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Detoxification pertussis

Chun-Ting Yuen, Catpagavalli Asokanathan, Sarah Cook, Naomi Lin, Dorothy Xing
Pertussis toxin (PTx) is a major virulence factor produced by Bordetella pertussis and its detoxified form is one of the major protective antigens in vaccines against whooping cough. Ideally, PTx in the vaccine should be completely detoxified while still preserving immunogenicity. However, this may not always be the case. Due to multilevel reaction mechanisms of chemical detoxification that act on different molecular sites and with different production processes, it is difficult to define a molecular characteristic of a pertussis toxoid...
April 19, 2016: Vaccine
Anja Seubert, Ugo D'Oro, Maria Scarselli, Mariagrazia Pizza
Pertussis toxin (PT) is one of the major virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and the primary component of all pertussis vaccines available to date. Because of its various noxious effects the toxin needs to be detoxified. In all currently available vaccines, detoxification is achieved by treatment with high quantity of chemical agents such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde or hydrogen peroxide. Although effective in detoxification, this chemical treatment alters dramatically the immunological properties of the toxin...
October 2014: Expert Review of Vaccines
Hokyung Oh, Byoung-Guk Kim, Kyung-Tak Nam, Seung-Hwa Hong, Dong-Ho Ahn, Gi-Sub Choi, Hyungjin Kim, Jin-Tae Hong, Byung-Yoon Ahn
Pertussis toxin (PTx) is an essential component of the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine. However, because PTx in its native form is considered too toxic for human vaccine use, it must be inactivated into a stable, nontoxic form by treatment with chemical detoxifying agents or by genetic modification. Therefore, testing for the residual PTx in the aP vaccine is a major quality control step for vaccine manufacturers and regulatory authorities. The histamine sensitization test is currently the standard safety test method for all aP vaccines, regardless of the vaccine formula or the detoxification process, except for those with genetically modified PTx...
June 24, 2013: Vaccine
Yajun Tan, Roland A Fleck, Catpagavalli Asokanathan, Chun-Ting Yuen, Dorothy Xing, Shumin Zhang, Junzhi Wang
Pertussis toxin in its detoxified form is a major component of all current acellular pertussis vaccines. Here we report the membrane translocation and internalization activities of pertussis toxin and various pertussis toxoids using Chinese hamster ovary cells and confocal microscopy based on indirect immunofluorescence labeling. Chemically detoxified pertussis toxoids were able to translocate/internalize into cells at the concentration about 1,000 times higher than the native toxin. Pertussis toxoids detoxified with different procedures (glutaraldehyde, glutaraldehyde plus formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide or genetic mutation) showed differences in fluorescence intensity under the same condition, indicating toxoids from different detoxification methods may have different translocation/internalization activities on cells...
February 2013: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jamie N Sutherland, Christine Chang, Sandra M Yoder, Michael T Rock, Jennifer A Maynard
Despite more than 50 years of vaccination, disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis persists, with rates increasing in industrialized countries over the past decade. This rise may be attributed to several factors, including increased surveillance, emergence of vaccine escape variants, waning immunity in adults, and the introduction of acellular subunit vaccines, which include chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PTd). Two potently protective epitopes on pertussis toxin (PTx) are recognized by the monoclonal antibodies 1B7 and 11E6, which inhibit catalytic and cell-binding activities, respectively...
June 2011: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
M Pizza, M R Fontana, V Scarlato, R Rappuoli
Several pathogens, such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium tetani, Bordetella pertussis, Vibrio cholerae, enterotoxigenic Escherichia co1i (1), and even some emerging pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori (2), produce potent toxins that are responsible for the pathology caused by the bacterium. In most cases the disease, and often even the infection, can be prevented by a vaccine that induces immunity against the toxin. In order to be used in vaccines, the dangerous toxins need to be depleted of their toxic activity in an effective and irreversible manner...
1996: Methods in Molecular Medicine
Daniel J Julian, Christopher J Kershaw, Nigel L Brown, Jon L Hobman
Metal responsive MerR family transcriptional regulators are widespread in bacteria and activate the transcription of genes involved in metal ion detoxification, efflux, or homeostasis, in response to the presence of cognate metal species in the cytoplasm. MerR family regulators recognize and bind to dyad symmetrical DNA sequences in specific promoters that have a spacer region between the -35 and -10 sequences which is longer than the canonical 16-18 bp spacer for other sigma(70)-dependent promoters. In this study we report beta-galactosidase assays of MerR family-regulated gene expression in the multiple metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans...
August 2009: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
S R Gomez, C-T Yuen, C Asokanathan, A Douglas-Bardsley, M J Corbel, J G Coote, R Parton, D K L Xing
Pertussis toxin (PTx) is a major virulence factor produced by Bordetella pertussis. In its detoxified form (PTd), it is an important component of acellular pertussis vaccines although some residual PTx activity may likely be present because of the limitations of the detoxification processes used. Furthermore, different detoxification procedures have been shown to result in different amino acid side-chain modifications for the resulting PTd. The histamine-sensitisation test (HIST) in mice is currently used for the safety testing of these vaccines...
