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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817798/toward-a-wiring-diagram-understanding-of-appetite-control
#1
REVIEW
Mark L Andermann, Bradford B Lowell
Prior mouse genetic research has set the stage for a deep understanding of appetite regulation. This goal is now being realized through the use of recent technological advances, such as the ability to map connectivity between neurons, manipulate neural activity in real time, and measure neural activity during behavior. Indeed, major progress has been made with regard to meal-related gut control of appetite, arcuate nucleus-based hypothalamic circuits linking energy state to the motivational drive, hunger, and, finally, limbic and cognitive processes that bring about hunger-mediated increases in reward value and perception of food...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817716/endothelial-dysfunction-in-renal-arcuate-arteries-of-obese-zucker-rats-the-roles-of-nitric-oxide-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarizing-factors-and-calcium-activated-k-channels
#2
Dandan Yin, Qianchen Wang, Xun Zhou, Ying Li
The roles of nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF), and calcium-activated K+ (KCa) channels in diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction of small renal arteries are not clear. The present study investigated acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation of renal arcuate arteries from obese Zucker (OZ) rats at different diabetes durations, and the relative contribution of NO, EDHF, and KCa channels to the endothelial dysfunction. OZ rats of 7 weeks (prediabetic stage), 12 weeks (early diabetic stage), and 20 weeks (late diabetic stage), and time-matched lean control rats, were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815087/ocular-and-systemic-risk-factors-of-different-morphologies-of-scotoma-in-patients-with-normal-tension-glaucoma
#3
Ewa Kosior-Jarecka, Dominika Wróbel-Dudzińska, Urszula Łukasik, Tomasz Żarnowski
THE AIM: The aim of this study was to assess general and ocular profiles of patients with single-localisation changes in visual field. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 215 Caucasian patients with normal-tension glaucoma with scotoma on single localisation or with preperimetric glaucoma. During regular follow-up visits, ophthalmic examination was carried out and medical history was recorded. The results of the visual field were allocated as paracentral scotomas, arcuate scotomas, peripheral defects, or hemispheric defects...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814190/effects-of-neonatal-exposure-to-zearalenone-on-puberty-timing-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-avpv-and-arc-and-reproductive-functions-in-female-mice
#4
Rahmatollah Parandin, Morteza Behnam-Rassouli, Nasser Mahdavi-Shahri
It is now established that mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN) disrupts reproductive physiology, but the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown, especially in brain. Growing evidence suggests that populations of estradiol (E2)-sensitive neurons in anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei, especially kisspeptin neurons, play a pivotal role in the timing of puberty onset, ovulation, and normal reproduction. The present study was conducted to find whether the ZEN can cause estrogen-like actions during the critical period of neonatal differentiation...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808344/hypothalamic-effects-of-progesterone-on-regulation-of-the-pulsatile-and-surge-release-of-luteinising-hormone-in-female-rats
#5
Wen He, Xiaofeng Li, Daniel Adekunbi, Yali Liu, Hui Long, Li Wang, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang, Kevin T O'Byrne
Progesterone can block the oestradiol-induced GnRH/LH surge and inhibit LH pulse frequency. Recent studies reported that progesterone prevented premature LH surges during ovarian hyperstimulation in women. As the most potent stimulator of GnRH/LH release, kisspeptin is believed to mediate the positive and negative feedback effects of oestradiol in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei, while the region-specific role of progesterone receptors in these nuclei remains unknown...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803831/localization-of-connexin-43-gap-junctions-and-hemichannels-in-tanycytes-of-adult-mice
#6
Anett Szilvásy-Szabó, Edina Varga, Zsuzsa Beliczai, Ronald M Lechan, Csaba Fekete
Tanycytes are specialized glial cells lining the lateral walls and the floor of the third ventricle behind the optic chiasm. In addition to functioning as barrier cells, they also have an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine axes and energy homeostasis. To determine whether tanycytes communicate with each other via Connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junctions, individual tanycytes were loaded with Lucifer yellow (LY) through a patch pipette. In all cases, LY filled a larger group of tanycytes as well as blood vessels adjacent to tanycyte processes...
