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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455575/exercise-counteracts-the-homeostatic-decrease-in-thermogenesis-caused-by-caloric-restriction-in-sheep
#1
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Iain J Clarke, Alexandra Rao, Belinda A Henry
Caloric restriction causes a homeostatic reduction in thermogenesis. We aimed to determine whether exercise could counteract this. We studied four groups of normal-weight ewes ( n = 5), including control sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise fed ad libitum (30 min/d, 5 d/wk), diet-restricted (70% of ad libitum food intake), and combined diet and exercise. Temperature probes implanted in sternal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle measured thermogenesis. After the 4-wk intervention, hypothalami were collected for in situ hybridization, and fat and muscle biopsies were collected for real-time PCR and Western blotting...
February 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451321/predicting-recovery-in-acute-post-stroke-aphasia
#2
Argye E Hillis, Yuan Ye Beh, Rajani Sebastian, Bonnie Breining, Donna C Tippett, Amy Wright, Sadhvi Saxena, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha, Alexandra Basilakos, Grigori Yourganov, Julius Fridriksson
OBJECTIVE: Many stroke patients show remarkable recovery of language after initial severe impairment, but it is difficult to predict which patients will show good recovery. We aimed to identify patient and lesion characteristics that together predict the best naming outcome in four studies. METHODS: We report two longitudinal studies that identified two variables at onset that were strongly associated with good recovery of naming (the most common residual deficit in aphasia) in the first six months after stroke: damage to left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and/or superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442272/the-way-to-left-piazza-del-popolo-damage-to-white-matter-tracts-in-representational-neglect-for-places
#3
Maddalena Boccia, Antonella Di Vita, Liana Palermo, Giorgia Committeri, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
The ability of seeing with the mind's eye, the visual mental imagery, is peculiarly compromised in patients with representational neglect. Representational neglect affects the processing of the left side of a mental image and may selectively concern the ability to imagine places and/or objects. Right-brain damaged patients with representational neglect for places (RN+) lose the ability to imagine themselves within a familiar place and fail in transforming an egocentric representation of the environment into an allocentric one and vice-versa...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440124/sorcs1-and-sorcs3-control-energy-balance-and-orexigenic-peptide-production
#4
Aygul Subkhangulova, Anna R Malik, Guido Hermey, Oliver Popp, Gunnar Dittmar, Thomas Rathjen, Matthew N Poy, Alexander Stumpf, Prateep Sanker Beed, Dietmar Schmitz, Tilman Breiderhoff, Thomas E Willnow
SORCS1 and SORCS3 are two related sorting receptors expressed in neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Using mouse models with individual or dual receptor deficiencies, we document a previously unknown function of these receptors in central control of metabolism. Specifically, SORCS1 and SORCS3 act as intracellular trafficking receptors for tropomyosin-related kinase B to attenuate signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a potent regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss of the joint action of SORCS1 and SORCS3 in mutant mice results in excessive production of the orexigenic neuropeptide agouti-related peptide and in a state of chronic energy excess characterized by enhanced food intake, decreased locomotor activity, diminished usage of lipids as metabolic fuel, and increased adiposity, albeit at overall reduced body weight...
February 12, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438798/short-term-fasting-decreases-excitatory-synaptic-inputs-to-ventromedial-tuberoinfundibular-dopaminergic-neurons-and-attenuates-their-activity-in-male-mice
#5
Takafumi Kubota, Atsushi Fukushima, Hiroko Hagiwara, Yoshinori Kamiya, Miyako Furuta, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Hitomi Fujioka, Sei-Etsu Fujiwara, Toshiya Funabashi, Tatsuo Akema
Tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus play a role in inhibiting prolactin (PRL) secretion from the anterior pituitary. PRL is involved in a variety of behaviors, including feeding. Consequently, we hypothesized that fasting might reduce the activity of TIDA neurons, which might alter PRL secretion. However, direct examinations of TIDA neuron activity are difficult. Recently, transgenic mice were generated that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433176/the-decreasing-prevalence-of-the-arcuate-foramen
#6
Juan A Sanchis-Gimeno, Susanna Llido, Marcos Miquel-Feutch, Laura Quiles-Guinau, Luis Rios, Mayte Murillo-Llorente, Marcelino Perez-Bermejo, Shahed Nalla
BACKGROUND: The arcuate foramen (AF), or ponticulus posticus, is an anatomic variant of the first cervical vertebra that consists of a complete or partial osseous bridge over the groove for the vertebral artery and extends from the posterior aspect of the superior articular facet to the superior lateral border of the posterior arch. The AF has been associated with clinical symptoms, such as headache, migraine, neck pain, shoulder pain, arm pain, and vertebral artery dissection. We aimed to test whether the prevalence of the AF has decreased in the modern human population over the past centuries as a result of reduction in inbreeding and endogamy...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430337/nerve-fiber-flux-analysis-using-wide-field-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
Ou Tan, Liang Liu, Li Liu, David Huang
Purpose: To devise a method to quantify nerve fibers over their arcuate courses over an extended peripapillary area using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Participants were imaged with 8 × 8-mm volumetric OCT scans centered at the optic disc. A new quantity, nerve fiber flux (NFF), represents the cross-sectional area transected perpendicular to the nerve fibers. The peripapillary area was divided into 64 tracks with equal flux. An iterative algorithm traced the trajectory of the tracks assuming that the relative distribution of the NFF was conserved with compensation for fiber connections to ganglion cells on the macular side...
