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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903561/keeping-weight-off-study-protocol-of-an-rct-to-investigate-brain-changes-associated-with-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction
#1
Carl Fulwiler, Julia A Siegel, Jeroan Allison, Milagros C Rosal, Judson Brewer, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890474/an-exploratory-study-of-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-for-emotional-eating
#2
Emily Levoy, Asimina Lazaridou, Judson Brewer, Carl Fulwiler
Emotional eating is an important predictor of weight loss and weight regain after weight loss. This two part study's primary aim was to explore changes in emotional eating in a general population of individuals taking the Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, with a secondary aim to explore whether changes in mindfulness predicted changes in emotional eating. Self-reported survey data exploring these questions were collected before and after the intervention for two sequential studies (Study 1 and Study 2)...
November 24, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693614/neural-stress-reactivity-relates-to-smoking-outcomes-and-differentiates-between-mindfulness-and-cognitive-behavioral-treatments
#3
Hedy Kober, Judson A Brewer, Keri L Height, Rajita Sinha
Stress and negative affect are known contributors to drug use and relapse, and several known treatments for addictions include strategies for managing them. In the current study, we administered a well-established stress provocation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to 23 participants who completed either mindfulness training (MT; N=11) or the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking (FFS; N=12), which is a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for smoking cessation. Across the entire sample, we found that stress reactivity in several brain regions including the amygdala and anterior/mid insula was related to reductions in smoking after treatment, as well as at 3-month post-treatment follow-up...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921712/source-space-eeg-neurofeedback-links-subjective-experience-with-brain-activity-during-effortless-awareness-meditation
#4
Remko van Lutterveld, Sean D Houlihan, Prasanta Pal, Matthew D Sacchet, Cinque McFarlane-Blake, Payal R Patel, John S Sullivan, Alex Ossadtchi, Susan Druker, Clemens Bauer, Judson A Brewer
BACKGROUND: Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal...
February 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26535904/development-and-validation-of-the-behavioral-tendencies-questionnaire
#5
Nicholas T Van Dam, Anna Brown, Tom B Mole, Jake H Davis, Willoughby B Britton, Judson A Brewer
At a fundamental level, taxonomy of behavior and behavioral tendencies can be described in terms of approach, avoid, or equivocate (i.e., neither approach nor avoid). While there are numerous theories of personality, temperament, and character, few seem to take advantage of parsimonious taxonomy. The present study sought to implement this taxonomy by creating a questionnaire based on a categorization of behavioral temperaments/tendencies first identified in Buddhist accounts over fifteen hundred years ago. Items were developed using historical and contemporary texts of the behavioral temperaments, described as "Greedy/Faithful", "Aversive/Discerning", and "Deluded/Speculative"...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26482755/mindfulness-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-state-of-the-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-theoretical-framework
#6
REVIEW
Eric B Loucks, Zev Schuman-Olivier, Willoughby B Britton, David M Fresco, Gaelle Desbordes, Judson A Brewer, Carl Fulwiler
The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e...
December 2015: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26046612/the-psychological-benefits-from-reconceptualizing-music-making-as-mindfulness-practice
#7
Matthew Steinfeld, Judson Brewer
While the music psychology and education literatures have devoted considerable attention to how musical instrumentalists practice their instruments, less formal scholarly attention has been given in consideration of what it means to maintain a musical "practice" over time and across context. In this paper, the practice of mindfulness meditation is used as heuristic, arguing for a view of mindfulness meditation as a formalized de-specialization of the infinite number of other activities with which people can achieve mindfulness...
June 2015: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25904238/meditation-leads-to-reduced-default-mode-network-activity-beyond-an-active-task
#8
Kathleen A Garrison, Thomas A Zeffiro, Dustin Scheinost, R Todd Constable, Judson A Brewer
Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest, despite other studies having reported differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, in this study we compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate the findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation, beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks...
September 2015: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25884648/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-smartphone-based-mindfulness-training-for-smoking-cessation-a-study-protocol
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kathleen A Garrison, Prasanta Pal, Rahil Rojiani, Jesse Dallery, Stephanie S O'Malley, Judson A Brewer
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is responsible for the death of about 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. Mindfulness training has shown preliminary efficacy as a behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Recent advances in mobile health suggest advantages to smartphone-based smoking cessation treatment including smartphone-based mindfulness training. This study evaluates the efficacy of a smartphone app-based mindfulness training program for improving smoking cessation rates at 6-months follow-up...
April 14, 2015: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25221523/a-computational-account-of-borderline-personality-disorder-impaired-predictive-learning-about-self-and-others-through-bodily-simulation
#10
REVIEW
Sarah K Fineberg, Matthew Steinfeld, Judson A Brewer, Philip R Corlett
Social dysfunction is a prominent and disabling aspect of borderline personality disorder. We reconsider traditional explanations for this problem, especially early disruption in the way an infant feels physical care from its mother, in terms of recent developments in computational psychiatry. In particular, social learning may depend on reinforcement learning though embodied simulations. Such modeling involves calculations based on structures outside the brain such as face and hands, calculations on one's own body that are used to make inferences about others...