August 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802549/diffuse-renal-cortical-hemorrhage-in-the-setting-of-subcapsular-hematoma-diagnosis-and-treatment-with-embolization
#7
Marta Burrel, Marta Barrufet, Maria Carme Sebastia, Jonathan Joudanin, Laura Buñesch, Patricia Bermudez, Jordi Blasco, Rosa Gilabert
PURPOSE: To describe radiologic findings, embolization technique, and clinical outcomes in patients with renal subcapsular hematoma and diffuse cortical hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with renal subcapsular hematoma and diffuse cortical hemorrhage were reviewed. Nine of the 10 had undergone procedures (nephrostomy, n = 4; biopsy, n = 4; embolization of a cerebral aneurysm, n = 1) and 1 patient was receiving oral anticoagulation. Computed tomography (CT), angiography, and embolization of bleeding sites were performed in all patients...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800500/sb223412-a-neurokinin-3-receptor-selective-antagonist-suppresses-testosterone-secretion-in-male-guinea-pigs
#8
Sho Nakamura, Yoshiko Ito, Koki Yamamoto, Chudai Takahashi, Mingdao Dai, Miyu Tanahashi, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Hiroko Tsukamura, Shinya Oishi, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Fuko Matsuda
Guinea pigs are important zoo animals and have been recommended for animal-assisted activities or therapy, however there are problems concerning testosterone inducing aggressive or sexual behaviors in male guinea pigs. Testicular testosterone secretion is regulated by pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release in mammals. The mechanism generating GnRH/LH pulses is thought to be governed by kisspeptin neurons, which coexpress neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn), in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
July 31, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771698/molecular-and-functional-genetics-of-the-proopiomelanocortin-gene-food-intake-regulation-and-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
During the last decade, the obesity pandemia has skyrocketed, and the spectre is threatening children, adolescents and lower income families worldwide. Although driven by an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed edibles of poor nutritional value, the obesogenic changes in contemporary human lifestyle affect people differently, revealing that some individuals are more prone to developing increased adiposity. During the last years, we performed a variety of genetic, evolutionary, biochemical and behavioral experiments that allowed us to understand how a group of neurons present in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulate the expression of the proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene and induce satiety...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771488/maternal-obesity-programs-reduced-leptin-signaling-in-the-pituitary-and-altered-gh-igf1-axis-function-leading-to-increased-adiposity-in-adult-sheep-offspring
#10
Nuermaimaiti Tuersunjiang, John F Odhiambo, Desiree R Shasa, Ashley M Smith, Peter W Nathanielsz, Stephen P Ford
Studies in rodents highlight a role for leptin in stimulation of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion, with an impact on body composition regulation. We have reported that maternal obesity (MO) during ovine pregnancy results in hyperphagia, glucose-insulin dysregulation, increased adiposity, hypercortisolemia and hyperleptinemia in mature offspring subjected to a bout of ad libitum feeding. We hypothesized that MO reduces leptin signaling in the pituitary and down regulates the GH/IGF1 axis and increases circulating cortisol leading to increased adiposity in their adult offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769741/detection-and-growth-pattern-of-arcuate-fasciculus-from-newborn-to-adult
#11
Molly Wilkinson, Ashley R Lim, Andrew H Cohen, Albert M Galaburda, Emi Takahashi
Fractional anisotropy (FA) threshold is commonly used to perform diffusion MRI tractography. However, FA threshold may be one aspect of tractography that needs additional scrutiny in accurately assessing pathways in immature, developing brains, as well as in adult brains. Using high-angular resolution diffusion MRI (HARDI) tractography without an FA threshold, we identified the arcuate fasciculus (AF) of 83 healthy subjects ranging in age from 40 gestational weeks (GW) (newborns) to 28-year-old adults. The AF was identified in both hemispheres in all subjects with high inter-rater reliability...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764771/sensitivity-of-restriction-spectrum-imaging-to-memory-and-neuropathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Emilie T Reas, Donald J Hagler, Nathan S White, Joshua M Kuperman, Hauke Bartsch, Karalani Cross, Richard Q Loi, Akshara R Balachandra, M J Meloy, Christina E Wierenga, Douglas Galasko, James B Brewer, Anders M Dale, Linda K McEvoy
BACKGROUND: Diffusion imaging has demonstrated sensitivity to structural brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there remains a need for a more complete characterization of microstructural alterations occurring at the earliest disease stages, and how these changes relate to underlying neuropathology. This study evaluated the sensitivity of restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), an advanced diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, to microstructural brain changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD...
August 2, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762947/energy-imbalance-alters-ca-2-handling-and-excitability-of-pomc-neurons
#13
Lars Paeger, Andreas Pippow, Simon Hess, Moritz Paehler, Andreas C Klein, Andreas Husch, Christophe Pouzat, Jens C Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
Satiety-signaling, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recent studies reported altered mitochondrial dynamics and decreased mitochondria- endoplasmic reticulum contacts in POMC neurons during diet-induced obesity. Since mitochondria play a crucial role in Ca(2+) signaling, we investigated whether obesity alters Ca(2+) handling of these neurons in mice. In diet-induced obesity, cellular Ca(2+) handling properties including mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity are impaired, and an increased resting level of free intracellular Ca(2+) is accompanied by a marked decrease in neuronal excitability...
