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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747119/experiencing-meditation-evidence-for-differential-effects-of-three-contemplative-mental-practices-in-micro-phenomenological-interviews
#1
Marisa Przyrembel, Tania Singer
Despite increasing interest in effects of meditation, systematic in-depth research on how it qualitatively feels to engage in different kinds of contemplative practices is still missing. To fill this gap, we explore the validity of Micro-phenomenological Interviews (MpI) to assess experiences during breathing meditation (BM), observing-thought meditation (OTM), and loving-kindness meditation (LKM). We performed psycholinguistic analyses, quantitative ratings and qualitative explorations of 104 MpI (N = 57)...
May 7, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670822/change-in-emotional-self-concept-following-socio-cognitive-training-relates-to-structural-plasticity-of-the-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Anna-Lena Lumma, Sofie L Valk, Anne Böckler, Pascal Vrtička, Tania Singer
Introduction: Self-referential processing is a key component of the emotional self-concept. Previous studies have shown that emotional self-referential processing is related to structure and function of cortical midline areas such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and that it can be altered on a behavioral level by specific mental training practices. However, it remains unknown how behavioral training-related change in emotional self-concept content relates to structural plasticity...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386570/endogenous-emotion-generation-ability-is-associated-with-the-capacity-to-form-multimodal-internal-representations
#3
Haakon Engen, Philipp Kanske, Tania Singer
Training the capacity to self-generate emotions can be a potent "vaccine" against negative stressors and be an effective intervention for affective psychopathology. However, due to a lack of knowledge about sources of individual differences in generation abilities, it is unclear how to optimally design such interventions. We investigated one potential source of variation, namely preference for using different information modalities (Visual Imagery, Auditory Imagery, Bodily Interoception, and Semantic Analysis)...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222166/effect-of-il-7-therapy-on-phospho-ribosomal-protein-s6-and-traf1-expression-in-hiv-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-patients-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Chao Wang, Maria I Edilova, Lisa E Wagar, Shariq Mujib, Meromit Singer, Nicole F Bernard, Thérèse Croughs, Michael M Lederman, Irini Sereti, Margaret A Fischl, Elisabeth Kremmer, Mario Ostrowski, Jean-Pierre Routy, Tania H Watts
IL-7 therapy has been evaluated in patients who do not regain normal CD4 T cell counts after virologically successful antiretroviral therapy. IL-7 increases total circulating CD4 and CD8 T cell counts; however, its effect on HIV-specific CD8 T cells has not been fully examined. TRAF1, a prosurvival signaling adaptor required for 4-1BB-mediated costimulation, is lost from chronically stimulated virus-specific CD8 T cells with progression of HIV infection in humans and during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection in mice...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201246/differential-effects-of-attention-compassion-and-socio-cognitively-based-mental-practices-on-self-reports-of-mindfulness-and-compassion
#5
Lea K Hildebrandt, Cade McCall, Tania Singer
Research on the effects of mindfulness- and compassion-based interventions is flourishing along with self-report scales to assess facets of these broad concepts. However, debates remain as to which mental practices are most appropriate to develop the attentional, cognitive, and socio-affective facets of mindfulness and compassion. One crucial question is whether present-moment, attention-focused mindfulness practices are sufficient to induce a cascade of changes across the different proposed facets of mindfulness, including nonjudgmental acceptance, as well as compassion or whether explicit socio-affective training is required...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983508/specific-reduction-in-cortisol-stress-reactivity-after-social-but-not-attention-based-mental-training
#6
Veronika Engert, Bethany E Kok, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Tania Singer
Psychosocial stress is a public health burden in modern societies. Chronic stress-induced disease processes are, in large part, mediated via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. We asked whether the contemplative mental training of different practice types targeting attentional, socio-affective (for example, compassion), or socio-cognitive abilities (for example, perspective-taking) in the context of a 9-month longitudinal training study offers an effective means for psychosocial stress reduction...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983507/structural-plasticity-of-the-social-brain-differential-change-after-socio-affective-and-cognitive-mental-training
#7
Sofie L Valk, Boris C Bernhardt, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Anne Böckler, Philipp Kanske, Nicolas Guizard, D Louis Collins, Tania Singer
Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842274/structural-changes-in-socio-affective-networks-multi-modal-mri-findings-in-long-term-meditation-practitioners
#8
Haakon G Engen, Boris C Bernhardt, Leon Skottnik, Matthieu Ricard, Tania Singer
Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k h, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577550/study-protocol-of-the-asd-net-the-german-research-consortium-for-the-study-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-across-the-lifespan-from-a-better-etiological-understanding-through-valid-diagnosis-to-more-effective-health-care