April 30, 2007: Vaccine
Sheena R Gomez, Dorothy K-L Xing, Michael J Corbel, John Coote, Roger Parton, Chun-Ting Yuen
Pertussis toxin (PTx) is a major virulence factor produced by Bordetella pertussis and, in its detoxified form PTd, is an important component of pertussis vaccines. The in vivo histamine sensitization test (HIST) is currently used for the safety testing of these vaccines. However, an alternative test is needed because of large assay variability and ethical concerns with regard to animal usage. PTx has two functionally distinct domains: the enzymatic A-protomer and the B-oligomer that facilitates host-cell binding and entry of PTx into the cell...
September 15, 2006: Analytical Biochemistry
R P Chuprinina, I A Alekseeva, N A Ozeretskovskiĭ
Modern data substantiating the expediency of the use of acellular pertussis vaccine were analyzed. Serious postvaccinal complications caused by the action of the corpuscular pertussis component of adsorbed DPT vaccine served as the basis for the development of acellular pertussis vaccine (APV). During the period of 1990-1996 as many as 8 international field trials of the effectiveness of APV were carried out. The results of these trials and studies were evaluated in accordance with the unified programs and criteria...
January 2006: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Anna Gzyl
Although composition of acellular pertussis vaccines is better defined than whole-cell vaccines, differences in the formulation, content, and detoxification of pertussis vaccine antigens led to a unique character of each of differently produced acellular vaccine. Currently used methods for laboratory evaluation of whole-cell pertussis vaccine efficacy were found not suitable for acellular vaccines. There is a strong need to perform analysis and evaluation of the safety and efficacy profiles of acellular pertussis vaccines combined with other vaccine antigens (e...
2004: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1952: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Mariagrazia Pizza, Maria Rita Fontana, Vincenzo Scarlato, Rino Rappuoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2003: Methods in Molecular Medicine
C Locht
Since 1940, vaccination with whole cell vaccines, composed of Bordetella pertussis extracts, has dramatically reduced the incidence of whooping cough. However, the occurrence of side effects has stimulated research that has resulted in the design of new, acellular vaccines. These vaccines are composed of adhesins, such as filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin, and detoxified pertussis toxin. Detoxification can be achieved by genetic engineering resulting in alterations of specific amino acid residues that are involved in the enzymatic activity or in the target-cell receptor binding activity of the toxin...
May 2001: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
G Del Giudice, R Rappuoli
Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology is making possible the development of new vaccines or the improvement of already existing ones. Recombinant DNA technology, genetic attenuation of bacterial and viral pathogens and their use as vectors for heterologous proteins, expression of microbial antigens in transgenic edible plants, and naked nucleic acid technology represent the most popular approaches hitherto adopted. A successful biotechnological approach to the development of new and improved vaccines has been based on genetic detoxification of bacterial toxins, such as the toxin of Bordetella pertussis, the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, and the toxin of Vibrio cholerae...
November 20, 1999: Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift
B Bolgiano, D T Crane, D Xing, L Williams, C Jones, M J Corbel
Physico-chemical methods are being developed for use in the control and standardization of acellular pertussis vaccines and their individual components. We have compared native and detoxified preparations of the B. pertussis antigens, pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), and the 69-kDa outer membrane protein (P69) using circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE and FPLC gel filtration chromatography. Upon aldehyde detoxification, PT underwent a large change in its intrinsic fluorescence maximum (8-10 nm red-shift) and a large increase in its apparent size, detected by chromatography...
June 1999: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
M J Corbel, D K Xing, B Bolgiano, D J Hockley
The quality control of acellular pertussis vaccines presents particular problems related to the differences in composition and method of detoxification used in the various type of preparation. These vaccines are not amenable to potency assay by the active mouse protection test used for whole-cell pertussis vaccines and assurance of protective activity is problematic. In contrast, monitoring of these vaccines for safety is relatively straightforward and is centred on assays for the lipooligosaccharide endotoxin, active pertussis toxin and absence of reversion to toxicity of detoxified product...
June 1999: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
I Heron, F M Chen, J Fusco
NAVA's acellular pertussis vaccine is based on highly purified pertussis toxin (PT) inactivated with H(2)O(2). PT was analysed using advanced biochemical methodology including mass spectroscopy (LC/MS), yielding mass and peptide mapping information on the subunits. Pertactin, adenylate cyclase, and Fim 1, 2 were below detection levels and only trace amounts of filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) have been identified as a minor impurity. The vaccine does not induce anti-FHA antibodies during the course of a 3-dose primary immunization series in infants...
June 1999: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Y Sato, H Sato
In 1974, the authors reported the isolation and characterization of protective antigens of Bordetella pertussis in mice. With this information, an acellular pertussis vaccine was developed, composed mainly of pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA). Substances causing side effects, especially lipopoly sacahoride (LPS) or endotoxin that cause fever, were removed, and detoxification of the PT by formaldehyde with retention of potency was achieved. In 1981, an acellular pertussis vaccine called the "Adsorbed Purified Pertussis Vaccine" was approved in Japan, in place of the whole-cell pertussis vaccine...
June 1999: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
C L Ju, G C Sheu, Y Cheng, C H Lu
Pertussis toxin (PT) is the major protective antigen of acellular pertussis vaccine (aP). We have established an optimal culture condition for the growth of B. pertussis and the production of PT in a laboratory scale fermentor. It was found that when the dissolved oxygen in medium was supplied with pure oxygen instead of air, the yield of PT was dramatically increased (i.e. from 2-3 mg/l using air to 8-10 mg/l using pure oxygen). PT was purified by affinity chromatography using hydroxyapatite and fetuin-sepharose columns...
May 1997: Zhonghua Minguo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
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