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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690327/nematodes-from-galls-on-myrtaceae-xi-descriptions-of-five-new-species-of-fergusobia-from-australia
#1
Kerrie A Davies, Weimin Ye, Gary S Taylor, Sonja Scheffer, F Bartholomaeus, Robin M Giblin-Davis
Five new species of Fergusobia are described. Fergusobia janetae Davies n. sp. is characterized by the combination of an arcuate to straight, spindle-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively small oesophageal gland, an extensile uterus and a conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a bluntly rounded tail tip, and a C-shaped male with an arcuate to angular spicule and bursa arising at more than 90% of body length. Fergusobia robustae Davies n. sp. is characterized by the combination of a small, C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short cylindroid tail with a broadly rounded tip; an arcuate to C-shaped, relatively broad, infective female with a tail tip that is almost hemispherical; and an arcuate male with a strong angular spicule and a bursa arising at 30-40% of body length...
March 20, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689050/activation-of-temperature-sensitive-trpv1-like-receptors-in-arc-pomc-neurons-reduces-food-intake
#2
Jae Hoon Jeong, Dong Kun Lee, Shun-Mei Liu, Streamson C Chua, Gary J Schwartz, Young-Hwan Jo
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) respond to numerous hormonal and neural signals, resulting in changes in food intake. Here, we demonstrate that ARC POMC neurons express capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1)-like receptors. To show expression of TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons, we use single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, TRPV1 knock-out (KO), and TRPV1-Cre knock-in mice...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686954/cutaneous-neonatal-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-report
#3
Kamleshun Ramphul, Stephanie G Mejias, Yogeshwaree Ramphul-Sicharam
Cutaneous neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is a rare condition caused by the passive transfer of autoantibodies from mother to fetus. The disease most commonly presents itself with multiple erythematosus annular lesions or arcuate macules. In 10% of the cases, a cardiac anomaly can coexist. Appropriate diagnosis and laboratory and cardiac testing should be done to rule out any complications. Treatment usually includes topical steroids, following which the lesions will disappear after about eight weeks with no sequelae...
February 21, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678321/laparoscopic-approach-to-median-arcuate-ligament-syndrome-with-video
#4
S Landen, T Ballet, V Delugeau, C Landen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678290/orexin-a-and-endocannabinoid-signaling-regulate-glucose-responsive-arcuate-nucleus-neurons-and-feeding-behavior-in-obese-rats
#5
Dandan Yang, Luo Xu, Feifei Guo, Xiangrong Sun, Di Zhang, Mi Wang
Obesity is a global public health problem. Orexin and endocannabinoid signaling in the hypothalamus have been shown to regulate feeding and are promising molecular targets for obesity treatment. In this study, we attempted to analyze effects of orexin-A and endocannabinoid signaling modulation in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) on feeding and glucose-responsive (GR) neurons physiology in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) and diet-induced obesity resistant (DR) rat model. Administration of orexin-A or cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 R) antagonist AM251 altered the firing of GR neurons in the Arc...
April 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670083/tap63-contributes-to-sexual-dimorphism-in-pomc-neuron-functions-and-energy-homeostasis
#6
Chunmei Wang, Yanlin He, Pingwen Xu, Yongjie Yang, Kenji Saito, Yan Xia, Xiaofeng Yan, Antentor Hinton, Chunling Yan, Hongfang Ding, Likai Yu, Gang Shu, Rajat Gupta, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, William R Lagor, Elsa R Flores, Yong Xu
Sexual dimorphism exists in energy balance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the female mice have more pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus than males, and female POMC neurons display higher neural activities, compared to male counterparts. Strikingly, deletion of the transcription factor, TAp63, in POMC neurons confers "male-like" diet-induced obesity (DIO) in female mice associated with decreased POMC neural activities; but the same deletion does not affect male mice...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667428/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-characterization-of-acute-and-late-stage-purtscher-retinopathy
#7
Pedro Gil, Miguel Raimundo, João P Marques, João Póvoa, Rufino Silva