#9
Inge Kamp-Becker, Luise Poustka, Christian Bachmann, Stefan Ehrlich, Falk Hoffmann, Philipp Kanske, Peter Kirsch, Sören Krach, Frieder Michel Paulus, Marcella Rietschel, Stefan Roepke, Veit Roessner, Tanja Schad-Hansjosten, Tania Singer, Sanna Stroth, Stephanie Witt, Anne-Kathrin Wermter
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe, lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder with early onset that places a heavy burden on affected individuals and their families. Due to the need for highly specialized health, educational and vocational services, ASD is a cost-intensive disorder, and strain on health care systems increases with increasing age of the affected individual. METHODS: The ASD-Net will study Germany's largest cohort of patients with ASD over the lifespan...
June 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386118/social-cognition-in-aggressive-offenders-impaired-empathy-but-intact-theory-of-mind
#10
Korina Winter, Stephanie Spengler, Felix Bermpohl, Tania Singer, Philipp Kanske
Aggressive, violent behaviour is a major burden and challenge for society. It has been linked to deficits in social understanding, but the evidence is inconsistent and the specifics of such deficits are unclear. Here, we investigated affective (empathy) and cognitive (Theory of Mind) routes to understanding other people in aggressive individuals. Twenty-nine men with a history of legally relevant aggressive behaviour (i.e. serious assault) and 32 control participants were tested using a social video task (EmpaToM) that differentiates empathy and Theory of Mind and completed questionnaires on aggression and alexithymia...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322222/white-matter-maturation-is-associated-with-the-emergence-of-theory-of-mind-in-early-childhood
#11
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Jan Schreiber, Tania Singer, Nikolaus Steinbeis, Angela D Friederici
The ability to attribute mental states to other individuals is crucial for human cognition. A milestone of this ability is reached around the age of 4, when children start understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. The neural basis supporting this critical step is currently unknown. Here, we relate this behavioural change to the maturation of white matter structure in 3- and 4-year-old children. Tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic tractography show that the developmental breakthrough in false belief understanding is associated with age-related changes in local white matter structure in temporoparietal regions, the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and with increased dorsal white matter connectivity between temporoparietal and inferior frontal regions...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285721/corrigendum-to-is-meditation-always-relaxing-investigating-heart-rate-heart-rate-variability-experienced-effort-and-likeability-during-training-of-three-types-of-meditation-int-j-psychophysiol-97-1-2015-38-45
#12
Anna-Lena Lumma, Bethany E Kok, Tania Singer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163798/phenomenological-fingerprints-of-four-meditations-differential-state-changes-in-affect-mind-wandering-meta-cognition-and-interoception-before-and-after-daily-practice-across-9%C3%A2-months-of-training
#13
Bethany E Kok, Tania Singer
Despite increasing interest in the effects of mental training practices such as meditation, there is much ambiguity regarding whether and to what extent the various types of mental practice have differential effects on psychological change. To address this gap, we compare the effects of four common meditation practices on measures of state change in affect, mind-wandering, meta-cognition, and interoception. In the context of a 9-month mental training program called the ReSource Project, 229 mid-life adults (mean age 41) provided daily reports before and after meditation practice...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030741/effects-of-contemplative-dyads-on-engagement-and-perceived-social-connectedness-over-9-months-of-mental-training-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bethany E Kok, Tania Singer
Importance: Loneliness is a risk factor for depression and other illnesses and may be caused and reinforced by maladaptive social cognition. Secularized classical meditation training programs address social cognition, but practice typically occurs alone. Little is known about the effectiveness of contemplative practice performed in dyads. Objective: To introduce and assess the effectiveness of contemplative dyadic practices relative to classical-solitary meditation with regard to engagement and perceived social connectedness...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925645/taking-time-to-feel-our-body-steady-increases-in-heartbeat-perception-accuracy-and-decreases-in-alexithymia-over-9-months-of-contemplative-mental-training
#15
Boris Bornemann, Tania Singer
The ability to accurately perceive signals from the body has been shown to be important for physical and psychological health as well as understanding one's emotions. Despite the importance of this skill, often indexed by heartbeat perception accuracy (HBPa), little is known about its malleability. Here, we investigated whether contemplative mental practice can increase HBPa. In the context of a 9-month mental training study, the ReSource Project, two matched cohorts (n = 77 and n = 79) underwent three training modules of 3 months' duration that targeted attentional and interoceptive abilities (Presence module), socio-affective (Affect module), and socio-cognitive (Perspective module) abilities...
