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Postural control

Diego L Guarin, Robert E Kearney
The mechanical properties of a joint are determined by the combination of intrinsic and reflex mechanisms. However, in some situations the reflex contributions are small so that intrinsic mechanisms play the dominant role in the control of posture and movement. The intrinsic mechanisms, characterized by the joint compliance, can be described well by a second order, linear model for small perturbations around an operating point defined by mean position and torque. However, the compliance parameters depend strongly on the operating point...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Stefano Strano, Alessandra Fanciulli, Massimiliano Rizzo, Paolo Marinelli, Paolo Palange, Dorina Tiple, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Giovanni Calcagnini, Federica Censi, Giuseppe Meco, Carlo Colosimo
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of Parkinson's disease (PD) includes a wide spectrum of non-motor features, including cardiovascular autonomic failure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiovascular autonomic status and cardiac functional capacity in drug-naïve PD patients. METHODS: 18 newly-diagnosed PD patients underwent laboratory cardiovascular autonomic function tests using power spectral analysis of the R-R interval, blood pressure (BP) short-term variability and non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity (BRS)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Maddibande Ramachar Sreevathsa, Khyati Melanta
INTRODUCTION: The most common cause of gas under diaphragm is hollow viscous perforation. In 10% of cases it can be due to rare causes, both abdominal and extra-abdominal, one of them being intra abdominal infection by gas forming organisms. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: A 51 year old male patient, a poorly controlled diabetic, presented with a second episode of severe pain abdomen and abdominal distention, with lower abdominal tenderness. Plain Xray of the abdomen in erect posture showed gas under the right dome of diaphragm and ultrasound abdomen confirmed gross pneumoperitoneum...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Rutger M J de Zoete, Peter G Osmotherly, Darren A Rivett, Scott F Farrell, Suzanne J Snodgrass
OBJECTIVE: To (1) identify reported tests used to assess sensorimotor control in individuals with idiopathic neck pain and (2) investigate whether these test can quantify differences between individuals with idiopathic neck pain and healthy individuals. DATA SOURCES: Databases AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, SCOPUS and SportDiscus. STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting sensorimotor outcomes in individuals with idiopathic neck pain or healthy individuals were identified...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Maitê M Russo, Thiago Lemos, Luís A Imbiriba, Nathalia L Ribeiro, Claudia D Vargas
Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Marcio Jose Dos Santos, Renato Claudino, Giovana Zarpellon Mazzo
The goal of this study was to investigate the timing of compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) in older adults during body perturbations in the mediolateral direction, circumstances that increase their risk of falls. The latencies of leg and trunk muscle activation to body perturbations at the shoulder level and variables of center of pressure (COP) excursion, which characterize postural stability, were analyzed in 40 older adults (non-fallers and fallers evenly split) and in 20 young participants. The older adults exhibited longer latencies of muscular activation in 8 out of 15 postural muscles as compared to young participants; for three muscles, the latencies were longer for the older fallers than non-fallers...
October 21, 2016: Motor Control
Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Saeed Talebian, Akbar Biglarian, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh, Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad
Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR) participated in this analytic cross-sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Mitsuhiro Nishida, Takeo Nagura, Nobuyuki Fujita, Naobumi Hosogane, Takashi Tsuji, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kota Watanabe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural, lateral curvature with rotation of the spine that develops around puberty. The influence of this spinal deformity on three-dimensional trunk movements during gait has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spinal curve pattern (single thoracic curve vs. single lumbar curve) on trunk kinematics during gait. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with a single thoracic curve (Lenke type 1) and 17 patients with a single lumbar curve (Lenke type 5) were included in this study...
October 11, 2016: Gait & Posture
Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder, Seymon M Slobounov, John Henry Challis, Karl Maxim Newell
This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe) Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe) Up) and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length) had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat) platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC) dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy) as slope angle increased...
2016: PloS One
Curtis D Westersund, Jeffrey Scholten, Raymond J Turner
OBJECTIVE: Clinical observation and anecdotal reports suggest changes can occur to dental occlusion following intervention with the National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association (NUCCA) procedure. This case controlled study discerned if occlusion changes are measurable using a dental force plate (T-Scan®) following an adjustment to the craniocervical junction (CCJ). METHODS: A degree of case control was established by active patients being assessed twice prior to and following intervention...
October 20, 2016: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Benjamin Scharnweber, Frederic Adjami, Gabriele Schuster, Stefan Kopp, Jörg Natrup, Christina Erbe, Daniela Ohlendorf
OBJECTIVE: The number of studies investigating correlations between the temporomandibular system and body posture, postural control or plantar pressure distribution is continuously increasing. If a connection can be found, it is often of minor influence or for only a single parameter. However, small subject groups are critical. This study was conducted to define correlations between dental parameters, postural control and plantar pressure distribution in healthy males. METHODS: In this study, 87 male subjects with an average age of 25...
