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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903745/inhibiting-microglia-expansion-prevents-diet-induced-hypothalamic-and-peripheral-inflammation
#1
Caroline André, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Charlotte Rey, Julie Rémus-Borel, Samantha Clark, Ashley Castellanos-Jankiewicz, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Agnes Nadjar, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Laye, Daniela Cota
Cell proliferation and neuroinflammation in the adult hypothalamus may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we tested whether the intertwining of these two processes has a role in the metabolic changes caused by three weeks of saturated high-fat diet (HFD) consumption.As compared to chow, HFD-fed mice rapidly increased body weight and fat mass, and specifically showed increased microglia number in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Microglia expansion required the adequate presence of fats and carbohydrates in the diet, since feeding mice a very high-fat, very low-carbohydrate diet did not affect cell proliferation...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903187/stereotactic-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-for-gamma-knife-radiosurgery
#2
Cormac G Gavin, H Ian Sabin
OBJECTIVE The integration of modern neuroimaging into treatment planning has increased the therapeutic potential and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery. The authors report their method of integrating stereotactic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography into conventional treatment planning for Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique and to address some of the technical limitations of previously reported techniques. METHODS Twenty patients who underwent GKRS composed the study cohort...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902923/kisspeptin-expression-is-decreased-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-hypothyroid-female-rats-with-irregular-estrus-cycles
#3
Yuji Tomori, Ken Takumi, Norio Iijima, Shinro Takai, Hitoshi Ozawa
Insufficiency of thyroid hormones inhibits gonadotropin release and results in dysregulation of reproductive function, although the precise mechanism of this disrupted gonadotropin secretion remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that strongly stimulates gonadotropin secretion and plays an important role in reproductive function. To examine the involvement of kisspeptin in the dysregulation of gonadotropin secretion in hypothyroidism, we investigated Kiss1 mRNA expression and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of female rats treated with propylthiouracil (PTU)...
November 27, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901601/activation-of-estrogen-response-element-independent-er%C3%AE-signaling-protects-female-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#4
Ali Yasrebi, Janelle A Rivera, Elizabeth A Krumm, Jennifer A Yang, Troy A Roepke
17β-estradiol (E2) regulates central and peripheral mechanisms that control energy and glucose homeostasis predominantly through estrogen receptor α (ERα) acting via receptor binding to estrogen response elements (ERE). ERα signaling is also involved in mediating the effects of E2 on diet-induced obesity (DIO), although the roles of ERE-dependent and -independent ERα signaling in ameliorating the effects of DIO remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that ERE-dependent ERα signaling is necessary to ameliorate the effects of DIO...
November 30, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898058/ccl5-rantes-contributes-to-hypothalamic-insulin-signaling-for-systemic-insulin-responsiveness-through-ccr5
#5
Szu-Yi Chou, Reni Ajoy, Chun Austin Changou, Ya-Ting Hsieh, Yang-Kao Wang, Barry Hoffer
Many neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by metabolic disorders. CCL5/RANTES, and its receptor CCR5 are known to contribute to neuronal function as well as to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis and metabolic changes after HIV infection. Herein, we found that the lack of CCR5 or CCL5 in mice impaired regulation of energy metabolism in hypothalamus. Immunostaining and co-immunoprecipitation revealed the specific expression of CCR5, associated with insulin receptors, in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896401/sleeve-gastrectomy-combined-with-the-simplified-hill-repair-in-the-treatment-of-morbid-obesity-and-gastro-esophageal-reflux-disease-preliminary-results-in-14-patients
#6
Daniel Gero, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Konstantinos Arapis, Jean-Pierre Marmuse
BACKGROUND: Our aim is to report our initial experience with a novel technique which addresses morbid obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) simultaneously by combination of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and simplified laparoscopic Hill repair (sLHR). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of LSG+sLHR patients >5 months postoperatively includes demographics, GERD status, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use, body mass index (BMI), excess BMI loss (EBMIL), complications and GERD-Health Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire...
November 28, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891163/the-visual-system-of-harvestmen-opiliones-arachnida-chelicerata-a-re-examination
#7
Tobias Lehmann, Eva Lodde-Bensch, Roland R Melzer, Martina Metz
BACKGROUND: The visual systems in chelicerates are poorly understood, even though they show strong variation in eye and visual neuropil architecture, thus may provide valuable insights for the understanding of chelicerate phylogeny and eye evolution. Comparable morphological characters are desperately sought for reconstructions of the phylogeny of Chelicerata, especially with respect to Arachnida. So far, reliable data exist only for Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, Scorpiones, and Araneae. The few earlier studies of the organisation of the visual system in harvestmen are contradictory concerning the number, morphology, and position of the visual neuropils...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890893/successful-coil-embolization-of-an-aneurysm-in-the-arc-of-b%C3%A3-hler
#8
Fumie Sugihara, Satoru Murata, Fumio Uchiyama, Jun Watari, Hiroto Tajima, Shin-Ichiro Kumita
In the present report, we describe a case of a patient with an asymptomatic aneurysm in the arc of Bühler (AOB), which was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. The patient presented with severe stenosis of the celiac trunk, which was suspected to be due to median arcuate ligament syndrome. Arteriography of the superior mesenteric artery indicated a rapid stream in an aneurysm in the AOB. Hence, embolization was carefully performed using detachable coils and microcoils. An arteriography performed after embolization did not show any aneurysm, and the hepatic artery and splenic artery could be detected via the pancreatic arcade, originating from the superior mesenteric artery...