March 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696613/implicit-and-explicit-false-belief-development-in-preschool-children
#16
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Angela D Friederici, Tania Singer, Nikolaus Steinbeis
The ability to represent the mental states of other agents is referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). A developmental breakthrough in ToM consists of understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. Recently, infants younger than 2 years of age have been shown to pass novel implicit false belief tasks. However, the processes underlying these tasks and their relation to later-developing explicit false belief understanding, as well as to other cognitive abilities, are not yet understood. Here, we study a battery of implicit and explicit false belief tasks in 3- and 4-year-old children, relating their performance to linguistic abilities and executive functions...
October 2, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683630/physical-rehabilitation-for-lung-transplant-candidates-and-recipients-an-evidence-informed-clinical-approach
#17
REVIEW
Lisa Wickerson, Dmitry Rozenberg, Tania Janaudis-Ferreira, Robin Deliva, Vincent Lo, Gary Beauchamp, Denise Helm, Chaya Gottesman, Polyana Mendes, Luciana Vieira, Margaret Herridge, Lianne G Singer, Sunita Mathur
Physical rehabilitation of lung transplant candidates and recipients plays an important in optimizing physical function prior to transplant and facilitating recovery of function post-transplant. As medical and surgical interventions in lung transplantation have evolved over time, there has been a demographic shift of individuals undergoing lung transplantation including older individuals, those with multiple co-morbidites, and candidates with respiratory failure requiring bridging to transplantation. These changes have an impact on the rehabilitation needs of lung transplant candidates and recipients...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617653/where-the-narcissistic-mind-wanders-increased-self-related-thoughts-are-more-positive-and-future-oriented
#18
Philipp Kanske, Marjan Sharifi, Jonathan Smallwood, Isabel Dziobek, Tania Singer
Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content)...
August 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608360/boosting-recovery-rather-than-buffering-reactivity-higher-stress-induced-oxytocin-secretion-is-associated-with-increased-cortisol-reactivity-and-faster-vagal-recovery-after-acute-psychosocial-stress
#19
Veronika Engert, Anna M Koester, Antje Riepenhausen, Tania Singer
Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience...
December 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550866/stimulus-driven-reorienting-impairs-executive-control-of-attention-evidence-for-a-common-bottleneck-in-anterior-insula
#20
Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Tania Singer, Philipp Kanske
A classical model of human attention holds that independent neural networks realize stimulus-driven reorienting and executive control of attention. Questioning full independence, the two functions do, however, engage overlapping networks with activations in cingulo-opercular regions such as anterior insula (AI) and a reverse pattern of activation (stimulus-driven reorienting), and deactivation (executive control) in temporoparietal junction (TPJ). To test for independent versus shared neural mechanisms underlying stimulus-driven and executive control of attention, we used fMRI and a task that isolates individual from concurrent demands in both functions...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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