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Ralph M Barnes, Stephanie J Tobin, Heather M Johnston, Noah MacKenzie, Chelsea M Taglang
A series of five experiments examined how the evaluation of a scientific finding was influenced by information about the number of studies that had successfully replicated the initial finding. The experiments also tested the impact of frame (negative, positive) and numeric format (percentage, natural frequency) on the evaluation of scientific findings. In Experiments 1 through 4, an attitude difference score served as the dependent measure, while a measure of choice served as the dependent measure in Experiment 5...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jonathan A Walter, Ariel L Firebaugh, Patrick C Tobin, Kyle J Haynes
Range expansions are a function of population growth and dispersal, and nascent populations often must overcome demographic Allee effects (positive density dependence at low population densities) driven by factors such as mate-finding failure. Given the importance of individual movement to mate finding, links between landscape structure and movement may be critical to range expansion; however, landscape effects on other factors including mortality may be equally or more important. In one of the most comprehensive investigations of the interactions of these processes to date, we combined field experiments, simulation modeling, and analysis of empirical spread patterns to investigate how landscape structure affected the spread of the gypsy moth in Virginia and West Virginia...
December 2016: Ecology
Shawn M Jones, Herbert Van de Sompel, Harihar Shankar, Martin Klein, Richard Tobin, Claire Grover
Increasingly, scholarly articles contain URI references to "web at large" resources including project web sites, scholarly wikis, ontologies, online debates, presentations, blogs, and videos. Authors reference such resources to provide essential context for the research they report on. A reader who visits a web at large resource by following a URI reference in an article, some time after its publication, is led to believe that the resource's content is representative of what the author originally referenced...
2016: PloS One
Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Susan R Fox, Bridget M Smith, Christine James, Erica L Palmisano, Aisha Mohamed, Zeeshan Zahid, Amal H Assa'ad, Mary C Tobin, Ruchi S Gupta
BACKGROUND: Food allergy (FA) is a prevalent condition in the United States, but little is known about its phenotypes in racial minority groups. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize disease phenotypes and disparities in health care utilization among African American (AA), Hispanic, and white children with FA. METHODS: We conducted a large, 2-center, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-17 years with FA seen in allergy/immunology clinics at 2 urban tertiary care centers in the United States...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Eric A Mellon, William H Jin, Jessica M Frakes, Barbara A Centeno, Tobin J Strom, Gregory M Springett, Mokenge P Malafa, Ravi Shridhar, Pamela J Hodul, Sarah E Hoffe
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy response correlates with survival in multiple gastrointestinal malignancies. To potentially augment neoadjuvant response for pancreas adenocarcinoma, we intensified treatment with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) following multi-agent chemotherapy. Using this regimen, we analyzed whether the College of American Pathology (CAP) tumor regression grade (TRG) at pancreatectomy correlated with established response biomarkers and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced (LAPC) pancreatic cancer patients treated according to our institutional clinical pathway who underwent surgical resection with reported TRG (n = 81, median follow-up after surgery 24...
November 25, 2016: Acta Oncologica
Irina Tsoy Nizamutdinova, Giuseppina F Dusio, Olga Yu Gasheva, Hunter Skoog, Richard Tobin, Chander Peddaboina, Cynthia J Meininger, David C Zawieja, M Karen Newell-Rogers, Anatoliy A Gashev
This study aimed to establish mechanistic links between the aging-associated changes in the functional status of mast cells and the altered responses of mesenteric tissue and mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) to acute inflammation. We used an in vivo model of acute peritoneal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide treatment of adult (9-month) and aged (24-month) F-344 rats. We analyzed contractility of isolated MLVs, mast cell activation, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) without and with stabilization of mast cells by cromolyn or blockade of all types of histamine receptors and production of 27 major pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult and aged perilymphatic mesenteric tissues and blood...
November 21, 2016: Aging
Cillian Reardon, Daniel P Tobin, Peter Tierney, Eamonn Delahunt
The aim of our study was to determine if there is a role for manipulation of g force thresholds acquired via micro-technology for accurately detecting collisions in rugby union. In total, 36 players were recruited from an elite Guinness Pro12 rugby union team. Player movement profiles and collisions were acquired via individual global positioning system (GPS) micro-technology units. Players were assigned to a sub-category of positions in order to determine positional collision demands. The coding of collisions by micro-technology at g force thresholds between 2 and 5...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Aidan Hanway, Catherine M Comiskey, Katy Tobin, Ronan F O'Toole
The level of immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries (HBCs) which impacts on the foreign-born TB notification rate is largely unknown. In this work, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological data from 2000 to 2013 from nine European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Crude notification rates were calculated for foreign- and native-born populations and a multiple-linear regression model predicting notification rates with HBC population data was generated...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
Asaf Sadeh, Tobin D Northfield, Jay A Rosenheim
Cannibalism is a widespread behavior, and evidence is abundant for transmission from infected victims to susceptible cannibals in many parasite-host systems. Current theory suggests that cannibalism generally impedes disease spread, because each victim is usually consumed by a single cannibal. Thus, cannibalism merely transfers pathogens from one individual to another without spreading infections to additional hosts. This assumes that cannibalism is the only mode of transmission and that the host population is homogenous...
