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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696613/implicit-and-explicit-false-belief-development-in-preschool-children
#1
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Angela D Friederici, Tania Singer, Nikolaus Steinbeis
The ability to represent the mental states of other agents is referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). A developmental breakthrough in ToM consists of understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. Recently, infants younger than 2 years of age have been shown to pass novel implicit false belief tasks. However, the processes underlying these tasks and their relation to later-developing explicit false belief understanding, as well as to other cognitive abilities, are not yet understood. Here, we study a battery of implicit and explicit false belief tasks in 3- and 4-year-old children, relating their performance to linguistic abilities and executive functions...
October 2, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683630/physical-rehabilitation-for-lung-transplant-candidates-and-recipients-an-evidence-informed-clinical-approach
#2
REVIEW
Lisa Wickerson, Dmitry Rozenberg, Tania Janaudis-Ferreira, Robin Deliva, Vincent Lo, Gary Beauchamp, Denise Helm, Chaya Gottesman, Polyana Mendes, Luciana Vieira, Margaret Herridge, Lianne G Singer, Sunita Mathur
Physical rehabilitation of lung transplant candidates and recipients plays an important in optimizing physical function prior to transplant and facilitating recovery of function post-transplant. As medical and surgical interventions in lung transplantation have evolved over time, there has been a demographic shift of individuals undergoing lung transplantation including older individuals, those with multiple co-morbidites, and candidates with respiratory failure requiring bridging to transplantation. These changes have an impact on the rehabilitation needs of lung transplant candidates and recipients...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617653/where-the-narcissistic-mind-wanders-increased-self-related-thoughts-are-more-positive-and-future-oriented
#3
Philipp Kanske, Marjan Sharifi, Jonathan Smallwood, Isabel Dziobek, Tania Singer
Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608360/boosting-recovery-rather-than-buffering-reactivity-higher-stress-induced-oxytocin-secretion-is-associated-with-increased-cortisol-reactivity-and-faster-vagal-recovery-after-acute-psychosocial-stress
#4
Veronika Engert, Anna M Koester, Antje Riepenhausen, Tania Singer
Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience...
August 31, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550866/stimulus-driven-reorienting-impairs-executive-control-of-attention-evidence-for-a-common-bottleneck-in-anterior-insula
#5
Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Tania Singer, Philipp Kanske
A classical model of human attention holds that independent neural networks realize stimulus-driven reorienting and executive control of attention. Questioning full independence, the two functions do, however, engage overlapping networks with activations in cingulo-opercular regions such as anterior insula (AI) and a reverse pattern of activation (stimulus-driven reorienting), and deactivation (executive control) in temporoparietal junction (TPJ). To test for independent versus shared neural mechanisms underlying stimulus-driven and executive control of attention, we used fMRI and a task that isolates individual from concurrent demands in both functions...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522089/the-neural-component-process-architecture-of-endogenously-generated-emotion
#6
Haakon G Engen, Philipp Kanske, Tania Singer
Despite the ubiquity of endogenous emotions and their role in both resilience and pathology, the processes supporting their generation are largely unknown. We propose a neural component process model of endogenous generation of emotion (EGE) and test it in two fMRI experiments (N=32/293) where participants generated and regulated positive and negative emotions based on internal representations, using self-chosen generation methods. EGE activated nodes of salience (SN), default mode (DMN), and frontoparietal control (FPCN) networks...
August 13, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445213/neural-correlates-of-metacognitive-ability-and-of-feeling-confident-a-large-scale-fmri-study
#7
Pascal Molenberghs, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Anne Boeckler, Tania Singer, Philipp Kanske
One important aspect of metacognition is the ability to accurately evaluate one's performance. People vary widely in their metacognitive ability and in general are too confident when evaluating their performance. This often leads to poor decision making with potentially disastrous consequences. To further our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these processes, this fMRI study investigated inter-individual differences in metacognitive ability and effects of trial-by-trial variation in subjective feelings of confidence when making metacognitive assessments...
July 21, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381930/helping-from-the-heart-voluntary-upregulation-of-heart-rate-variability-predicts-altruistic-behavior
#8
Boris Bornemann, Bethany E Kok, Anne Böckler, Tania Singer
Our various daily activities continually require regulation of our internal state. These regulatory processes covary with changes in High Frequency Heart Rate Variability (HF-HRV), a marker of parasympathetic activity. Specifically, incidental increases in HF-HRV accompany positive social engagement behavior and prosocial action. Little is known about deliberate regulation of HF-HRV and the role of voluntary parasympathetic regulation in prosocial behavior. Here, we present a novel biofeedback task that measures the ability to deliberately increase HF-HRV...