PURPOSE: To report a case of Purtscher retinopathy imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: Case-report. Left eye fundoscopic examination in a 21-year old male after a road traffic accident with chest compression revealed multiple peri-papillary cotton-wool spots and intra- and pre-retinal hemorrhages. A diagnosis of Purtscher retinopathy was assumed. RESULTS: In both the superficial and deep retinal plexuses, acute stage optical coherence tomography angiography identified multiple irregular areas of capillary non-perfusion that extended beyond the clinically visible peri-papillary cotton-wool spots...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663284/fluoxetine-modulates-the-activity-of-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-via-mtor-signaling
#8
Ilaria Barone, Riccardo Melani, Marco Mainardi, Gaia Scabia, Manuela Scali, Alessia Dattilo, Giovanni Ceccarini, Paolo Vitti, Ferruccio Santini, Lamberto Maffei, Tommaso Pizzorusso, Margherita Maffei
Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are important players in the regulation of energy homeostasis; we previously demonstrated that environmental stimulation excites arcuate nucleus circuits to undergo plastic remodeling, leading to altered ratio between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic contacts on these neurons. The widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is known to affect body weight. On the other hand, FLX administration mimics the effects of environmental stimulation on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660735/the-anorexigenic-neural-pathways-of-oxytocin-and-its-clinical-implication
#9
Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kenju Shimomura
<br>Oxytocin was discovered in 1906 as a peptide that promotes delivery and milk ejection; however, its additional physiological functions were determined 100 years later. Many recent articles have reported newly discovered effects of oxytocin on social communication, bonding, reward-related behavior, adipose tissue, and muscle and food intake regulation. Because oxytocin neurons project to various regions in the brain that contribute to both feeding reward (hedonic feeding) and the regulation of energy balance (homeostatic feeding), the mechanisms of oxytocin on food intake regulation are complicated and largely unknown...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660652/cross-talk-connections-underlying-dorsal-and-ventral-stream-integration-during-hand-actions
#10
Sanja Budisavljevic, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Umberto Castiello
According to the dual-stream theory, the processing of visual information is divided into a ventral pathway mediating object recognition, and a dorsal pathway supporting visuomotor control. Increasing evidence suggests that these streams are not independent, but where this dorsal-ventral stream integration occurs remains unknown. We explored the candidate white matter pathways linking dorsal and ventral visual streams in 30 right-handed participants performing object-oriented hand movements of varying complexity (reaching, grasping and lifting), using advanced diffusion imaging tractography based on the spherical deconvolution and kinematical analysis...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660551/photogrammetry-of-the-human-brain-a-novel-method-for-3d-the-quantitative-exploration-of-the-structural-connectivity-in-neurosurgery-and-neurosciences
#11
Alessandro De Benedictis, Erica Nocerino, Fabio Menna, Fabio Remondino, Mattia Barbareschi, Umberto Rozzanigo, Francesco Corsini, Emanuele Olivetti, Carlo Efisio Marras, Franco Chioffi, Paolo Avesani, Silvio Sarubbo
BACKGROUND: Anatomical awareness of brain's structural connectivity is mandatory for neurosurgeons, to select the most effective approaches for brain resections. Although standard micro-dissection is a validated technique to investigate the different white matter (WM) pathways and to verify results coming from tractography, the possibility of an interactive exploration of the specimens and of a reliable acquisition of quantitative information has not been described so far. Photogrammetry is a well-established technique allowing an accurate metrology on highly defined 3D-models...
April 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660453/tgf-%C3%AE-1-down-regulation-in-the-mediobasal-hypothalamus-attenuates-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity
#12
Natália F Mendes, Joana M Gaspar, José C Lima-Júnior, Jose Donato, Lício A Velloso, Eliana P Araújo
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats induces hypothalamic inflammation and impairs the function of the melanocortin system, leading to a defective regulation of caloric intake and whole-body energy expenditure. In mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), TGF-β1 expression was increased and NF-κB signaling was activated in proopiomelanocortin neurons, which plays an important role in the obesity-associated hypothalamic inflammation scenario. However, whether excessive hypothalamic TGF-β1 impairs energy homeostasis remains unclear...