August 2016: Ecology
Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Faraz Bishehsari, Waqas Hayat, Ahmed Elhassan, Mary C Tobin, Anne M Ditto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Asuka Inoue, Laura Jenkins, Sheikh Zahir Raihan, Rudi Prihandoko, Andrew B Tobin, Graeme Milligan
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can initiate intracellular signalling cascades by coupling to an array of heterotrimeric G proteins and arrestin adaptor proteins. Understanding the contribution of each of these coupling options to GPCR signalling has been hampered by a paucity of tools to selectively perturb receptor function. Here we employ CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to eliminate selected G proteins (Gαq and Gα11) or arrestin2 and arrestin3 from HEK293 cells, together with the elimination of receptor phosphorylation sites, to define the relative contribution of G proteins, arrestins and receptor phosphorylation to the signalling outcomes of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nicole Tobin, Colleen Dugan, Daniel Herr, Zachary Kon, Jenny Forrester, Kate Dolly, Veena Nandwani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Xu Li, Dingbang Ma, Sheen X Lu, Xinyi Hu, Rongfeng Huang, Tong Liang, Tongda Xu, Elaine M Tobin, Hongtao Liu
Light and temperature are two key environmental signals that profoundly affect plant growth and development, but underlying molecular mechanisms of how light and temperature signals affect the circadian clock are largely unknown. Here we report that COR27 and COR28 are regulated not only by low temperatures but also by light signals. COR27 and COR28 are negative regulators of freezing tolerance but positive regulators of flowering, possibly representing a trade-off between freezing tolerance and flowering. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutations in COR27 and COR28 result in period lengthening of various circadian output rhythms and affect central clock gene expression...
November 11, 2016: Plant Cell
Daniel G Tobin, Kristine Keough Forte, Summer Johnson McGee
"Pain contracts" for patients receiving long-term opioid therapy, though well-intentioned, often stigmatize the patient and erode trust between patient and physician. This article discusses how to improve these agreements to promote adherence, safety, trust, and shared decision-making.
November 2016: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Deborah F Mitcheson, Andrew R Bottrill, Katherine Carr, Christopher R Coxon, Celine Cano, Bernard T Golding, Roger J Griffin, Andrew M Fry, Christian Doerig, Richard Bayliss, Andrew B Tobin
BACKGROUND: Examining essential biochemical pathways in Plasmodium falciparum presents serious challenges, as standard molecular techniques such as siRNA cannot be employed in this organism, and generating gene knock-outs of essential proteins requires specialized conditional approaches. In the study of protein kinases, pharmacological inhibition presents a feasible alternative option. However, as in mammalian systems, inhibitors often lack the desired selectivity. Described here is a chemical genetic approach to selectively inhibit Pfnek-2 in P...
November 7, 2016: Malaria Journal
Falko Steinbach, Akbar Dastjerdi, Julie Peake, S Anna La Rocca, Frank P Tobin, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Susanna Williamson
Outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) were first recorded in England in the 1970s and continued to be confirmed until 2002. Retrospective analysis of archived material from one of the last confirmed cases in England in the year 2000 demonstrates the previous existence of a very diverse PED virus strain. Following the outbreaks of PED in North America in 2013, there has been renewed interest in phylogenetic analysis of sequences from PEDV strains worldwide. There is a gap in the available sequence data between the mid 1980s and the mid 2000s...
2016: PeerJ
Kathryn R Fixen, Shawn R Starkenburg, Blake T Hovde, Shannon L Johnson, Chloe R Deodato, Hajnalka E Daligault, Karen W Davenport, Caroline S Harwood, Rose Ann Cattolico
The microalgal division Haptophyta uses a range of nutritional sourcing, including mixotrophy. The genome of a member of this taxon, Chrysochromulina tobin, suggests that interactions with its bacterial cohort are critical for C. tobin physiology. Here, we report the genomes of eight bacterial species in coculture with C. tobin.
November 3, 2016: Genome Announcements
Vanessa Messmer, Morgan S Pratchett, Andrew S Hoey, Andrew J Tobin, Darren J Coker, Steven J Cooke, Timothy D Clark
Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size-dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28...
November 3, 2016: Global Change Biology
Jose Antonio, Anya Ellerbroek, Tobin Silver, Leonel Vargas, Armando Tamayo, Richard Buehn, Corey A Peacock
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high protein diet over a one-year period. Fourteen healthy resistance-trained men completed the study (mean ± SD; age 26.3 ± 3.9 yr; height 178.5 ± 8.4 cm; and average years of training 8.9 ± 3.4 yr). In a randomized crossover design, subjects consumed their habitual or normal diet for 2 months and 4 months and alternated that with a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/d) for 2 months and 4 months. Thus, on average, each subject was on their normal diet for 6 months and a higher protein diet for 6 months...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Yang Yang, Martin A Mosquera, Kwan Skinner, Andres E Becerra, Vasgen A Shamamian, George C Schatz, Mark A Ratner, Tobin J Marks
Silicon-based materials are crucial for conventional electronics. The fascinating properties of the new two-dimensional material silicene, the silicon analogue of graphene (one atom- thick silicon sheets), offer a potential bridge between conventional and molecular electronics. The ground-state configuration of silicene is buckled, which compromises optimal constructive overlap of p orbitals. Because silicene is not planar like graphene, it has a lower, intrinsic, electron/hole mobility than graphene. This motivates a search for improved, alternative, planar ma- terials...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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