September 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318635/the-wandering-mind-in-borderline-personality-disorder-instability-in-self-and-other-related-thoughts
#9
Philipp Kanske, Lars Schulze, Isabel Dziobek, Hannah Scheibner, Stefan Roepke, Tania Singer
Diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) include instability in identity and interpersonal relationships. Here, we probed whether instability is already present in BPD patients' thoughts about themselves and others. We tested BPD patients (N=27) and healthy controls (N=25) with a mind-wandering task that assesses content and variability of stimulus-independent self-generated thoughts. Multi-level modeling revealed that while BPD patients and healthy controls mind-wander to a similar extent, BPD patients' thoughts are colored predominantly negatively...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151776/substrates-of-metacognition-on-perception-and-metacognition-on-higher-order-cognition-relate-to-different-subsystems-of-the-mentalizing-network
#10
Sofie L Valk, Boris C Bernhardt, Anne Böckler, Philipp Kanske, Tania Singer
Humans have the ability to reflect upon their perception, thoughts, and actions, known as metacognition (MC). The brain basis of MC is incompletely understood, and it is debated whether MC on different processes is subserved by common or divergent networks. We combined behavioral phenotyping with multi-modal neuroimaging to investigate whether structural substrates of individual differences in MC on higher-order cognition (MC-C) are dissociable from those underlying MC on perceptual accuracy (MC-P). Motivated by conceptual work suggesting a link between MC and cognitive perspective taking, we furthermore tested for overlaps between MC substrates and mentalizing networks...
October 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129794/are-strong-empathizers-better-mentalizers-evidence-for-independence-and-interaction-between-the-routes-of-social-cognition
#11
Philipp Kanske, Anne Böckler, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Franca H Parianen Lesemann, Tania Singer
Although the processes that underlie sharing others' emotions (empathy) and understanding others' mental states (mentalizing, Theory of Mind) have received increasing attention, it is yet unclear how they relate to each other. For instance, are people who strongly empathize with others also more proficient in mentalizing? And (how) do the neural networks supporting empathy and mentalizing interact? Assessing both functions simultaneously in a large sample (N = 178), we show that people's capacities to empathize and mentalize are independent, both on a behavioral and neural level...
September 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122031/decoding-the-charitable-brain-empathy-perspective-taking-and-attention-shifts-differentially-predict-altruistic-giving
#12
Anita Tusche, Anne Böckler, Philipp Kanske, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Tania Singer
UNLABELLED: Altruistic behavior varies considerably across people and decision contexts. The relevant computational and motivational mechanisms that underlie its heterogeneity, however, are poorly understood. Using a charitable giving task together with multivariate decoding techniques, we identified three distinct psychological mechanisms underlying altruistic decision-making (empathy, perspective taking, and attentional reorienting) and linked them to dissociable neural computations...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27060429/empathy-in-depression-egocentric-and-altercentric-biases-and-the-role-of-alexithymia
#13
Ferdinand Hoffmann, Christian Banzhaf, Philipp Kanske, Matti Gärtner, Felix Bermpohl, Tania Singer
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with empathy deficits. The exact nature of these deficits and their relation to concurrent alexithymia remain unknown. Here we tested under which conditions MDD patients with high and low alexithymia show deficient empathy, particularly investigating empathic abilities when inhibition of self-related emotional states is needed and when it is not. METHODS: Healthy controls (low: n=28, high: n=14) and currently depressed MDD patients (low: n=11, high: n=18) with low or high alexithymia performed an emotional egocentricity paradigm based on tactile stimulation...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015160/where-the-depressed-mind-wanders-self-generated-thought-patterns-as-assessed-through-experience-sampling-as-a-state-marker-of-depression
#14
Ferdinand Hoffmann, Christian Banzhaf, Philipp Kanske, Felix Bermpohl, Tania Singer
BACKGROUND: Self-generated thoughts (SGTs), such as during mind wandering, occupy much of our waking life. Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are less in the "here and now" and prone to rumination. Few studies have looked at SGTs in depression using experience sampling methods and no study has so far investigated the specific contents of depressive SGTs and how they vary from one time point to another. METHODS: MDD patients (n=25) and matched healthy controls (n=26) performed an established mind wandering task, involving non-demanding number discriminations...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988654/cross-modal-representations-of-first-hand-and-vicarious-pain-disgust-and-fairness-in-insular-and-cingulate-cortex
