differentially regulated in response to microbial colonization and were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms related to the host-immune response and epidermal differentiation...
January 30, 2018: Microbiome
Eman Abd, Heather A E Benson, Michael S Roberts, Jeffrey E Grice
In this work, we examined enhanced skin delivery of minoxidil applied in nanoemulsions incorporating skin penetration enhancers. Aliquots of fully characterized oil-in-water nanoemulsions (1 mL), containing minoxidil (2%) and the skin penetration enhancer oleic acid or eucalyptol as oil phases, were applied to full-thickness excised human skin in Franz diffusion cells, while aqueous solutions (1 mL) containing minoxidil were used as controls. Minoxidil in the stratum corneum (SC), hair follicles, deeper skin layers, and flux through the skin over 24 h was determined, as well as minoxidil solubility in the formulations and in the SC...
January 25, 2018: Pharmaceutics
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