August 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761132/exendin-4-reduces-food-intake-via-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-the-hypothalamus
#14
Yan Yang, Pique P Choi, Wanli W Smith, Weijie Xu, Delin Ma, Zachary A Cordner, Nu-Chu Liang, Timothy H Moran
Exendin-4 (EX-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has been shown to reduce food intake and to increase proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the hypothalamus. In this study, we examined the potential neural mechanisms by which these effects occur. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with a cannula in the third ventricle of the brain through which an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) (wortmannin) was administered, and EX-4 or vehicle was administered via intraperitoneal (IP) injection...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752053/dietary-sugars-not-lipids-drive-hypothalamic-inflammation
#15
Yuanqing Gao, Maximilian Bielohuby, Thomas Fleming, Gernot F Grabner, Ewout Foppen, Wagner Bernhard, Mara Guzmán-Ruiz, Clarita Layritz, Beata Legutko, Erwin Zinser, Cristina García-Cáceres, Ruud M Buijs, Stephen C Woods, Andries Kalsbeek, Randy J Seeley, Peter P Nawroth, Martin Bidlingmaier, Matthias H Tschöp, Chun-Xia Yi
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory response and the consequent impact on hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis is yet not clear. METHODS: We dissected the different effects of high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diets and low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets on hypothalamic inflammatory responses in neurons and non-neuronal cells and tested the hypothesis that HCHF diets induce hypothalamic inflammation via advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) using mice lacking advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) receptor (RAGE) and/or the activated leukocyte cell-adhesion molecule (ALCAM)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744083/imaging-features-of-vascular-compression-in-abdomen-fantasy-phenomenon-or-true-syndrome
#16
Sitthipong Srisajjakul, Patcharin Prapaisilp, Sirikan Bangchokdee
Vascular structures in the abdomen can compress or be compressed by adjacent structures. Classic imaging findings of vascular compressions, including median arcuate ligament syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nutcracker syndrome, portal biliopathy, May-Thurner syndrome, and ureteropelvic junction obstruction will be discussed here. It is important to correlate imaging findings and clinical data to identify asymptomatic vascular compression which requires no treatment, intermittent vascular compression with nonspecific or vague clinical manifestation, and the subset of patients with true syndromes who will benefit from treatment...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743985/loss-of-er%C3%AE-partially-reverses-the-effects-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-energy-homeostasis-in-female-mice
#17
Troy A Roepke, Ali Yasrebi, Alejandra Villalobos, Elizabeth A Krumm, Jennifer A Yang, Kyle J Mamounis
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) alters hypothalamic developmental programming and disrupts offspring energy homeostasis in rodents. 17β-estradiol (E2) also influences hypothalamic programming through estrogen receptor (ER) α. Therefore, we hypothesized that females lacking ERα would be more susceptible to maternal HFD. To address this question, heterozygous ERα knockout (WT/KO) dams were fed a control breeder chow diet (25% fat) or a semi-purified HFD (45% fat) 4 weeks prior to mating with WT/KO males or heterozygous males with an ERα DNA-binding domain mutation knocked in (WT/KI) to produce WT, ERα KO, or ERα KIKO females lacking ERE-dependent ERα signaling...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740793/donor-site-complications-and-remnant-of-rectus-abdominis-muscle-status-after-transverse-rectus-abdominis-myocutaneous-flap-reconstruction
#18
Prakasit Chirappapha, Noppadol Trikunagonvong, Duangkamon Prapruttam, Sasiprapa Rongthong, Panuwat Lertsithichai, Thongchai Sukarayothin, Monchai Leesombatpaiboon, Rujira Panawattanakul, Panya Thaweepworadej
BACKGROUND: Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction after mastectomy in breast cancer patients has become one of the milestones in breast reconstruction. There are several techniques that have been used in an attempt to minimize untoward complications. We present the whole muscle with partial sheath-sparing technique that focuses on the anatomy of arcuate line and the closure of the anterior abdominal wall techniques with mesh and determine factors associated with its complications and outcomes...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738298/laparoscopic-treatment-of-dunbar-syndrome-a-case-report
#19
Orlando Jorge M Torres, Ozimo Pereira Gama-Filho, Camila Cristina Salazar Torres, Ricardo Mary Medeiros, Caio Márcio Barros Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Dunbar syndrome is a rare disorder due to external compression of the celiac trunk by the median arcuate ligament. The symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Laparoscopic treatment was suggested as a safe procedure. The aim of this study is to present a case of Dunbar syndrome underwent laparoscopic treatment. CASEPRESENTATION: A 17-year-old female patient presented at emergency room with upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia, related to food intake...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733832/seasonal-reorganization-of-hypothalamic-neurogenic-niche-in-adult-sheep
#20
Lucile Butruille, Martine Batailler, Danièle Mazur, Vincent Prévot, Martine Migaud
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated. This process, well established during development, persists in adulthood owing to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) localized in specific brain areas called neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis has recently been shown to occur in the hypothalamus, a structure involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction and metabolism, among others. In the adult sheep-a long-lived mammalian model-we have previously reported the existence of such a neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the median eminence...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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