April 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643838/identification-of-transmembrane-protease-serine-2-and-forkhead-box-a1-as-the-potential-bisphenol-a-responsive-genes-in-the-neonatal-male-rat-brain
#13
Takayoshi Ubuka, Shogo Moriya, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar Parhar
Perinatal exposure of Bisphenol A (BPA) to rodents modifies their behavior in later life. To understand how BPA modifies their neurodevelopmental process, we first searched for BPA responsive genes from androgen and estrogen receptor signaling target genes by polymerase chain reaction array in the neonatal male rat brain. We used a transgenic strain of Wistar rats carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein tagged to gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) promoter to investigate the possible interaction of BPA responsive genes and GnIH neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643769/the-role-of-physical-exercise-to-improve-the-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-via-pomc-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Kellen C da Cruz Rodrigues, Rodrigo M Pereira, Thaís D P de Campos, Rodrigo F de Moura, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, José R Pauli, Michel B de Araújo, Leandro P de Moura
Obesity is a public health issue that affects more than 600 million adults worldwide. The disease is characterized by fat accumulation, mainly in the abdominal area. The human body is mainly composed of two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT); however, the browning process generates a different type of brown fat-like adipocyte in WAT, which similar to BAT has thermogenic capacity by activating UCP-1. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus plays an important role in WAT browning via POMC neurons, which are influenced by synergistic insulin and leptin signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643765/mirna-long-term-response-to-early-metabolic-environmental-challenge-in-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#15
Charlotte Benoit, Soraya Doubi-Kadmiri, Xavier Benigni, Delphine Crepin, Laure Riffault, Ghislaine Poizat, Claire-Marie Vacher, Mohammed Taouis, Anne Baroin-Tourancheau, Laurence Amar
Epidemiological reports and studies using rodent models indicate that early exposure to nutrient and/or hormonal challenges can reprogram metabolism at adulthood. Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) integrates peripheral and central signals to adequately regulate energy homeostasis. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the control of gene expression of large regulatory networks including many signaling pathways involved in epigenetics regulations. Here, we have characterized and compared the miRNA population of ARC of adult male rats continuously exposed to a balanced metabolic environment to the one of adult male rats exposed to an unbalanced high-fat/high-carbohydrate/moderate-protein metabolic environment during the perinatal period and/or at adulthood that consequently displayed hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperleptinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642943/celiac-axis-stenosis-due-to-median-arcuate-ligament-compression-in-a-patient-who-underwent-pancreatoduodenectomy-intraoperative-assessment-of-hepatic-arterial-flow-using-doppler-ultrasonography-a-case-report
#16
Masateru Yamamoto, Toshiyuki Itamoto, Akihiko Oshita, Yasuhiro Matsugu
BACKGROUND: Celiac axis stenosis due to compression by the median arcuate ligament has been reported in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy; it leads to the development of major collateral pathways that feed the hepatic artery. Dividing these important collaterals during pancreaticoduodenectomy can cause ischemic complications which may lead to a high mortality rate. To prevent these complications, it is necessary to assess intrahepatic arterial flow. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old Japanese man with anorexia was referred to us for the treatment of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629500/altered-structural-brain-connectivity-involving-the-dorsal-and-ventral-language-pathways-in-16p11-2-deletion-syndrome
#17
Banu Ahtam, Naira Link, Erikson Hoff, P Ellen Grant, Kiho Im
Copy number variants at the chromosomal locus 16p11.2 contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and language and articulation disorders. Here, we provide detailed findings on the disrupted structural brain connectivity in 16p11.2 deletion syndrome (patients: N = 21, age range: 8-16 years; typically developing (TD) controls: 18, 9-16 years) using structural and diffusion MRI. We performed global short-, middle-, long-range, and interhemispheric connectivity analysis in the whole brain using gyral topology-based cortical parcellation...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626486/diverse-actions-of-estradiol-on-anorexigenic-and-orexigenic-hypothalamic-arcuate-neurons
#18
REVIEW
Todd L Stincic, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
There is now compelling evidence for membrane-associated estrogen receptors in hypothalamic neurons that are critical for the hypothalamic control of homeostatic functions. It has been known for some time that estradiol (E2) can rapidly alter hypothalamic neuronal activity within seconds, indicating that some cellular effects can occur via membrane initiated events. However, our understanding of how E2 signals via membrane-associated receptors and how these signals impact physiological functions is only just emerging...
April 4, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625208/development-of-the-human-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-a-morphometric-and-computerized-3d-reconstruction-study
#19
Katsuyuki Yamaguchi
INTRODUCTION: The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the major relay center of the visual pathway in humans. There are few quantitative data on the morphology of LGN in prenatal infants. In this study, using serial brain sections, the author investigated the morphology of this nucleus during the second half of fetal period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven human brains were obtained at routine autopsy from preterm infants aged 20-39 postmenstrual weeks. After fixation, the brain was embedded en bloc in celloidin and cut serially at 30 μm in the horizontal plane...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625116/neuropeptide-y-npy-or-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-fiber-innervation-on-central-and-medial-amygdaloid-neurons-that-project-to-the-locus-coeruleus-and-dorsal-raphe-in-the-rat
#20
Young G Hwang, Hyun S Lee
The amygdaloid nuclear complex has been linked to the regulation of emotional behavior and energy regulation in that emotional stress might cause either reduction or enhancement of eating. We examined hypothalamic neuronal origin of feeding/arousal-related peptidergic fibers containing cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) located in the rat amygdala along with its efferent projections to the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei. First, central (CeA) as well as medial (MeA) amygdala, among several amygdaloid subdivisions, exhibited the most prominent NPY or CART immunostaining which consisted of a substantial number of somata as well as labeled fibers...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
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