#15
Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Anita Tusche, Patrik Vuilleumier, Tania Singer
The anterior insula (AI) and mid-anterior cingulate cortex (mACC) have repeatedly been implicated in first-hand and vicarious experiences of pain, disgust and unfairness. However, it is debated whether these regions process different aversive events through a common modality-independent code, reflecting the shared unpleasantness of the experiences or through independent modality-specific representations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we subjected 19 participants (and 19 confederates) to equally unpleasant painful and disgusting stimulations, as well as unfair monetary treatments...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944221/the-anatomy-of-suffering-understanding-the-relationship-between-nociceptive-and-empathic-pain
#16
REVIEW
Jamil Zaki, Tor D Wager, Tania Singer, Christian Keysers, Valeria Gazzola
Pain features centrally in numerous illnesses and generates enormous public health costs. Despite its ubiquity, the psychological and neurophysiological nature of pain remains controversial. Here, we survey one controversy in particular: the relation between nociceptive pain, which is somatic in origin, and empathic pain, which arises from observing others in pain. First, we review evidence for neural overlap between nociceptive and empathic pain and what this overlap implies about underlying mental representations...
April 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899260/cognitive-flexibility-heart-rate-variability-and-resilience-predict-fine-grained-regulation-of-arousal-during-prolonged-threat
#17
Lea K Hildebrandt, Cade McCall, Haakon G Engen, Tania Singer
Emotion regulation in the ongoing presence of a threat is essential for adaptive behavior. Threatening situations change over time and, as a consequence, require a fine-tuned, dynamic regulation of arousal to match the current state of the environment. Constructs such as cognitive flexibility, heart rate variability, and resilience have been proposed as resources for adaptive emotion regulation, especially in a moment-to-moment fashion. Nevertheless, none of these constructs has been empirically related to the dynamic regulation of arousal as it unfolds over the course of a prolonged threatening episode...
June 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26733538/socio-cognitive-phenotypes-differentially-modulate-large-scale-structural-covariance-networks
#18
Sofie L Valk, Boris C Bernhardt, Anne Böckler, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Philipp Kanske, Tania Singer
Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested the existence of 2 largely distinct social cognition networks, one for theory of mind (taking others' cognitive perspective) and another for empathy (sharing others' affective states). To address whether these networks can also be dissociated at the level of brain structure, we combined behavioral phenotyping across multiple socio-cognitive tasks with 3-Tesla MRI cortical thickness and structural covariance analysis in 270 healthy adults, recruited across 2 sites...
January 4, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26602249/models-mechanisms-and-moderators-dissociating-empathy-and-theory-of-mind
#19
Philipp Kanske, Anne Böckler, Tania Singer
Most instances of social interaction provide a wealth of information about the states of other people, be it sensations, feelings, thoughts, or convictions. How we represent these states has been a major question in social neuroscience, leading to the identification of two routes to understanding others: an affective route for the direct sharing of others' emotions (empathy) that involves, among others, anterior insula and middle anterior cingulate cortex and a cognitive route for representing and reasoning about others' states (Theory of Mind) that entails, among others, ventral temporoparietal junction and anterior and posterior midline regions...
November 25, 2015: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26529679/physiophenomenology-in-retrospect-memory-reliably-reflects-physiological-arousal-during-a-prior-threatening-experience
#20
Cade McCall, Lea K Hildebrandt, Boris Bornemann, Tania Singer
Psychologists have long studied links between physiology and subjective feelings, but little is known about how those links are preserved in memory. Here we examine this question via arousal, a subjective feeling with strong physiological correlates. Using virtual reality, we immersed participants in a threatening scene (Room 101) where they confronted a variety of disturbing events. Later, participants watched the scene on a desktop computer while continuously rating how aroused they remembered feeling. Analyses of those time series revealed that retrospective reports were coherent with participants' unique patterns in physiological arousal (skin conductance and heart rate) during the original events...
December 15, 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
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