October 20, 2016: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso de Sá, Iara Kristine Fagundes, Talita Bastos Araújo, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira, Francis Meire Fávero
The aim was to describe trunk control in ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 50 DMD patients, (M age = 16.7 years) who underwent the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). A seven-level scale of trunk control was used (1: head control only; 7: control of entire trunk while unsupported). Static, active and reactive posture control were evaluated in ambulant and non-ambulant patients. Inter-rater reliability for all assessments was evaluated by calculating the kappa coefficient...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Eric N Beck, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs control of well-learned movements. Movement control improvements are found when individuals complete tasks while focusing attention externally on manipulating an object, which is argued to occur due to automatic processing associated with well-learned movements. Focusing attention internally (on movements of ones' limbs) is believed to involve conscious control networks, and hinders movement performance. Previous work has found that an external focus of attention improved postural stability in individuals with PD (compared to internal), but this was when patients were taking dopamine medication, which modulates basal ganglia functioning responsible for well-learned movements...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Carolina Souza Neves da Costa, Sandra L Saavedra, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Marjorie H Woollacott
BACKGROUND: External support has been viewed as an important biomechanical constraint for children with deficits in postural control. Nonlinear analysis of head stability is necessary to confirm benefits of interaction between external trunk support and level of trunk control. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of biomechanical constraints (trunk support) on neural control of head stability during development of trunk control. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental repeated measure study...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Simon Steib, Peter Zahn, Christine Zu Eulenburg, Klaus Pfeifer, Astrid Zech
BACKGROUND: Female handball athletes are at a particular risk of sustaining lower extremity injuries. The study examines time-dependent adaptations of static and dynamic balance as potential injury risk factors to a specific warm-up program focusing on neuromuscular control. METHODS: Fourty one (24.0 ± 5.9 years) female handball athletes were randomized to an intervention or control group. The intervention group implemented a 15-min specific neuromuscular warm-up program, three times per week for eleven weeks, whereas the control group continued with their regular warm-up...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Arnaldina Sampaio, Elisa A Marques, Jorge Mota, Joana Carvalho
This study examined the effect of a Multicomponent Training (MT) intervention on cognitive function, functional fitness and anthropometric variables in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-seven institutionalized elders (84.05 ± 5.58 years) clinically diagnosed with AD (mild and moderate stages) were divided into two groups: Experimental Group (EG, n = 19) and Control Group (CG, n = 18). The EG participated in a six-month supervised MT program (aerobic, muscular resistance, flexibility and postural exercises) of 45-55 minutes/session, twice/week...
October 18, 2016: Dementia
Elizabeth E Hibberd, Kevin G Laudner, Kristen L Kucera, David J Berkoff, Bing Yu, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Subacromial space distance and forward head and shoulder posture are common characteristics resulting from swim training. These alterations can cause abnormal scapular kinematics and positioning, potentially increasing compression of structures in the subacromial space and increasing the risk for the development of swimmer's shoulder. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the swim training season on subacromial space distance and forward head and forward shoulder posture as well as to determine the relationship between these variables...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Cinzia Nasuti, Gloria Brunori, Piera Eusepi, Lisa Marinelli, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Rosita Gabbianelli
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein changes, mitochondrial complex I defects and dopamine loss, observed in the striatum of rats exposed to the pesticide permethrin in early life, could represent neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, an animal model of PD should also fulfill criteria of face and predictive validities. This study was designed to: 1) verify dopaminergic status in the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta; 2) recognize non-motor symptoms; 3) investigate the time-course development of motor disabilities; 4) assess L-Dopa effectiveness on motor symptoms in rats previously exposed to permethrin in early life...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Martin Alfuth
The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to investigate if using textured or other types of stimulating insoles improve gait characteristics and balance/postural control in patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Primary outcomes for balance were the center of pressure (CoP) displacement and CoP velocity/sway rate. Primary outcomes for gait were the cadence, velocity, and step length. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were used to verify the efficacy of wearing the insoles on gait and balance outcome measures...
October 11, 2016: Gait & Posture
Cindy T Y Lam, Graham E Trope, Yvonne M Buys
PURPOSE: To measure the influence of body weight on postural intraocular pressure (IOP) changes and to determine if significant weight loss effects IOP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective case-control study 25 morbidly obese subjects scheduled for bariatric surgery and 25 age-matched and sex-matched normal weight controls were recruited. Subjects had tonometry performed in 7 positions with the order randomized: sitting with the neck in neutral position, neck flexion at 30 degrees, extension at 30 degrees, supine, right, and left lateral decubitus, and with the head and upper body elevated at 30 degrees...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
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