February 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429789/a-purely-functional-imaging-based-approach-for-transcortical-resection-of-lesion-involving-the-dominant-atrium-towards-safer-imaging-guided-tailored-cortico-leucotomies
#8
Alessandro Frati, Alessandro Pesce, Giancarlo D'Andrea, Flavia Fraschetti, Maurizio Salvati, Marco Cimatti, Vincenzo Esposito, Antonino Raco
BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECT: The Dominant Atrium (DA) is a crossroad of eloquent white matter bundles difficult to preserve with a standard "anatomical" approach. The aim of this work is to evaluate the results of a cohort of patients who underwent surgery with the aid of a purely functional MRI and DTI-based approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 43 patients suffering from lesions involving the DA have been included in the final cohort and studied in regards to quality of life (KPS); a special attention was lent on the incidence of new or worsening of preexisting neurological deficits, with a focus on motor, visual and speech disturbances after the surgical treatment...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422055/calcineurin-a-beta-deficiency-ameliorates-hfd-induced-hypothalamic-astrocytosis-in-mice
#9
Katrin Pfuhlmann, Sonja C Schriever, Beata Legutko, Peter Baumann, Luke Harrison, Dhiraj G Kabra, Emily Violette Baumgart, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina Garcia-Caceres, Paul T Pfluger
ᅟ: Astrocytosis is a reactive process involving cellular, molecular, and functional changes to facilitate neuronal survival, myelin preservation, blood brain barrier function and protective glial scar formation upon brain insult. The overall pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of reactive astrocytes appears to be driven in a context- and disease-driven manner by modulation of astrocytic Ca2+ homeostasis and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-activated serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin. Here, we aimed to assess whether calcineurin is dispensable for astrocytosis in the hypothalamus driven by prolonged high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421537/neuronal-activity-in-the-sagittalis-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-after-ovarian-steroid-hormone-manipulation-and-sexual-behavior-in-female-rat
#10
Ivaylo Evgueniev Balabanov, Ken Ichi Matsuda, Hiroko Mori, Shunji Yamada, Keito Kitagawa, Yukina Yamamoto, Shinji Tsukahara, Masaki Tanaka
During extended observation of estrogen receptor (ER) α-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus, we previously identified a novel nucleus, the Sagittalis Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (SGN), in the interstitial area between the arcuate nucleus and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. The SGN exhibits sexual dimorphism in its volume and cell count, and estrous cycle related variations in ERα-immunoreactivity. These characteristics of the SGN implicate the nucleus in sex-biased brain functions and behaviors...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411464/vocabulary-growth-rate-from-preschool-to-school-age-years-is-reflected-in-the-connectivity-of-the-arcuate-fasciculus-in-14-year-old-children
#11
Mengmeng Su, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Jingjing Zhao, Shuang Song, Wei Zhou, Gaolang Gong, Catherine McBride, Franck Ramus, Hua Shu
The acquisition of language involves the functional specialization of several cortical regions. Connectivity between these brain regions may also change with the development of language. Various studies have demonstrated that the arcuate fasciculus was essential for language function. Vocabulary learning is one of the most important skills in language acquisition. In the present longitudinal study, we explored the influence of vocabulary development on the anatomical properties of the arcuate fasciculus. Seventy-nine Chinese children participated in this study...