2014: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25082484/mindfulness-in-the-military
#11
EDITORIAL
Judson Brewer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24944863/bold-signal-and-functional-connectivity-associated-with-loving-kindness-meditation
#12
Kathleen A Garrison, Dustin Scheinost, R Todd Constable, Judson A Brewer
Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as "may all beings be happy," to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups...
May 2014: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24611853/finding-the-right-match-mindfulness-training-may-potentiate-the-therapeutic-effect-of-nonjudgment-of-inner-experience-on-smoking-cessation
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Zev Schuman-Olivier, Bettina B Hoeppner, A Eden Evins, Judson A Brewer
Mindfulness training (MT) is an emerging therapeutic modality for addictive disorders. Nonjudgment of inner experience, a component of mindfulness, may influence addiction treatment response. To test whether this component influences smoking cessation, tobacco smokers (n = 85) in a randomized control trial of MT vs. Freedom from Smoking (FFS), a standard cognitive-behaviorally-oriented treatment, were divided into split-half subgroups based on baseline Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire nonjudgment subscale...
April 2014: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24244224/why-is-it-so-hard-to-pay-attention-or-is-it-mindfulness-the-factors-of-awakening-and-reward-based-learning
#14
Judson A Brewer, Jake H Davis, Joseph Goldstein
Though relatively new to Western psychological and spiritual cultures, mindfulness training is becoming more widespread in the general public and is beginning to show promise therapeutically for maladies ranging from generalized stress to specific addictions. However, difficulties remain both with individuals being able to learn core concepts and techniques, such as concentration meditation, and more broadly, with treatment interventions not being optimized to helping individuals learn these. In this manuscript, we examine possible contributing factors to these difficulties...
March 1, 2013: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24106472/what-about-the-self-is-processed-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex
#15
REVIEW
Judson A Brewer, Kathleen A Garrison, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli
In the past decade, neuroimaging research has begun to identify key brain regions involved in self-referential processing, most consistently midline structures such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The majority of studies have employed cognitive tasks such as judgment about trait adjectives or mind wandering, that have been associated with increased PCC activity. Conversely, tasks that share an element of present-centered attention (being "on task"), ranging from working memory to meditation, have been associated with decreased PCC activity...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24033438/the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-as-a-plausible-mechanistic-target-of-meditation-findings-from-neuroimaging
#16
Judson A Brewer, Kathleen A Garrison
There has been an increased interest in mindfulness and meditation training over the past decade. As evidenced by exponential growth in the number of publications since the beginning of the 21st century, progressively more is becoming known about both the clinical efficacy and underlying neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training. This paper briefly highlights psychological models of stress that converge between ancient and modern day (e.g., operant conditioning); identifies key brain regions that, with these models, are biologically plausible targets for mindfulness (e...
January 2014: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23964222/effortless-awareness-using-real-time-neurofeedback-to-investigate-correlates-of-posterior-cingulate-cortex-activity-in-meditators-self-report
#17
Kathleen A Garrison, Juan F Santoyo, Jake H Davis, Thomas A Thornhill, Catherine E Kerr, Judson A Brewer
Neurophenomenological studies seek to utilize first-person self-report to elucidate cognitive processes related to physiological data. Grounded theory offers an approach to the qualitative analysis of self-report, whereby theoretical constructs are derived from empirical data. Here we used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to assess how the first-person experience of meditation relates to neural activity in a core region of the default mode network-the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). We analyzed first-person data consisting of meditators' accounts of their subjective experience during runs of a real time fMRI neurofeedback study of meditation, and third-person data consisting of corresponding feedback graphs of PCC activity during the same runs...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23684866/real-time-fmri-links-subjective-experience-with-brain-activity-during-focused-attention
#18
Kathleen A Garrison, Dustin Scheinost, Patrick D Worhunsky, Hani M Elwafi, Thomas A Thornhill, Evan Thompson, Clifford Saron, Gaƫlle Desbordes, Hedy Kober, Michelle Hampson, Jeremy R Gray, R Todd Constable, Xenophon Papademetris, Judson A Brewer
Recent advances in brain imaging have improved the measure of neural processes related to perceptual, cognitive and affective functions, yet the relation between brain activity and subjective experience remains poorly characterized. In part, it is a challenge to obtain reliable accounts of participant's experience in such studies. Here we addressed this limitation by utilizing experienced meditators who are expert in introspection. We tested a novel method to link objective and subjective data, using real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI) to provide participants with feedback of their own brain activity during an ongoing task...
November 1, 2013: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23265088/mindfulness-training-for-smoking-cessation-moderation-of-the-relationship-between-craving-and-cigarette-use
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hani M Elwafi, Katie Witkiewitz, Sarah Mallik, Thomas A Thornhill, Judson A Brewer
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the US, while abstinence rates remain modest. Smoking has been shown to be perpetuated by operant conditioning, notably negative reinforcement (e.g., smoking to relieve negative affective states). Mindfulness training (MT) shows promise for smoking cessation, by potentially altering an individual's tendency to smoke in response to craving. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of MT and mindfulness practice on the relationship between smoking and craving after receiving four weeks of MT...
June 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22642859/craving-to-quit-psychological-models-and-neurobiological-mechanisms-of-mindfulness-training-as-treatment-for-addictions
#20
REVIEW
Judson A Brewer, Hani M Elwafi, Jake H Davis
Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained suboptimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. These early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement)...
June 2013: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
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