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Cardiopulmonary interactions

Sungju Lee, Mehdi Rezaei, Taikyeong Jeong
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation and interaction between the air pollution's components with cardiopulmonary endurance of elderly people in eight regions by using a multi-modal and correlation analysis. Methods: The data of air pollution was collected in eight selected regions in 2013 to 2015. At the same time, total number of 880 male and female, older than 65 year-olds, were investigated based on the cardiopulmonary endurance measurement in the same regions...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Arndt H Kiessling, Harald Keller, Anton Moritz
OBJECTIVES: Minimal extracorporeal circulation techniques and systems (MiECC) may reduce the negative side effects of conventional extracorporeal circulation (ECC). However, it is still unclear as to what this is caused by, the reduced priming volume and hemodilution, or the avoidance of blood-air contact and dispersion of mediastinal debris into the systemic circulation. The aim of the trial was the comparison of MiECC to an open ECC setup (openECC) or a system with reduced blood air and debris interaction (closeECC)...
May 16, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
Antonella LoMauro, Andrea Aliverti
Rationale: It was reported how forceful rhythmic coughing can provide effective blood flow during ventricular fibrillation without direct chest compression. This mechanism of cough-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation constitutes a form of "cardiac massage" secondary to the intrathoracic and intra-abdominal pressure changes during cough. We have previously shown that significant blood shifts (BSs) occurs from the thorax to the extremities during expulsive maneuvers and that abdominal pressure controls the outflow of blood from the splanchnic vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Satinderjit Locham, Muhammad Rizwan, Hanaa Dakour-Aridi, Muhammad Faateh, Besma Nejim, Mahmoud Malas
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, particularly in Western society. It predisposes surgical patients to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of our study was to use a nationally representative vascular database and to compare in-hospital outcomes in obese vs nonobese patients undergoing elective open aortic repair (OAR) and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS: All patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair were identified in the Vascular Quality Initiative database (2003-2017)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Seo Young Ko, Sang Do Shin, Young Sun Ro, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Jeong Ho Park, Seung Chul Lee
INTRODUCTION: The association between the detection time interval (DTI) from the call for ambulance to the detection of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) by the dispatcher and the neurological outcome in dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) is unclear. METHODS: Adults who sustained OHCA with cardiac etiology received DA-CPR between 2013 and 2016 were analyzed. The main predictor was DTI defined as the time interval from the beginning of the emergency call to identification of OHCA by the dispatcher...
June 3, 2018: Resuscitation
Jing-Yi Li, Junsong Gong, Fang Zhu, Jessica Moodie, Amy Newitt, Lavanya Uruthiramoorthy, Davy Cheng, Janet Martin
BACKGROUND: Postoperative bleeding remains a frequent complication after cardiovascular surgery and may contribute to serious morbidity and mortality. Observational studies have suggested a relationship between low endogenous plasma fibrinogen concentration and increased risk of postoperative blood loss in cardiac surgery. Although the transfusion of fibrinogen concentrate has been increasing, potential benefits and risks associated with perioperative fibrinogen supplementation in cardiovascular surgery are not fully understood...
May 31, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Andrej Khandoga, Michael Thomas, Axel Kleespies, Lennart Kühnke, Joachim Andrassy, Antje Habicht, Manfred Stangl, Markus Guba, Martin Angele, Jens Werner, Markus Rentsch
BACKGROUND: Surgical complications following kidney transplantation compromise immediate graft survival. However, the role of early surgical complications in the impairment of long-term survival is not completely established due to various other influences, such as patient comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of surgical complications and overlapping patient comorbidities on graft function and survival after living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT)...
May 31, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Samantha J Snow, Andres R Henriquez, Daniel L Costa, Urmila P Kodavanti
Air pollutant exposures are linked to cardiopulmonary diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, neurobehavioral conditions, and reproductive abnormalities. Significant effort is invested in understanding how pollutants encountered by the lung might induce effects in distant organs. The role of circulating mediators has been predicted; however, their origin and identity have not been confirmed. New evidence has emerged which implicates the role of neuroendocrine sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axes in mediating a wide array of systemic and pulmonary effects...
May 28, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jason Weatherald, Alice Huertas, Athénaïs Boucly, Christophe Guignabert, Yu Taniguchi, Yochai Adir, Mitja Jevnikar, Laurent Savale, Xavier Jaïs, Mingkai Peng, Gérald Simonneau, David Montani, Marc Humbert, Olivier Sitbon
BACKGROUND: An obesity paradox, wherein obese patients have lower mortality, has been described in cardiopulmonary diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Our objective was to determine whether obesity and body mass index (BMI) are associated with mortality in patients with PAH. METHODS: We assessed incident patients with idiopathic, drug-induced, and heritable PAH from the French PAH Registry. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to assess the association between BMI and obesity with all-cause mortality...
May 22, 2018: Chest
Piritta Anniina Setälä, Ilkka Tapani Virkkunen, Antti Jaakko Kämäräinen, Heini Sisko Annamari Huhtala, Janne Severi Virta, Arvi Mikael Yli-Hankala, Sanna Elisa Hoppu
BACKGROUND: Active compression-decompression (ACD) devices have enhanced end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ) output in experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) studies. However, the results in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients have shown inconsistent outcomes, and earlier studies lacked quality control of CPR attempts. We compared manual CPR with ACD-CPR by measuring ETCO2 output using an audiovisual feedback defibrillator to ensure continuous high quality resuscitation attempts...