February 6, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410798/pleistocene-glaciation-of-fenland-england-and-its-implications-for-evolution-of-the-region
#12
REVIEW
P L Gibbard, R G West, P D Hughes
Detailed investigation of landforms and their underlying deposits on the eastern margin of Fenland, East Anglia, demonstrated that they represent a series of glaciofluvial delta-fan and related sediments. Associated with these deposits are glacially dislocated sediments including tills, meltwater and pre-existing fluvial sediments. These 'Skertchly Line' deposits occur in the context of a substantial ice lobe that entered Fenland from the N to NE, dammed the streams entering the basin and caused glacial lakes to form in the valleys on the margins...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403355/impact-of-triclosan-on-female-reproduction-through-reducing-thyroid-hormones-to-suppress-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurons-in-mice
#13
Xin-Yuan Cao, Xu Hua, Jian-Wei Xiong, Wen-Ting Zhu, Jun Zhang, Ling Chen
Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral follicles and corpora lutea within 2 weeks. TCS mice showed decreases in the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA with the lack of LH surge and elevation of prolactin (PRL)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397535/the-leptin-dopamine-and-serotonin-receptors-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-of-normal-and-obese-rodents
#14
Irina V Romanova, Kira V Derkach, Anastasiya L Mikhrina, Ivan B Sukhov, Elena V Mikhailova, Alexander O Shpakov
The pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are involved in the control of food intake and metabolic processes. It is assumed that, in addition to leptin, the activity of these neurons is regulated by serotonin and dopamine, but only subtype 2C serotonin receptors (5-HT2CR) was identified earlier on the POMC-neurons. The aim of this work was a comparative study of the localization and number of leptin receptors (LepR), types 1 and 2 dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R), 5-HT1BR and 5-HT2CR on the POMC-neurons and the expression of the genes encoding them in the ARC of the normal and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents and the agouti mice (A y /a) with the melanocortin obesity...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396547/three-dimensional-imaging-of-kndy-neurons-in-the-mammalian-brain-using-optical-tissue-clearing-and-multiple-label-immunocytochemistry
#15
Aleisha M Moore, Kathryn A Lucas, Robert L Goodman, Lique M Coolen, Michael N Lehman
Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in the regulation of fertility. The ability to detect features of KNDy neurons that are essential for fertility may require three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the complete population. Recently developed protocols for optical tissue clearing permits 3D imaging of neuronal populations in un-sectioned brains. However, these techniques have largely been described in the mouse brain. We report 3D imaging of the KNDy cell population in the whole rat brain and sheep hypothalamus using immunolabelling and modification of a solvent-based clearing protocol, iDISCO...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394834/-splenic-artery-left-common-iliac-artery-bypass-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-celiac-artery-compression-syndrome-a-case-report
#16
Yoshiaki Ohmura, Yutaka Takeda, Masao Yoshitatsu, Yoshiteru Katsura, Takuya Sakamoto, Hiroki Mizoguchi, Takashi Shirakawa, Junichi Inatome, Kohei Murakami, Atsushi Naito, Yoshinori Kagawa, Toru Masuzawa, Atsushi Takeno, Chiyomi Egawa, Kohei Murata
Celiac artery compression syndrome(CACS)is a rare disorder characterized by postprandial intestinal angina caused by insufficient blood supply to the gastrointestinal organs. In this syndrome, the root of the celiac artery is compressed and narrowed by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm during expiration, sometimes causing difficulties in trans-arterial intervention. We report here a case that trans-hepatic arterial intervention was able to performed by splenic bypass. A 74- year-old man with multiple hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)was performed the angiography, and diagnosed as CACS due to celiac artery root obstruction...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393814/extended-middle-fossa-approach-to-lateralized-pontine-cavernomas-in-children
#17
Robert C Rennert, Reid Hoshide, Mark Calayag, Joanna Kemp, David D Gonda, Hal S Meltzer, Takanori Fukushima, John D Day, Michael L Levy
OBJECTIVE Treatment of hemorrhagic cavernous malformations within the lateral pontine region demands meticulous surgical planning and execution to maximize resection while minimizing morbidity. The authors report a single institution's experience using the extended middle fossa rhomboid approach for the safe resection of hemorrhagic cavernomas involving the lateral pons. METHODS A retrospective chart review was performed to identify and review the surgical outcomes of patients who underwent an extended middle fossa rhomboid approach for the resection of hemorrhagic cavernomas involving the lateral pons during a 10-year period at Rady Children's Hospital of San Diego...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390458/recovery-of-injured-broca-s-portion-of-arcuate-fasciculus-in-the-dominant-hemisphere-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Sung Ho Jang, Ji Wan Ha, Hyun Young Kim, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: Recovery of injured AF in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported. In this study, we report on a patient with TBI who recovered from an injury to Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere, diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old right-handed male patient suffered head trauma resulting from sliding while riding a motorcycle. DIAGNOSES: He was diagnosed with a traumatic contusional hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hemorrhage in the left fronto-temporal lobe...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390310/recovery-of-akinetic-mutism-and-injured-prefronto-caudate-tract-following-shunt-operation-for-hydrocephalus-and-rehabilitation-a-case-report
#19
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, Han Do Lee
RATIONALE: A 76-year-old female patient was diagnosed with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. PATIENT CONCERNS: She was treated surgically with clipping of the aneurysmal neck. Six months after onset, when starting rehabilitation at our hospital, she showed no spontaneous movement or speech. DIAGNOSES:: aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a right posterior communicating artery aneurysm...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384699/catecholaminergic-projections-into-an-interconnected-forebrain-network-control-the-sensitivity-of-male-rats-to-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Shin J Lee, Anne J Jokiaho, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Alan G Watts
Hindbrain catecholamine neurons convey gut-derived metabolic signals to an interconnected neuronal network in the hypothalamus and adjacent forebrain. They are critical for short-term glycemic control, glucocorticoid and glucoprivic feeding responses, and GLP-1 signaling. Here we investigate whether these pathways also contribute to long-term energy homeostasis by controlling obesogenic sensitivity to a high-fat, high sucrose choice diet (HFSC). We ablated hindbrain-originating catecholaminergic projections by injecting anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase-conjugated saporin (DSAP) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) of male rats fed a chow diet for up to 12 weeks or a HFSC for 8 weeks...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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