2016: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886622/linoleic-acid-causes-greater-weight-gain-than-saturated-fat-without-hypothalamic-inflammation-in-the-male-mouse
#9
Kyle J Mamounis, Ali Yasrebi, Troy A Roepke
A significant change in the Western diet, concurrent with the obesity epidemic, was a substitution of saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated, specifically linoleic acid (LA). Despite increasing investigation on type as well as amount of fat, it is unclear which fatty acids are most obesogenic. The objective of this study was to determine the obesogenic potency of LA vs. saturated fatty acids and the involvement of hypothalamic inflammation. Forty-eight mice were divided into four groups: low-fat or three high-fat diets (HFDs, 45% kcals from fat) with LA comprising 1%, 15% and 22...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884738/development-of-the-human-oculomotor-nuclear-complex-centrally-projecting-edinger-westphal-nucleus
#10
Katsuyuki Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: The cytoarchitecturally defined Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) is now referred to by many investigators as the centrally-projecting EW (EWcp) in humans. Although the mature structure is well-characterized, there have been few reports describing the precise morphology of this nucleus during the second half of gestation. SUBJECTS/DESIGN: Eleven brains were examined from preterm infants, aged 20-39 postmenstrual weeks, who died of various causes. After fixation, the brains were embedded in celloidin and serial sections of 30-μm thickness were cut in the horizontal plane...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877104/sweet-taste-receptor-serves-to-activate-glucose-and-leptin-responsive-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-participates-in-glucose-responsiveness
#11
Daisuke Kohno, Miho Koike, Yuzo Ninomiya, Itaru Kojima, Tadahiro Kitamura, Toshihiko Yada
The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871496/the-presentation-and-management-of-aneurysms-of-the-pancreaticoduodenal-arcade
#12
Michael R Corey, Emel A Ergul, Richard P Cambria, Virendra I Patel, R Todd Lancaster, Christopher J Kwolek, Mark F Conrad
OBJECTIVE: Gastroduodenal artery aneurysms (GDAAs) and pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms (PDAAs) are uncommon lesions associated, however, with a significant risk of rupture. This study describes the clinical presentation, associated imaging findings, and operative strategies for these aneurysms. METHODS: The records of all patients with GDAAs or PDAAs identified through an institutional database by axial imaging between 1994 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869800/a-rapidly-acting-glutamatergic-arc%C3%A2-pvh-satiety-circuit-postsynaptically-regulated-by-%C3%AE-msh
#13
Henning Fenselau, John N Campbell, Anne M J Verstegen, Joseph C Madara, Jie Xu, Bhavik P Shah, Jon M Resch, Zongfang Yang, Yael Mandelblat-Cerf, Yoav Livneh, Bradford B Lowell
Arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons sense the fed or fasted state and regulate hunger. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in the ARC (ARC(AgRP) neurons) are stimulated by fasting and, once activated, they rapidly (within minutes) drive hunger. Pro-opiomelanocortin (ARC(POMC)) neurons are viewed as the counterpoint to ARC(AgRP) neurons. They are regulated in an opposite fashion and decrease hunger. However, unlike ARC(AgRP) neurons, ARC(POMC) neurons are extremely slow in affecting hunger (many hours). Thus, a temporally analogous, rapid ARC satiety pathway does not exist or is presently unidentified...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867131/neuronavigation-based-on-track-density-image-extracted-from-deterministic-high-definition-fiber-tractography-a-case-report
#14
Peng-Hu Wei, Fei Cong, Ge Chen, Ming-Chu Li, Xin-Guang Yu, Yu-Hai Bao
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging(DTI)-based navigation is unable to resolve crossing fibers or to determine with accuracy the fanning, origin, and termination of fibers. It is important to improve the accuracy of localizing white matter fibers for improved surgical approaches. We propose a solution to this problem using navigation based on track density imaging(TDI)extracted from high definition fiber tractography(HDFT). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 28-year-old asymptomatic female patient with a left-lateral ventricle meningioma was enrolled in the present study...