May 16, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Phoebe A Stapleton, Christopher J Wingard, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, Alison C Holloway, Judith T Zelikoff, Thomas B Knudsen, Lynette K Rogers
Xenobiotic exposures affect the maternal and/or in utero environment resulting in impairments in fetal development. During the period of rapid fetal growth, developing cardiovascular systems are especially vulnerable to their environment. Furthermore, fetal exposures can evoke changes in epigenetic signatures that result in permanent modifications in gene expression. This symposium focused on the intersection between maternal and fetal exposure and the developing cardiovascular system. The impact of maternal exposures on prenatal development is of major concern for regulatory agencies given the unique vulnerability of the embryo/fetus to environmental factors, the importance of vascular biology to maternal-fetal interactions, and the adverse consequences of vascular disruption to children's health...
April 27, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Allan K Alencar, Fábio I Carvalho, Ananssa M Silva, Sabrina T Martinez, Jorge A Calasans-Maia, Carlos M Fraga, Eliezer J Barreiro, Gisele Zapata-Sudo, Roberto T Sudo
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, which causes right ventricle (RV) pressure overload and results in right sided heart failure and death. This work investigated the effectiveness of a combined therapy with PDE5 inhibitor (PDE5i) and a new adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist in mitigating monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH in rats. METHODS: An in vitro isobolographic analysis was performed to identify possible synergistic relaxation effect between sildenafil and LASSBio 1359 in rat pulmonary arteries (PAs)...
2018: PloS One
Keisho Katayama, Jasdeep Kaur, Benjamin E Young, Thales C Barbosa, Shigehiko Ogoh, Paul J Fadel
Previous studies have shown that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is reduced during low- and mild-intensity dynamic leg exercise. It has been suggested that such inhibition is mediated by loading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors and that this effect is overridden by muscle metaboreflex activation with higher intensity exercise. However, limited data are available regarding the interaction between the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and the muscle metaboreflex. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary baroreflex-mediated inhibition of MSNA is attenuated during high intensity muscle metaboreflex activation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Akira Yamashita, Tetsuo Maeda, Yasuhiro Myojo, Yukihiro Wato, Keisuke Ohta, Hideo Inaba
PURPOSE: To investigate temporal variations in dispatcher-assisted and bystander-initiated resuscitation efforts and their association with survival after bystander-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the neurologically favorable 1-month survival and the parameters related to dispatcher assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) and bystander CPR (BCPR) for 227,524 OHCA patients between 2007 and 2013 in Japan...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chuong Ngo, Stephan Dahlmanns, Thomas Vollmer, Berno Misgeld, Steffen Leonhardt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This work introduces an object-oriented computational model to study cardiopulmonary interactions in humans. METHODS: Modeling was performed in object-oriented programing language Matlab Simscape, where model components are connected with each other through physical connections. Constitutive and phenomenological equations of model elements are implemented based on their non-linear pressure-volume or pressure-flow relationship. The model includes more than 30 physiological compartments, which belong either to the cardiovascular or respiratory system...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Tione Buranda, Catherine Gineste, Yang Wu, Virginie Bondu, Dominique Perez, Kaylin R Lake, Bruce S Edwards, Larry A Sklar
Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which infects more than 200,000 people worldwide. Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause the most severe form of HCPS, with case fatality ratios of 30%-40%. There are no specific therapies or vaccines for SNV. Using high-throughput flow cytometry, we screened the Prestwick Chemical Library for small-molecule inhibitors of the binding interaction between UV-inactivated and fluorescently labeled SNVR18 particles, and decay-accelerating factor (DAF) expressed on Tanoue B cells...
April 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Stefanie Keymel, Benedikt Schueller, Roberto Sansone, Rabea Wagstaff, Stephan Steiner, Malte Kelm, Christian Heiss
Introduction: Epidemiological studies have shown increased morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to characterize the oxygen dependence of endothelial function in patients with CAD and coexisting COPD. Material and methods: In CAD patients with and without COPD ( n = 33), we non-invasively measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the brachial artery (BA), forearm blood flow (FBF), and perfusion of the cutaneous microcirculation with laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI)...
March 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
N Dvirnik, E P Belley-Cote, H Hanif, P J Devereaux, A Lamy, J M Dieleman, J Vincent, R P Whitlock
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces a systemic inflammatory reaction that may contribute to postoperative complications. Preventing this reaction with steroids may improve outcomes. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the impact of prophylactic steroids on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing perioperative corticosteroid administration with a control group in adults undergoing CPB...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Lawrence G Rudski, Luna Gargani, William F Armstrong, Patrizio Lancellotti, Steven J Lester, Ekkehard Grünig, Michele D'Alto, Meriam Åström Aneq, Francesco Ferrara, Rajeev Saggar, Rajan Saggar, Robert Naeije, Eugenio Picano, Nelson B Schiller, Eduardo Bossone
The cardiopulmonary vascular system represents a key determinant of prognosis in several cardiorespiratory diseases. Although right heart catheterization is considered the gold standard for assessing pulmonary hemodynamics, a comprehensive noninvasive evaluation including left and right ventricular reserve and function and cardiopulmonary interactions remains highly attractive. Stress echocardiography is crucial in the evaluation of many cardiac conditions, typically coronary artery disease but also heart failure and valvular heart disease...
May 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Lingbo Cheng, Mojtaba Sharifi, Mahdi Tavakoli
BACKGROUND: Beating-heart intracardiac surgery promises significant benefits for patients compared with cardiopulmonary bypass based procedures. However, the fast motions of the heart introduce serious challenges for surgeons. METHODS: In this work, a new impedance-controlled master-slave telerobotic system is developed to help perform anchor deployment for mitral valve annuloplasty under the guidance of live ultrasound images of the heart. The proposed bilateral teleoperation system can both reflect the non-oscillatory portion of slave-heart tissue interaction force on the surgeon's hand as haptic feedback and implement rapid compensation for the beating heart's motion...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
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