November 17, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864611/perioperative-hemodynamic-monitoring-of-common-hepatic-artery-for-endovascular-embolization-of-a-pancreaticoduodenal-arcade-aneurysm-with-celiac-stenosis
#15
Eisuke Shibata, Hidemasa Takao, Shiori Amemiya, Kuni Ohtomo
This report describes perioperative hemodynamic monitoring of the common hepatic artery (CHA) during endovascular treatment of a pancreaticoduodenal arcade aneurysm, in a patient with celiac artery stenosis caused by the median arcuate ligament. Pressure monitoring was performed as a safety measure against critical complications such as liver ischemia. As the aneurysm was located in the anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (APDA) and the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (PPDA) was small in caliber, the patient was considered to be at a high risk of liver ischemia...
November 18, 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845202/the-synganglion-of-the-jumping-spider-marpissa-muscosa-arachnida-salticidae-insights-from-histology-immunohistochemistry-and-microct-analysis
#16
Philip O M Steinhoff, Andy Sombke, Jannis Liedtke, Jutta M Schneider, Steffen Harzsch, Gabriele Uhl
Jumping spiders are known for their extraordinary cognitive abilities. The underlying nervous system structures, however, are largely unknown. Here, we explore and describe the anatomy of the brain in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1757) by means of paraffin histology, X-ray microCT analysis and immunohistochemistry as well as three-dimensional reconstruction. In the prosoma, the CNS is a clearly demarcated mass that surrounds the esophagus. The anteriormost neuromere, the protocerebrum, comprises nine bilaterally paired neuropils, including the mushroom bodies and one unpaired midline neuropil, the arcuate body...
November 11, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835635/qrfp-deficient-mice-are-hypophagic-lean-hypoactive-and-exhibit-increased-anxiety-like-behavior
#17
Kitaro Okamoto, Miwako Yamasaki, Keizo Takao, Shingo Soya, Monica Iwasaki, Koh Sasaki, Kenta Magoori, Iori Sakakibara, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Michihiro Mieda, Masahiko Watanabe, Juro Sakai, Masashi Yanagisawa, Takeshi Sakurai
How the hypothalamus transmits hunger information to other brain regions to govern whole brain function to orchestrate feeding behavior has remained largely unknown. Our present study suggests the importance of a recently found lateral hypothalamic neuropeptide, QRFP, in this signaling. Qrfp-/- mice were hypophagic and lean, and exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior, and were hypoactive in novel circumstances as compared with wild type littermates. They also showed decreased wakefulness time in the early hours of the dark period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828909/incomplete-repair-of-retinal-structure-after-vitrectomy-with-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling
#18
Toshio Hisatomi, Takashi Tachibana, Shoji Notomi, Shunji Nakatake, Kohta Fujiwara, Yusuke Murakami, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Shigeo Yoshida, Hiroshi Enaida, Toshinori Murata, Taiji Sakamoto, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Tatsuro Ishibashi
PURPOSE: To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used a cynomolgus monkey model and focused on surgical damages of ILM peeling for long observational period of 3 years. METHODS: Vitrectomy was performed followed by ILM peeling similar to clinical settings in humans. Ultrastructural changes of the retina were investigated by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy at 3 months and 3 years after ILM peeling...
November 8, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826222/activity-based-anorexia-reduces-body-weight-without-inducing-a-separate-food-intake-microstructure-or-activity-phenotype-in-female-rats-mediation-via-an-activation-of-distinct-brain-nuclei
#19
Sophie Scharner, Philip Prinz, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Peter Kobelt, Tobias Hofmann, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is accompanied by severe somatic and psychosocial complications. However, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood, treatment is challenging and often hampered by high relapse. Therefore, more basic research is needed to better understand the disease. Since hyperactivity often plays a role in AN, we characterized an animal model to mimic AN using restricted feeding and hyperactivity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: no activity/ad libitum feeding (ad libitum, AL, n = 9), activity/ad libitum feeding (activity, AC, n = 9), no activity/restricted feeding (RF, n = 12) and activity/restricted feeding (activity-based anorexia, ABA, n = 11)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825986/intracerebroventricular-injection-of-ghrelin-decreases-wheel-running-activity-in-rats
#20
Yumiko Miyatake, Tetsuya Shiuchi, Kazuaki Mawatari, Satomi Toda, Yasuko Taniguchi, Akari Futami, Fukiko Sato, Masashi Kuroda, Mayu Sebe, Rie Tsutsumi, Nagakatsu Harada, Yasuhiko Minokoshi, Tadahiro Kitamura, Koro Gotoh, Masaki Ueno, Yutaka Nakaya, Hiroshi Sakaue
There is an increasing interest in elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which voluntary exercise is regulated. In this study, we examined how the central nervous system regulates exercise. We used SPORTS rats, which were established in our laboratory as a highly voluntary murine exercise model. SPORTS rats showed lower levels of serum ghrelin compared with those of the parental line of Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin decreased wheel-running activity in SPORTS rats...
November 5, 2016: Peptides
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